Hydroxymethylfurfural content and colour parameters of cookies with defatted wheat germ

Citation:Sakač M., Jovanov P., Petrović J., Pezo L., Fišteš A., Lončarević I., Pajin B. (2019): Hydroxymethylfurfural content and colour parameters of cookies with defatted wheat germ. Czech J. Food Sci., 37: 285-291.

Defatted wheat germ was used to substitute wheat flour by 5–15% to produce cookies enriched with protein, fat, sugar and minerals. The effects of different level of substitution of wheat flour by defatted wheat germ and dough moisture content (20–24%) on hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation in cookies were investigated. Colour parameters (L*, a*, and b*) were also measured, total colour difference (ΔE) and browning index (BI) were calculated and their correlations with HMF content were studied. The substitution of wheat flour by defatted wheat germ led to a higher HMF content compared to control cookies (P < 0.05). However, its formation was more strongly influenced by the dough moisture content than by the level of substitution. HMF content is positively correlated to the a* (r = 0.890; P < 0.01), b* (r = 0.605; P < 0.01) and BI (r = 0.710; P < 0.01) values, and negatively correlated to the L* (r = –0.624; P < 0.01). Results of the HMF formation and the correlation between HMF content and colour parameters were confirmed by the PCA analysis.

AMEUR L, MATHIEU O, LALANNE V, TRYSTRAM G, BIRLOUEZARAGON I (2007): Comparison of the effects of sucrose and hexose on furfural formation and browning in cookies baked at different temperatures. Food Chemistry, 101, 1407-1416  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.049
Ait Ameur Lamia, Rega Barbara, Giampaoli Pierre, Trystram Gilles, Birlouez-Aragon Inès (2008): The fate of furfurals and other volatile markers during the baking process of a model cookie. Food Chemistry, 111, 758-763  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.062
Ameur Lamia Ait, Trystram Gilles, Birlouez-Aragon Ines (2006): Accumulation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural in cookies during the backing process: Validation of an extraction method. Food Chemistry, 98, 790-796  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.038
Ariffin Abdul Azis, Ghazali H.M., Kavousi Parviz (2014): Validation of a HPLC method for determination of hydroxymethylfurfural in crude palm oil. Food Chemistry, 154, 102-107  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.12.082
Arshad Muhammad Umair, Anjum Faqir Muhammad, Zahoor Tahir (2007): Nutritional assessment of cookies supplemented with defatted wheat germ. Food Chemistry, 102, 123-128  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.040
Buera M.P., Lozano R.D., Petriella C. (1986): Definition of colour in the non enzymatic browning process. Die Farbe, 32: 318–322.
Capuano Edoardo, Ferrigno Antonella, Acampa Iolanda, Serpen Arda, Açar Özge Ç., Gökmen Vural, Fogliano Vincenzo (2009): Effect of flour type on Maillard reaction and acrylamide formation during toasting of bread crisp model systems and mitigation strategies. Food Research International, 42, 1295-1302  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.03.018
Capuano Edoardo, Fogliano Vincenzo (2011): Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food and mitigation strategies. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44, 793-810  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.11.002
Francis F.J., Clydesdale F.M. (1975): Food Colorimetry: Theory and Applications. Westport, The AVI Publishing Company, Inc.: 477.
Gökmen Vural, Açar Özge Çetinkaya, Köksel Hamit, Acar Jale (2007): Effects of dough formula and baking conditions on acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural formation in cookies. Food Chemistry, 104, 1136-1142  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.008
Ma Sen, Wang Xiao-xi, Zheng Xue-ling, Tian Shuang-qi, Liu Chong, Li Li, Ding Yan-fang (2014): Improvement of the quality of steamed bread by supplementation of wheat germ from milling process. Journal of Cereal Science, 60, 589-594  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2014.07.010
Petisca C., Henriques A.R., Pérez-Palacios T., Pinho O., Ferreira I.M.P.L.V.O. (2014): Assessment of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural in commercial bakery products. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 33, 20-25  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2013.10.004
Petrović Jovana, Fišteš Aleksandar, Rakić Dušan, Pajin Biljana, Lončarević Ivana, Šubarić Drago (2015): Effect of Defatted Wheat Germ Content and Its Particle Size on the Rheological and Textural Properties of the Cookie Dough. Journal of Texture Studies, 46, 374-384  https://doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12137
Pınarlı İlkay, İbanoğlu Şenol, Öner Mehmet D. (2004): Effect of storage on the selected properties of macaroni enriched with wheat germ. Journal of Food Engineering, 64, 249-256  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.10.005
Purlis Emmanuel (2010): Browning development in bakery products – A review. Journal of Food Engineering, 99, 239-249  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.03.008
Ramı́rez-Jiménez Antonio, Garcı́a-Villanova Belén, Guerra-Hernández Eduardo (2000): Hydroxymethylfurfural and methylfurfural content of selected bakery products. Food Research International, 33, 833-838  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(00)00102-2
Rufián-Henares J.A., Andrade C.D., Morales F.J. (2006): Application of a fast high-performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of furanic compounds and glucosylisomaltol in breakfast cereals. Journal of AOAC International, 89: 161–165.
Rufián-Henares J.A., de la Cueva S.P. (2008): Assessment of hydroxymethylfurfural intake in the Spanish diet. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 25, 1306-1312  https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030802163406
Sun Ru, Zhang Zhengmao, Hu Xinjuan, Xing Qinhui, Zhuo Wuyan (2015): Effect of wheat germ flour addition on wheat flour, dough and Chinese steamed bread properties. Journal of Cereal Science, 64, 153-158  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2015.04.011
Tomasini Débora, Sampaio Maicon R.F., Caldas Sergiane S., Buffon Jaqueline G., Duarte Fábio A., Primel Ednei G. (2012): Simultaneous determination of pesticides and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey by the modified QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Talanta, 99, 380-386  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2012.05.068
Yang Ni, Hort Joanne, Linforth Robert, Brown Keith, Walsh Stuart, Fisk Ian D. (2013): Impact of flavour solvent (propylene glycol or triacetin) on vanillin, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, structural parameters and sensory perception of shortcake biscuits over accelerated shelf life testing. Food Chemistry, 141, 1354-1360  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.03.084
Zhu Ke-Xue, Lian Cai-Xia, Guo Xiao-Na, Peng Wei, Zhou Hui-Ming (2011): Antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of various extracts from defatted wheat germ. Food Chemistry, 126, 1122-1126  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.11.144
Zhu Ke-Xue, Zhou Hui-Ming, Qian Hai-Feng (2006): Proteins Extracted from Defatted Wheat Germ: Nutritional and Structural Properties. Cereal Chemistry Journal, 83, 69-75  https://doi.org/10.1094/CC-83-0069

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences