Hydroxymethylfurfural content and colour parameters of cookies with defatted wheat germ
Defatted wheat germ was used to substitute wheat flour by 5–15% to produce cookies enriched with protein, fat, sugar and minerals. The effects of different level of substitution of wheat flour by defatted wheat germ and dough moisture content (20–24%) on hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation in cookies were investigated. Colour parameters (L*, a*, and b*) were also measured, total colour difference (ΔE) and browning index (BI) were calculated and their correlations with HMF content were studied. The substitution of wheat flour by defatted wheat germ led to a higher HMF content compared to control cookies (P < 0.05). However, its formation was more strongly influenced by the dough moisture content than by the level of substitution. HMF content is positively correlated to the a* (r = 0.890; P < 0.01), b* (r = 0.605; P < 0.01) and BI (r = 0.710; P < 0.01) values, and negatively correlated to the L* (r = –0.624; P < 0.01). Results of the HMF formation and the correlation between HMF content and colour parameters were confirmed by the PCA analysis.
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