The occurrence of the selected Fusarium mycotoxins in Czech malting barley, harvested in 2012–2017 Z., Mikulíková R., Benešová K., Běláková S. (2019): The occurrence of the selected Fusarium mycotoxins in Czech malting barley, harvested in 2012–2017. Czech J. Food Sci., 37: 439-445.
download PDF

In 2012–2017, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin in 592 samples of malting barley from different regions of the Czech Republic was studied using the ELISA immunochemical method. On average, the total content of positive samples was 18.6% for deoxynivalenol (DON), 9.5% for zearalenone (ZEN) and 20.5% for T-2 toxin. The highest values measured were 917 μg/kg for DON (2012), 42 μg/kg for ZEN (2017) and 199 μg/kg for T-2 toxin (2013). The maximal DON and ZEN contents in cereals intended for food production are limited by the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006, the EU limit from 2013 applies for the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Concentrations of any of the mycotoxins studied did not exceed the EU limit in any barley samples.

Abbas H., Yoshizava T., Shier W.T. (2013): Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. Toxicon, 74: 68–75.
Běláková S., Benešová K., Čáslavský J., Mikulíková R., Svoboda Z. (2014): The occurrence of the selected Fusarium mycotoxins in Czech malting barley. Food Control, 37: 93–98.
Bolechová M., Benešová K., Běláková S., Čáslavský J., Pospíchalová M., Mikulíková R. (2015): Determination of seventeen mycotoxins in barley and malt in the Czech Republic. Food Control, 47: 108–113.
Bryla M., Waśkiewicz A., Podolska G., Szymczyk K., Jędrzejczak R., Damaziak K., Sułek A. (2016): Occurrence of 26 mycotoxins in the grain of cereals cultivated in Poland. Toxins, 8: 160–180.
Capritotti A.L., Foglia P., Gubbiotti R., Roccia C., Samperi R., Laganà A. (2010): Development and validation of a liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometric method for the analysis of mycotoxins subjected to commission regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 in cereals. Journal of Chromatography A,  1217: 6044–6051.
Čonková E., Laciaková A., Štyriak I., Czerwiecki L., Wilczinska G. (2006): Fungal contamination and the levels of mycotoxins (DON and OTA) in cereal samples from Poland and East Slovakia. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 24: 33–40.
Edwards S. (2009): Fusarium mycotoxin content of UK organic and conventional barley. Food Additives and Contaminants, 26: 1185–1190.
Escrivá L., Font G., Manyes L. (2015): In vivo toxicity studies of Fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade: A review. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 78: 185–206.
Freire L., Sant’Ana A.S. (2018): Modified mycotoxins: An updated review on their formation, detection, occurrence, and toxic effects. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 111: 189–205.
Food Safety (2015): Survey of Mycotoxins in Irish Grain Samples 2012. Food Safety Authority of Ireland. Available at: (accessed May 20, 2018)
Geisen R., Touhami N., Schmidt-Heydt M. (2017): Mycotoxins as adaptation factors to food related environments. Current Opinion in Food Science, 17: 1–8.
Groopman J.D., Kensler T.W., Wu F. (2013): Food safety: Mycotoxins – Occurrence and toxic effects. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (3rd Ed.): 337–341.
Ji Ch., Fan Y., Zhao L. (2016): Review on biological degradation of mycotoxins. Animal Nutrition, 2: 127–133.
Karlovsky P., Suman M., Berthiller F., De Meester J., Eisenbrand G., Perrin I., Oswald I. P., Speijers G., Chiodini A., Recker T., Dussort P. (2016): Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxin Research, 32: 179–205.
Krska R., Welzig E., Boudra H. (2007): Analysis of Fusarium toxins in feed. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 137: 241–264.
Luz C., Saladino F., Luciano S. B., Mañes J., Meca, G. (2017): Occurrence, toxicity, bioaccessibility and mitigation strategies of beauvericin, a minor Fusarium mycotoxin. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 107, part A: 430–439.
Medina A., Akbar A., Baazeem A., Rodriguez A., Magan M. (2017): Climate change, food security and mycotoxins: Do we know enough? Fungal Biology Reviews, 31: 143–154.
Morcia K., Rattotti E., Stanca A.M., Tumino G., Rossi V., Ravaglia S., Germeier Ch.U., Herrmann M., Polisenska I., Terzi V. (2013). Fusarium genetic traceability: Role for mycotoxin control in small grain cereals agro-food chains. Journal of Cereal Science, 57: 175–182.
Mostrom M. (2011). Trichothecenes and zearalenone. (Chapter 54) In: Gupta R.C. (ed.) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology (1st Ed.): 739–751.
Pascari X., Ramos A. J., Marín S., Sanchís V. (2017): Mycotoxins and beer. Impact of beer production process on mycotoxin contamination. A review. Food Research International, 103: 121–129.
Pestka J.J. (2007): Deoxynivalenol: Toxicity, mechanisms and animal health risks. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 137: 283–298.
Placinta C.M., D’Mello J.P.F., MacDonald A.M.C. (1999): A review of worldwide contamination of cereal grains and animal feed with Fusarium mycotoxins. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 78: 21–37.
Pleadin J., Vahčić N., Perši N., Ševelj D., Markov K., Frece J. (2013): Fusarium mycotoxins‘ occurrence in cereals harvested from Croatian fields. Food Control, 32: 49–54.
Pleadin J., Vasilj V., Petrović D., Frece J., Vahčić,N., Jahić S., Markov K. (2017): Annual variations of Fusarium mycotoxins in unprocessed maize, wheat and barley from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 9: 11–18.
Polišenská I., Jirsa O., Matušinský P. (2012): Mycotoxicological quality of barley harvested in the Czech Republic in 2005–2010. Kvasný Průmysl, 58: 109–114.
Qiu J., Dong F., Yu M., Xu J., Shi J. (2016): Effect of preceding crop on Fusarium species and mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains. Journal of the Science Food and Agriculture, 96: 4536–4541.
Schöneberg T., Martin Ch., Wettstein F.E., Bucheli T.D., Mascher F., Bertossa M., Musa T., Keller B., Vogelgsang S. (2016): Fusarium and mycotoxin spectra in Swiss barley are affected by various cropping techniques. Food Additives & Contaminants: A33: 1608–1619.
Tabuc C., Marin D., Guerre,P., Sesan T., Bailly J. D. (2009): Molds and mycotoxin content of cereals in southeastern Romania. Journal of Food Protection, 72: 662–665.
Terzi V., Tumino G., Stanca A.M., Morcia C. (2014): Reducing the incidence of cereal head infection and mycotoxins in small grain cereal species. Journal of Cereal Science, 59: 284–293.
Václavíková M., Malachová A., Vepříková Z., Džuman Z., Zachariášová M., Hajšlová J. (2013): ‘Emerging’ mycotoxins in cereals processing chains: Changes of enniatins during beer and bread making. Food Chemistry, 136: 750–757.
Wolf-Hall C.E. (2007): Mold and mycotoxin problems encountered during malting and brewing. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 119: 89–94.
Zinedine A., Soriano J.M., Moltó J.C., Mañes J. (2017): Review on the toxicity, occurrence, metabolism, detoxification, regulations and intake of zearalenone: An oestrogenic mycotoxin. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45: 1–18.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti