Characterisation of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase and the role in browning of loquat fruit
X. Zhang, X. Shaohttps://doi.org/10.17221/384/2014-CJFSCitation:Zhang X., Shao X. (2015): Characterisation of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase and the role in browning of loquat fruit. Czech J. Food Sci., 33: 109-117.
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were extracted from a new loquat fruit cultivar (Ninghaibai) and characterised using reliable spectrophotometric methods. In both cases, the optimum pH for PPO was 4.5 and 5 for POD, and their optimum temperatures were 30 and 35°C, respectively. Both enzymes followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, showing Km= 47.11 mmol/l for PPO with catechol as the substrate and Km = 153.00 mmol/l for POD with guaiacol as the substrate. PPO was much more thermolabile than POD, losing more than 40% of relative activity after 30 min of heating at 40°C. PPO activation energy was much lower than POD activation energy (ΔE# = 39.74 and 94.65 kJ/mol for PPO and POD, respectively): Both enzymes activities showed decreasing patterns as the compound concentration in the assay medium increased. 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR), oxalic acid, and l-cysteine showed strongly inhibitive effects on the enzymes. Changes in L*, a*, and b* values were chosen to describe the browning of loquat pulp. Only PPO displayed a higher negative correlation with L* values, which indicated that PPO plays an important role in the browning of stored loquat cv. Ninghaibai.Keywords:Eriobotrya japonica; PPO; PODReferences:
Arias E., González J., Oria R., Lopez-Buesa P. (2007): Ascorbic Acid and 4-Hexylresorcinol Effects on Pear PPO and PPO Catalyzed Browning Reaction. Journal of Food Science, 72, C422-C429 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00484.xCai C., Xu C., Li X., Ferguson I., Chen K. (2006a): Accumulation of lignin in relation to change in activities of lignification enzymes in loquat fruit flesh after harvest. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 40: 163–169.Cai C., Chen K., Xu W., Zhang W., Li X., Ferguson I. (2006b): Effect of 1-MCP on postharvest quality of loquat fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 40: 155–162.Chazarra Soledad, García-Carmona Francisco, Cabanes Juana (2001): Evidence for a Tetrameric Form of Iceberg Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) Polyphenol Oxidase: Purification and Characterization. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 4870-4875 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0100301Chisari M., Barbagallo R.N., Spagna G. (2007a): Characterization and role of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in browning of fresh-cut melon. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56: 132–138.Chisari M., Barbagallo R.N., Spagna G. (2007b): Characterization of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase and influence on browning of cold stored strawberry fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55: 3469–3476.Ciou Jhih-Ying, Lin Hsin-Hung, Chiang Po-Yuan, Wang Chiun-C., Charles Albert Linton (2011): The role of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in the browning of water caltrop pericarp during heat treatment. Food Chemistry, 127, 523-527 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.034Dalmadi I., Rapeanu G., Van Loey A., Smout C., Hendrickx M. (2006): Characterization and inactivation by thermal and pressure processing of strawberry (Fragaria ananas-sa) polyphenol oxidase: a kinetic study. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 30: 56–76.Ding C.K., Chachin K., Ueda Y., Imahori Y. (1998a): Purification and properties of polyphenol oxidase from loquat fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46: 4144–4149.Ding C., Chachin K., Ueda Y. Mochioka R. (1998b): Changes in polyphenol concentrations and polyphenol oxidase activity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruits in relation to browning. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 67: 360–366.Ding Zhansheng, Tian Shiping, Wang Yousheng, Li Boqiang, Chan Zhulong, Han Jin, Xu Yong (2006): Physiological response of loquat fruit to different storage conditions and its storability. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 41, 143-150 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2006.03.012Feng J., Liu Q., Wang X., Chen J., Ye J. (2006): Characterization of a new loquat cultivar ‘Ninghaibai’. In: Lin S., Huang X., Janick J. (eds): Proceedings IIth International Symposium on Loquat, Guangzhou, China, April 1–6, 2006. International Society for Horticultural Science: 117–124.Forsyth J.L., Owusu Apenten R.K., Robinson D.S. (1999): The thermostability of purified isoperoxidases from Brassica oleracea VAR. gemmifera. Food Chemistry, 65, 99-109 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00177-0Gómez-López Vicente Manuel (2002): Some biochemical properties of polyphenol oxidase from two varieties of avocado. Food Chemistry, 77, 163-169 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00331-4González-Barrio Rocío, Salmenkallio-Marttila Marjatta, Tomás-Barberán Francisco A., Cantos Emma, Espín Juan Carlos (2005): Etiology of UV-C-Induced Browning in Var. Superior White Table Grapes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 5990-5996 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0504115Goyeneche Rosario, Di Scala Karina, Roura Sara (2013): Biochemical characterization and thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase from radish (Raphanus sativus var. sativus). LWT - Food Science and Technology, 54, 57-62 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.04.014Hs M. (1955): Comparative biochemistry of the phenolase complex. Advances in Enzymology and Related Subjects of Biochemistry, 16: 105.Lin J., Wu Z., Peng Z. (2007): The study on purification and properties of peroxidase from loquat fruit. Journal of Sichuan Agricultural University, 25: 419–424.Khatun S., Ashraduzzaman M., Karim M.R., Pervin F., Absar N., Rosma A. (2012): Purification and characterization of peroxidase from moringa oleifera L. leaves. BioResources, 7: 3237–3251.López-Nicolás José M., Núñez-Delicado Estrella, Sánchez-Ferrer Álvaro, García-Carmona Francisco (2007): Kinetic model of apple juice enzymatic browning in the presence of cyclodextrins: The use of maltosyl-β-cyclodextrin as secondary antioxidant. Food Chemistry, 101, 1164-1171 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.018Lineweaver Hans, Burk Dean (1934): The Determination of Enzyme Dissociation Constants. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 56, 658-666 https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01318a036Liu Fuguo, Niu Liying, Li Dajing, Liu Chunquan, Jin Bangquan (2013): Kinetic Characterization and Thermal Inactivation of Peroxidase in Aqueous Extracts from Sweet Corn and Waxy Corn. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6, 2800-2807 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0996-1Liu Hongxia, Jiang Weibo, Bi Yang, Luo Yunbo (2005): Postharvest BTH treatment induces resistance of peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Jiubao) fruit to infection by Penicillium expansum and enhances activity of fruit defense mechanisms. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 35, 263-269 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2004.08.006Loukili Az-eddine, Limam Ferid, Ayadi Abdelkader, Boyer Nicole, Ouelhazi Lazhar (1999): Purification and characterization of a neutral peroxidase induced by rubbing tomato internodes. Physiologia Plantarum, 105, 24-31 https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3054.1999.105105.xRobinson D.S., Eskin N.A.M. (eds) (1991): Oxidative Enzymes in Foods. New York, Elsevier: 217–273.SARAIVA J, NUNES C, COIMBRA M (2007): Purification and characterization of olive (Olea europaea L.) peroxidase – Evidence for the occurrence of a pectin binding peroxidase. Food Chemistry, 101, 1571-1579 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.012Sellés-Marchart Susana, Casado-Vela Juan, Bru-Martínez Roque (2006): Isolation of a latent polyphenol oxidase from loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.): Kinetic characterization and comparison with the active form. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 446, 175-185 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2005.12.004Şener A., Ünal M., Aksay S. (2011a): Purification and characterization of polyphenoloxidase from Goldnugget loquat (Eriobotrya japonica cv. Goldnugget). Journal of Food Biochemistry, 35: 1568–1575.Şener A., Ünal M.Ü. (2011b): Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Akko XIII loquat (Eriobotrya japonica cv Akko XIII). Food Biotechnology, 25: 30–42.Spagna Giovanni, Barbagallo Riccardo N., Chisari Marco, Branca Ferdinando (2005): Characterization of a Tomato Polyphenol Oxidase and Its Role in Browning and Lycopene Content. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 2032-2038 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf040336iSun Han-Ju, Wang Jing, Tao Xue-Ming, Shi Juan, Huang Mei-Ying, Chen Zhe (2012): Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Rape Flower. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 823-829 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf2032999Taticchi Agnese, Esposto Sonia, Veneziani Gianluca, Urbani Stefania, Selvaggini Roberto, Servili Maurizio (2013): The influence of the malaxation temperature on the activity of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase and on the phenolic composition of virgin olive oil. Food Chemistry, 136, 975-983 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.071Ünal M., Taş C., Şener A. (2011): Determination of biochemical properties of polyphenol oxidase from Domat olives. GIDA-Journal of Food, 36: 185–192.Ünal M. Ümit (2007): Properties of polyphenol oxidase from Anamur banana (Musa cavendishii). Food Chemistry, 100, 909-913 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.048Zheng Yongju, Shi Junling, Pan Zhongli (2012): Biochemical characteristics and thermal inhibition kinetics of polyphenol oxidase extracted from Thompson seedless grape. European Food Research and Technology, 234, 607-616 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-012-1664-4Zhou Chun-Hua, Xu Chang-Jie, Sun Chong-De, Li Xian, Chen Kun-Song (2007): Carotenoids in White- and Red-Fleshed Loquat Fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 7822-7830 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf071273h