Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum
types A, B, E and F

https://doi.org/10.17221/376/2016-CJFSCitation:Hayıt F., Gül H. (2017): Honey sold directly by producers in the Silesian region of Poland as a source of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F. Czech J. Food Sci., 35: 194-199.
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The level of contamination of honey with Clostridium botulinum spores is considered as an indicator of the adequacy of hygienic practices during collection, extraction, and subsequent processing. A total of 39 honey samples purchased directly from beekeepers at outdoor markets and from small amateur apiaries in Silesia were analysed for Clostridium botulinum spores. The samples were prepared using a dilution centrifugation method and cultured in parallel in cooked meat medium (CMM) and tripticase peptone glucose yeast (TPGY) enrichment broths. Identification of C. botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F was performed with the use of a multiplex PCR method. The analysis showed six (15.4%) samples to be contaminated with C. botulinum spores. The major serotypes detected were type A – in two (5.1%) and type B – in two (5.1%) honey samples, respectively. Types E and F were found in 1 (2.6%) and 1 (2.6%) positive honey sample analysed, respectively.
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