Effect of cryogenic freezing on the rheological and calorimetric properties of pasteurized liquid egg yolk
The egg yolk undergoes an irreversible gelation process when freezing to –6 °C or lower. In this experiment, liquid egg yolk (LEY) was frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at –18 °C for 150 days. The measurement of pH and colour of LEY were performed. The examination of the rheological and calorimetric properties of samples was also carried out. The results indicated that the pH of LEY changed significantly during frozen storage, increasing from 6.37 ± 0.02 to 6.58 ± 0.03 over five months. The colour of the samples also showed a significant change compared to the fresh sample. The rheological properties of the LEY also changed significantly after 1 day of freezing and during frozen storage, with a clear increasing trend of the yield stress. The results of the calorimetric study showed that freezing and frozen storage did not affect the denaturation temperature, however, the denaturation enthalpy was reduced by about half after five months of frozen storage.
Ahn J.S., Lee Y.K. (2008): Color distribution of a shade guide in the value, chroma, and hue scale. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 100: 18–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(08)60129-8
Arntfield S.D., Murray E.D. (1981): The influence of processing parameters on food protein functionality I. Differential scanning calorimetry as an indicator of protein denaturation. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 14: 289–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0315-5463(81)72929-8
Au C., Acevedo N.C., Horner H.T., Wang T. (2015): Determination of the gelation mechanism of freeze–thawed hen egg yolk. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63: 10170–10180. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b04109
Bertechini A.G. (2016): Economic and cultural aspects of the table egg as an edible commodity. In: Hester P. (ed.): Egg Innovations and Strategies for Improvements. Cambridge, United States, Academic Press: 223–232.
Bovšková H., Míková K., Panovská Z. (2014): Evaluation of egg yolk colour. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 32: 213–217. https://doi.org/10.17221/47/2013-CJFS
Chambers J.R., Zaheer K., Akhtar H., Abdel-Aal E.-S.M. (2016): Chicken eggs. In: Hester P. (ed.): Egg Innovations and Strategies for Improvements. Cambridge, United States, Academic Press: 3–11.
Chang C.H., Powrie W.D., Fennema O. (1977): Studies on the gelation of egg yolk and plasma upon freezing and thawing. Journal of Food Science, 42: 1658–1665. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1977.tb08450.x
Cordobés F., Partal P., Guerrero A. (2003): Rheology and microstructure of heat-induced egg yolk gels. Rheologica Acta, 43: 184–195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00397-003-0338-3
Cserhalmi Zs., Sass-Kiss Á., Tóth-Markus M., Lechner N. (2006): Study of pulsed electric field treated citrus juices. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 7: 49–54.
Fernández-Martín F., Pérez-Mateos M., Dadashi S., Gómez-Guillén C.M., Sanz P.D. (2018): Impact of magnetic assisted freezing in the physicochemical and functional properties of egg components. Part 2: Egg yolk. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 49: 176–183.
Figura L., Teixeira A.A. (2007): Food Physics: Physical Properties – Measurement and Applications. Heidelberg, Germany, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: 117–206.
Huang S., Herald T., Mueller D. (1997): Effect of electron beam irradiation on physical, physiochemical, and functional properties of liquid egg yolk during frozen storage. Poultry Science, 76: 1607–1615. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.11.1607
Jaax S., Travnicek D. (1968): The effect of pasteurization, selected additives and freezing rate on the gelation of frozen-defrosted egg yolk. Poultry Science, 47: 1013–1022. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0471013
Kim E.J., Purswell J.L., Evans J.D., Branton S.L. (2014): Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs. Poultry Science, 93: 2123–2128. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03647
Lai L.-S. (2016): Quality and safety of frozen eggs and egg products. In: Sun D.-W. (ed.): Handbook of Frozen Food Processing and Packaging. Florida, United States, CRC Press: 529–548.
Larsson M., Duffy J. (2013): An overview of measurement techniques for determination of yield stress. Annual Transactions of the Rheology Society, 21: 125–138.
Lopez A., Fellers C.R., Powie W.D. (1954): Some factors affectin gelation of frozen egg yolk. Journal of Milk and Food Technology, 17: 334–339. https://doi.org/10.4315/0022-2747-17.11.334
Mine Y. (2008): Egg Bioscience and Biotechnology. John Hoboken, United States, Wiley & Sons: 307–325.
Mulot V., Benkhelifa H., Pathier D., Ndoye F.-T., Flick D. (2019): Measurement of food dehydration during freezing in mechanical and cryogenic freezing conditions. International Journal of Refrigeration, 103: 329–338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2019.02.032
OIE (2020): Avian Influenza. World Organisation for Animal Health. Available at https://www.oie.int/en/animal-health-in-the-world/avian-influenza-portal/ (accessed July 20, 2020).
Pathare P.B., Opara U.L., Al-Said F.A.J. (2013): Colour measurement and analysis in fresh and processed foods: A review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6: 36–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0867-9
Perez M. del M., Ghinea R., Herrera L.J., Ionescu A.M., Pomares H., Pulgar R., Paravina R.D. (2011): Dental ceramics: A CIEDE2000 acceptability thresholds for lightness, chroma and hue differences. Journal of Dentistry 39: 37–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2011.09.007
Primacella M., Wang T., Acevedo N.C. (2018): Use of reconstitued yolk systems to study the gelation mechanism of frozen-thawed hen egg yolk. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 66: 512–520. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04370
Primacella M., Wang T., Acevedo N.C. (2019): Characterization of mayonnaise properties prepared using frozen-thawed egg yolk treated with hydrolyzed egg yolk proteins as anti-gelator. Food Hydrocolloids, 96: 529–536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2019.06.008
Severa L., Nedomová Š., Buchar J. (2010): Influence of storing time and temperature on the viscosity of an egg yolk. Journal of Food Engineering, 96: 266–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.07.020
Tu Q., Hickey M.E., Yang T., Gao S., Zhang Q., Qu Y., Du X., Wang J., He L. (2019): A simple and rapid method for detecting the pesticide fipronil on egg shells and in liquid eggs by Raman microscopy. Food Control, 96: 16–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.08.025