Fatty acids profile, conjugated linoleic acid contents and fat quality in selected dairy products available on the Polish market
The fatty acid composition, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 (CLA) content and lipid quality indices in the fat of some dairy products (pasteurised milk, UHT milk, natural yoghurts, bio-yoghurts, yoghurts with fruit and cereal grains, butters and hard cheeses) available on the Polish market were determined. The conducted study demonstrated that the fat extracted from the analysed dairy products was characterised by various contents of fatty acids and various lipid quality indices. In the fat extracted from all the analysed products, saturated fatty acids (SFA) were dominant. The fat from the yoghurts with the fruit and cereal grains was characterised by the highest content of PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), the highest hypocholesterolaemic/hypercholesterolaemic ratio (H/H) and the lowest value of the index of atherogenicity (AI) and the index of thrombogenicity (TI). The fat from the natural yoghurts contained the highest value of MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids). The fat from the bio-yoghurts (7.62 mg g–1) had the highest mean content of CLA. In the other analysed products, the mean content of the CLA was significantly lower (P < 0.05), but the fat from the UHT milks (3.32 mg g–1 fat) had the lowest content.
Akalln A.S., Tokusoglu Ö. (2003): A potential anticarcinogenic agent: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2: 109–110. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2003.109.110
Aydin R. (2005): Conjugated linoleic acid: Structure, sources and biological properties. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 29: 189–195.
Christie W.W. (1973): Lipid analysis. Isolation, separation, identification and structural analysis of lipids. Pergamon Press, Oxford: 39–40.
Domagała J., Sady M., Najgebauer-Lejko D., Czernicka M., Wieteska I. (2009): The content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in cream fermented using different starter cultures. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 25: 745–751.
Ellis K.A, Innocent G., Grove-White D., Cripps P., Mclean W.G., Howard C. V., Mihm M. (2006): Comparing the fatty acid composition of organic and conventional milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 89: 1938–1950.
Frelich J., Šlachta M., Hanuš O., Špička J., Samková E., Węglarz A., Zapletal P. (2012): Seasonal variation in fatty acid composition of cow milk in relation to the feeding system. Animal Science Papers and Reports, 30: 219–229.
Hanuš O., Krížová L., Samková E., Špička J., Kučera J., Klimešová M., Roubal P., Jedelská R. (2016): The effect of cattle bread, season and type of diet on the fatty acid profile of raw milk. Archives Animal Breeding, 59: 373–380. https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-59-373-2016
Hanuš O., Samková E., Krížová L., Hasoňová L., Kala R. (2018): Role of fatty acids in milk fat and the influence of selected factors on their variability – A Review. Molecules, 23: 1–32. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071636
Hirigoyen D., de los Santos R., Calvo M.F., Gonzales-Revello A., Constantin M. (2018): Chemical composition and seasonal changes in the fatty acid profile of Uruguayan “Colonia” Cheeses. Grasas Aceites, 69: e254. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.1217172
Jensen R.G. (2002): The composition of bovine milk lipids: January 1995 to December 2000. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 295–350. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74079-4
Kee J.I., Ganesan P., Kwak H.S. (2010): Bioactive conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 30: 879–885. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2010.30.6.879
Kelsey J.A., Corl B.A., Collier R.J., Bauman D.E. (2003): The effect of breed, parity and stage of lactation on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows Journal of Dairy Science, 86: 2588–2597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73854-5
Kim J.H., Kwon O.J., Choi N.J, Oh S.J., Jeong H.Y., Song M.K., Jeong I., Kim Y.J. (2009): Variations in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of processed cheese by lactation time, feeding regimen, and ripening. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57: 3235–3239. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf803838u
Kim Y.J., Liu R.H. (2002): Increase of conjugated linoleic acid content in milk by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Food Science, 67: 1731–1737.
Koba K., Yanagita T. (2014): Health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 8: e525–e532.
Lim J.N., Oh J.J., Wang T., Lee J.S., Kim S.H., Kim Y.H., Lee H.G. (2014): trans-11 18:1 vaccenic acid (TVA) has a direct anti-carcinogenic effect on MCF-7 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Nutrients, 6: 627–636. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6020627
Lin T.Y. (2000): Conjugated linoleic acid concentration as affected by lactic cultures and additives. Food Chemistry, 69: 27–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00218-6
Ładoński W., Gospodarek T. (1986): Basic analytical methods of food products. PWN Warszawa-Wrocław. (in Polish)
Mills S., Ross R.P., Hill C., Fizgerald G.F., Stanton C. (2001): Milk intelligence: Mining milk for bioactive substances associated with human health. International Dairy Journal, 21: 377–401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2010.12.011
Osmari E.K., Cecato U., Macedo F.A.F., Souza N.E. (2011): Nutritional quality indices of milk fat from goats on diets supplemented with different roughages. Small Ruminant Research, 98: 128–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.03.030
Park Y. (2009): Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): Good or bad trans fat? Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22: S4–S12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.12.002
Parodi P.W. (2009): Has the association between saturated fatty acids, serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease been over emphasized? International Dairy Journal, 19: 345–361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2009.01.001
Pestana J.M., Gennari A., Monterio B.W., Lehn D.N., Volken de Souza C.F. (2015): Effects of pasteurization and Ultra-High temperature processes on proximate composition and fatty acid profile in bovine milk. American Journal of Food Technology, 10: 265–272. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2015.265.272
Santos-Silva J., Bessa R.J.B., Santos-Silva F. (2002): Effect of genotype, feeding system and slaughter weight on the quality of light lambs II. Fatty acid composition of meat. Livestock Production Science, 77: 187–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00059-3
Sieber R., Collomb M., Aeschlimann A., Jelen P., Eyer H. (2004): Impact of microbial cultures on conjugated linoleic acid in dairy products – A Review. International Dairy Journal, 14: 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(03)00151-1
Seçkin A.K., Gursoy O., Kinik O., Akbulut N. (2005): Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of same Turkish dairy products. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 38: 909–915. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2004.09.011
Shantha N.C., Ram L.N., O’Leary J., Hicks C.L., Decker A. (1995): Conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in dairy products as affected by processing and storage. Journal of Food Science, 60: 695–697. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb06208.x
Simopoulos A.P. (2008): The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 233: 674–688. https://doi.org/10.3181/0711-MR-311
Ulbricht T., Southgate D. (1991): Coronary heart disease: Seven dietary factors. The Lancet, 338: 985–992. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(91)91846-M
Wahle K.W.J., Heys S.D., Rotundo D. (2004): Conjugated linoleic acids: are they beneficial or detrimental to health? Progress in Lipid Research, 43: 553–587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2004.08.002
Wijendran V., Hayes K.C. (2004): Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acid balance and cardiovascular health. Annual Reviews and Nutrition, 24: 597–615. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.24.012003.132106