Influence of germination temperatures on the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds
František Hnilička, Alena Hejtmánková, Matyáš Orsák, Helena Hniličkováhttps://doi.org/10.17221/391/2016-CJFSCitation:Hnilička F., Hejtmánková A., Orsák M., Hniličková H. (2017): Influence of germination temperatures on the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds. Czech J. Food Sci., 35: 143-148.
The content of saccharides and lipids in wheat seeds from both conventional and organic agriculture was determined based on the length of germination (0, 2, or 5 days) and germination temperature (10 and 22°C). The content of saccharides was determined by HPLC, and the total lipid content was detected by Soxhlet extraction in the course of germination. While the non-germinated seeds had the highest content of glucose (6.95 mg/g) and fructose (4.37 mg/g), in conventionally grown seeds sucrose (5.03 mg/g) and maltose (3.62 mg/g) were at the highest level. In organically and conventionally produced seeds the contents of fructose, glucose, and maltose increased due to germination. While the content of lipids increased in the seeds from organic production on the second day from 0.46 g/10 g to 0.51 g/10 g (at 10°C) and 0.64 g/10 g (at 22°C). Differences in the content of saccharides and lipids between seeds from organic and conventional agriculture were not unequivocally confirmed.Keywords:
grain; winter wheat; organic farming; content of lipids; content of carbohydratesReferences:
Bailly Christophe, Audigier Catherine, Ladonne Fabienne, Wagner Marie Hélène, Coste Françoise, Corbineau Françoise, Côme Daniel (2001): Changes in oligosaccharide content and antioxidant enzyme activities in developing bean seeds as related to acquisition of drying tolerance and seed quality. Journal of Experimental Botany, 52, 701-708 https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/52.357.701Bogdan J., Zagdańska B. (2006): Changes in the pool of soluble sugars induced by dehydration at the heterotrophic phase of growth of wheat seedlings. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 44, 787-794 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2006.10.028Corbineau Françoise, Picard Mari Ange, Fougereux Jean-Albert, Ladonne Fabienne, Côme Daniel (2000): Effects of dehydration conditions on desiccation tolerance of developing pea seeds as related to oligosaccharide content and cell membrane properties. Seed Science Research, 10, 329-339 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0960258500000374Gabrovská D., Paulíčková I., Mašková E., Fiedlerová V., Kocurová K., Průchová J., Strohalm J., Houška M. (2005): Changes in selected vitamins, microorganism counts, and sensory quality during storage of pressurised sprouted seed of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 23: 246–250.Helland M.H., Wicklund T., Narvhus J.A. (2002): Effect of germination time on alpha-amylase production and viscosity of maize porridge. Food Research International, 35, 315-321 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(01)00202-2Hellyer S.A., Chandler I.C., Bosley J.A. (1999): Can the fatty acid selectivity of plant lipases be predicted from the composition of the seed triglyceride? Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1440: 215–224.Hübke Holger, Garbe Leif-Alexander, Tressl Roland (2005): Characterization and Quantification of Free and Esterified 9- and 13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic Acids (HODE) in Barley, Germinating Barley, and Finished Malt. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 1556-1562 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048490sJancurová M., Minarovicová L., Dandar A. (2009): Quinoa – a review. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 27: 71–79.Katina K., Liukkonen K.-H., Kaukovirta-Norja A., Adlercreutz H., Heinonen S.-M., Lampi A.-M., Pihlava J.-M., Poutanen K. (2007): Fermentation-induced changes in the nutritional value of native or germinated rye. Journal of Cereal Science, 46, 348-355 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2007.07.006Kaukovirta-Norja A., Reinikainen P., Olkku J., Laakso S. (1998): Influence of Barley and Malt Storage on Lipoxygenase Reaction. Cereal Chemistry, 75, 742-746 https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.19220.127.116.112Kim Sun-Lim, Kim Sung-Kook, Park Cheol-Ho (2004): Introduction and nutritional evaluation of buckwheat sprouts as a new vegetable. Food Research International, 37, 319-327 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2003.12.008Márton M., Mándoki Zs., Scapó-Kiss Zs., Scapó J. (2010): The role of sprouts in human nutrition. A review. Acta University Sapientiae, Alimentaria, 3: 81–117.Mbithi-Mwikya Stephen, Ooghe Wilfried, Van Camp John, Ngundi Delphin, Huyghebaert Andre (2000): Amino Acid Profiles after Sprouting, Autoclaving, and Lactic Acid Fermentation of Finger Millet ( Eleusine Coracan ) and Kidney Beans ( Phaseolus Vulgaris L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 3081-3085 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0002140Paques F.W., Macedo G.A. (2006): Plant lipases from latex: properties and industrial applications. Quimica Nova, 29: 93–99.Peñas Elena, Gómez Rosario, Frías Juana, Vidal-Valverde Concepción (2008): Application of high-pressure treatment on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds to enhance the microbiological safety of their sprouts. Food Control, 19, 698-705 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.07.010Rimsten L. (2003): Extractable cell-wall polysaccharides in cereals, with emphasis on β-glucan in steeped and germinated barley. [Doctoral Thesis.] Uppsala, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.Rose Devin J., Pike Oscar A. (2006): A simple method to measure lipase activity in wheat and wheat bran as an estimation of storage quality. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 83, 415-419 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-1220-0Ruibal-Mendieta Nike L., Delacroix Dominique L., Meurens Marc (2002): A Comparative Analysis of Free, Bound and Total Lipid Content on Spelt and Winter Wheat Wholemeal. Journal of Cereal Science, 35, 337-342 https://doi.org/10.1006/jcrs.2001.0434Saharan, Neelam Khetarpaul, Saroj B Kamlesh (2001): Processing of newly released ricebean and fababean cultivars: changes in total and available calcium, iron and phosphorus. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 52, 413-418 https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480120078294Sampath S., Madhava R.T., Kondal R.K., Arun K., Reddy P.V.M. (2008): Effect of germination on oligosaccharides in cereals and pulses. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45: 196–198.Sandberg Ann-Sofie (2002): Bioavailability of minerals in legumes. British Journal of Nutrition, 88, 281- https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN/2002718Sangronis E., Machado C.J. (2007): Influence of germination on the nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cajanus cajan. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 40, 116-120 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2005.08.003Urbano Gloria, López-Jurado María, Frejnagel S.ławomir, Gómez-Villalva Elena, Porres Jesús M., Frías Juana, Vidal-Valverde Concepción, Aranda Pilar (2005): Nutritional assessment of raw and germinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) protein and carbohydrate by in vitro and in vivo techniques. Nutrition, 21, 230-239 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.025Valencia, Ulf Svanberg, Ann-Sofie S Silvia (1999): Processing of quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa , Willd): effects on in vitro iron availability and phytate hydrolysis. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 50, 203-211 https://doi.org/10.1080/096374899101247Williams M., Shewry P.R., Harwood J.L. (1994): The influence of the ‘greenhouse effect’ on wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) grain lipids. Journal of Experimental Botany, 45, 1379-1385 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/45.10.1379Yang Jianchang, Zhang Jianhua, Wang Zhiqing, Zhu Qingsen, Liu Lijun (2004): Activities of fructan- and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in wheat stems subjected to water stress during grain filling. Planta, 220, 331-343 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-004-1338-yZörb Christian, Langenkämper Georg, Betsche Thomas, Niehaus Karsten, Barsch Aiko (2006): Metabolite Profiling of Wheat Grains ( Triticum aestivum L.) from Organic and Conventional Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 8301-8306 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0615451