Effect of glycerol on the physicochemical properties of cereal starch films

https://doi.org/10.17221/41/2017-CJFSCitation:Aghazadeh M., Karim R., Abdul Rahman R., Sultan M.T., Paykary M., Johnson S. (2018): Effect of glycerol on the physicochemical properties of cereal starch films. Czech J. Food Sci., 36: 403-409.
download PDF

The physical properties of corn, wheat and rice starch edible films with different level of glycerol were evaluated. Starch films exhibited an apparent endothermic peak in the range of 151–199°C with corn starch film with 1.6% glycerol having a relatively lower To and higher Tp. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy indicated that the corn, wheat, rice starch powders had ~ 39–49% crystallinity, whereas Fourier transform infrared spectra showed peaks associated with the tightly bound water present in the rice, corn, wheat starches. Overall, glycerol addition could enhance the water vapour pressure barrier properties of the films, but their tensile strength was reduced. Corn starch films were identified as the most suitable choice for edible packaging as its thermal characteristics indicated suggested a more acceptable sealability. Rice starch films is proposed as the better choice for coating as it showed better flexibility as indicted by lower tensile and higher elongation properties.

References:
Andrade Ricardo D., Skurtys Olivier, Osorio Fernando A. (2012): Atomizing Spray Systems for Application of Edible Coatings. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11, 323-337 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00186.x
 
Bultosa Geremew, Taylor John R. N. (): Chemical and Physical Characterisation of Grain Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Starch Granule Composition. Starch - Stärke, 55, 304-312 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200390065
 
De Giacomo O., Cesàro A., Quaroni L. (2008): Synchrotron Based FTIR Spectromicroscopy of Biopolymer Blends Undergoing Phase Separation. Food Biophysics, 3, 77-86 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-007-9051-6
 
Fabra M.J., Hambleton A., Talens P., Debeaufort F., Chiralt A. (2011): Effect of ferulic acid and α-tocopherol antioxidants on properties of sodium caseinate edible films. Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 1441-1447 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.01.012
 
García M.A., Pinotti A., Martino M.N., Zaritzky N.E. (2009): Characterization of starch and composite edible films and coatings. New York, Springer: 169–209.
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
Janjarasskul Theeranun, Krochta John M. (2010): Edible Packaging Materials. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 1, 415-448 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.080708.100836
 
Jiménez Alberto, Fabra María José, Talens Pau, Chiralt Amparo (2012): Effect of sodium caseinate on properties and ageing behaviour of corn starch based films. Food Hydrocolloids, 29, 265-271 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.03.014
 
Jung H.H., Aristippos G. (2005): Edible films and coatings: a review. In: Jung H. (ed.): Innovations in Food Packaging. San Diego, Elsevier: 239–259.
 
Liu Z. (2005): 19 Edible Films and Coatings from Starches. California, Elsevier: 318-336.
 
Liu Huihua, Chaudhary Deeptangshu, Yusa Shin-ichi, Tadé Moses O. (2011): Glycerol/starch/Na+-montmorillonite nanocomposites: A XRD, FTIR, DSC and 1H NMR study. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83, 1591-1597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.10.018
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
López Olivia V., García María A., Zaritzky Noemí E. (2008): Film forming capacity of chemically modified corn starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, 573-581 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.12.023
 
Ma Xiaofei, Yu Jiugao (2004): The Effects of Plasticizers Containing Amide Groups on the Properties of Thermoplastic Starch. STARCH - ST�RKE, 56, 545-551 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200300256
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., Garcı́a Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2005): Mechanical and thermal properties of yam starch films. Food Hydrocolloids, 19, 157-164 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2004.05.002
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., García Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2006): Effects of controlled storage on thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of plasticized films from different starch sources. Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 453-460 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.04.031
 
McHUGH T. HABIG, AVENA-BUSTILLOS R., KROCHTA J.M. (1993): Hydrophilic Edible Films: Modified Procedure for Water Vapor Permeability and Explanation of Thickness Effects. Journal of Food Science, 58, 899-903 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb09387.x
 
Mohammadi Nafchi Abdorreza, Moradpour Mahdiyeh, Saeidi Maliheh, Alias Abd Karim (2013): Thermoplastic starches: Properties, challenges, and prospects. Starch - Stärke, 65, 61-72 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201200201
 
Moreira María del R., Roura Sara I., Ponce Alejandra (2011): Effectiveness of chitosan edible coatings to improve microbiological and sensory quality of fresh cut broccoli. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44, 2335-2341 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.04.009
 
Muscat D., Adhikari B., Adhikari R., Chaudhary D.S. (2012): Comparative study of film forming behaviour of low and high amylose starches using glycerol and xylitol as plasticizers. Journal of Food Engineering, 109, 189-201 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.10.019
 
Othman N., Azahari N.A., Ismail H. (2011): Thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)/corn sarch bend flm. Malaysian Polymer Journal, 6: 147–154.
 
PARETA R, EDIRISINGHE M (2006): A novel method for the preparation of starch films and coatings. Carbohydrate Polymers, 63, 425-431 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.09.018
 
Romero-Bastida Claudia A., Bello-Pérez Luis A., García María A., Martino Miriam N., Solorza-Feria Javier, Zaritzky Noemí E. (2005): Physicochemical and microstructural characterization of films prepared by thermal and cold gelatinization from non-conventional sources of starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 60, 235-244 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.01.004
 
Skurtys O., Acevedo C., Pedreschi F., Enrione J., Osorio F., Aguilera J.M. (2010): Food Hydrocolloid Edible Films and Coatings. Santiago, Nova Science Publishers: 9-12.
 
Souza A.C., Benze R., Ferrão E.S., Ditchfield C., Coelho A.C.V., Tadini C.C. (2012): Cassava starch biodegradable films: Influence of glycerol and clay nanoparticles content on tensile and barrier properties and glass transition temperature. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 46, 110-117 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.10.018
 
Tanner K.E., Getz J.J., Burnett S.W., Youngblood E., Draper P.R. (2003): Film forming compositions comprising modified starches and iota-carrageenan and methods for manufacturing soft capsules using same. U.S Patents 6-582-727.
 
Thakur Rahul, Saberi Bahareh, Pristijono Penta, Golding John, Stathopoulos Costas, Scarlett Christopher, Bowyer Michael, Vuong Quan (2016): Characterization of rice starch-ι-carrageenan biodegradable edible film. Effect of stearic acid on the film properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 93, 952-960 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.053
 
Vásconez María B., Flores Silvia K., Campos Carmen A., Alvarado Juan, Gerschenson Lía N. (2009): Antimicrobial activity and physical properties of chitosan–tapioca starch based edible films and coatings. Food Research International, 42, 762-769 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.02.026
 
Xu Y.X., Kim K.M., Hanna M.A., Nag D. (2005): Chitosan–starch composite film: preparation and characterization. Industrial Crops and Products, 21, 185-192 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2004.03.002
 
Yao Kunhua, Cai Jie, Liu Miao, Yu Yan, Xiong Hanguo, Tang Shanwen, Ding Shiyong (2011): Structure and properties of starch/PVA/nano-SiO2 hybrid films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86, 1784-1789 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.008
 
Yin Y J, Yao K D, Cheng G X, Ma J B (1999): Properties of polyelectrolyte complex films of chitosan and gelatin. Polymer International, 48, 429-432 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0126(199906)48:6<429::AID-PI160>3.0.CO;2-1
 
Zhang Yachuan, Han J.H. (2010): Crystallization of High-Amylose Starch by the Addition of Plasticizers at Low and Intermediate Concentrations. Journal of Food Science, 75, N8-N16 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01404.x
 
Andrade Ricardo D., Skurtys Olivier, Osorio Fernando A. (2012): Atomizing Spray Systems for Application of Edible Coatings. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11, 323-337 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00186.x
 
Bultosa Geremew, Taylor John R. N. (): Chemical and Physical Characterisation of Grain Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Starch Granule Composition. Starch - Stärke, 55, 304-312 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200390065
 
De Giacomo O., Cesàro A., Quaroni L. (2008): Synchrotron Based FTIR Spectromicroscopy of Biopolymer Blends Undergoing Phase Separation. Food Biophysics, 3, 77-86 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-007-9051-6
 
Fabra M.J., Hambleton A., Talens P., Debeaufort F., Chiralt A. (2011): Effect of ferulic acid and α-tocopherol antioxidants on properties of sodium caseinate edible films. Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 1441-1447 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.01.012
 
García M.A., Pinotti A., Martino M.N., Zaritzky N.E. (2009): Characterization of starch and composite edible films and coatings. New York, Springer: 169–209.
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
Janjarasskul Theeranun, Krochta John M. (2010): Edible Packaging Materials. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 1, 415-448 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.080708.100836
 
Jiménez Alberto, Fabra María José, Talens Pau, Chiralt Amparo (2012): Effect of sodium caseinate on properties and ageing behaviour of corn starch based films. Food Hydrocolloids, 29, 265-271 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.03.014
 
Jung H.H., Aristippos G. (2005): Edible films and coatings: a review. In: Jung H. (ed.): Innovations in Food Packaging. San Diego, Elsevier: 239–259.
 
Liu Z. (2005): 19 Edible Films and Coatings from Starches. California, Elsevier: 318-336.
 
Liu Huihua, Chaudhary Deeptangshu, Yusa Shin-ichi, Tadé Moses O. (2011): Glycerol/starch/Na+-montmorillonite nanocomposites: A XRD, FTIR, DSC and 1H NMR study. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83, 1591-1597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.10.018
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
López Olivia V., García María A., Zaritzky Noemí E. (2008): Film forming capacity of chemically modified corn starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, 573-581 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.12.023
 
Ma Xiaofei, Yu Jiugao (2004): The Effects of Plasticizers Containing Amide Groups on the Properties of Thermoplastic Starch. STARCH - ST�RKE, 56, 545-551 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200300256
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., Garcı́a Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2005): Mechanical and thermal properties of yam starch films. Food Hydrocolloids, 19, 157-164 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2004.05.002
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., García Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2006): Effects of controlled storage on thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of plasticized films from different starch sources. Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 453-460 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.04.031
 
McHUGH T. HABIG, AVENA-BUSTILLOS R., KROCHTA J.M. (1993): Hydrophilic Edible Films: Modified Procedure for Water Vapor Permeability and Explanation of Thickness Effects. Journal of Food Science, 58, 899-903 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb09387.x
 
Mohammadi Nafchi Abdorreza, Moradpour Mahdiyeh, Saeidi Maliheh, Alias Abd Karim (2013): Thermoplastic starches: Properties, challenges, and prospects. Starch - Stärke, 65, 61-72 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201200201
 
Moreira María del R., Roura Sara I., Ponce Alejandra (2011): Effectiveness of chitosan edible coatings to improve microbiological and sensory quality of fresh cut broccoli. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44, 2335-2341 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.04.009
 
Muscat D., Adhikari B., Adhikari R., Chaudhary D.S. (2012): Comparative study of film forming behaviour of low and high amylose starches using glycerol and xylitol as plasticizers. Journal of Food Engineering, 109, 189-201 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.10.019
 
Othman N., Azahari N.A., Ismail H. (2011): Thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)/corn sarch bend flm. Malaysian Polymer Journal, 6: 147–154.
 
PARETA R, EDIRISINGHE M (2006): A novel method for the preparation of starch films and coatings. Carbohydrate Polymers, 63, 425-431 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.09.018
 
Romero-Bastida Claudia A., Bello-Pérez Luis A., García María A., Martino Miriam N., Solorza-Feria Javier, Zaritzky Noemí E. (2005): Physicochemical and microstructural characterization of films prepared by thermal and cold gelatinization from non-conventional sources of starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 60, 235-244 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.01.004
 
Skurtys O., Acevedo C., Pedreschi F., Enrione J., Osorio F., Aguilera J.M. (2010): Food Hydrocolloid Edible Films and Coatings. Santiago, Nova Science Publishers: 9-12.
 
Souza A.C., Benze R., Ferrão E.S., Ditchfield C., Coelho A.C.V., Tadini C.C. (2012): Cassava starch biodegradable films: Influence of glycerol and clay nanoparticles content on tensile and barrier properties and glass transition temperature. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 46, 110-117 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.10.018
 
Tanner K.E., Getz J.J., Burnett S.W., Youngblood E., Draper P.R. (2003): Film forming compositions comprising modified starches and iota-carrageenan and methods for manufacturing soft capsules using same. U.S Patents 6-582-727.
 
Thakur Rahul, Saberi Bahareh, Pristijono Penta, Golding John, Stathopoulos Costas, Scarlett Christopher, Bowyer Michael, Vuong Quan (2016): Characterization of rice starch-ι-carrageenan biodegradable edible film. Effect of stearic acid on the film properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 93, 952-960 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.053
 
Vásconez María B., Flores Silvia K., Campos Carmen A., Alvarado Juan, Gerschenson Lía N. (2009): Antimicrobial activity and physical properties of chitosan–tapioca starch based edible films and coatings. Food Research International, 42, 762-769 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.02.026
 
Xu Y.X., Kim K.M., Hanna M.A., Nag D. (2005): Chitosan–starch composite film: preparation and characterization. Industrial Crops and Products, 21, 185-192 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2004.03.002
 
Yao Kunhua, Cai Jie, Liu Miao, Yu Yan, Xiong Hanguo, Tang Shanwen, Ding Shiyong (2011): Structure and properties of starch/PVA/nano-SiO2 hybrid films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86, 1784-1789 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.008
 
Yin Y J, Yao K D, Cheng G X, Ma J B (1999): Properties of polyelectrolyte complex films of chitosan and gelatin. Polymer International, 48, 429-432 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0126(199906)48:6<429::AID-PI160>3.0.CO;2-1
 
Zhang Yachuan, Han J.H. (2010): Crystallization of High-Amylose Starch by the Addition of Plasticizers at Low and Intermediate Concentrations. Journal of Food Science, 75, N8-N16 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01404.x
 
Andrade Ricardo D., Skurtys Olivier, Osorio Fernando A. (2012): Atomizing Spray Systems for Application of Edible Coatings. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11, 323-337 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00186.x
 
Bultosa Geremew, Taylor John R. N. (): Chemical and Physical Characterisation of Grain Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Starch Granule Composition. Starch - Stärke, 55, 304-312 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200390065
 
De Giacomo O., Cesàro A., Quaroni L. (2008): Synchrotron Based FTIR Spectromicroscopy of Biopolymer Blends Undergoing Phase Separation. Food Biophysics, 3, 77-86 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-007-9051-6
 
Fabra M.J., Hambleton A., Talens P., Debeaufort F., Chiralt A. (2011): Effect of ferulic acid and α-tocopherol antioxidants on properties of sodium caseinate edible films. Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 1441-1447 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.01.012
 
García M.A., Pinotti A., Martino M.N., Zaritzky N.E. (2009): Characterization of starch and composite edible films and coatings. New York, Springer: 169–209.
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
Janjarasskul Theeranun, Krochta John M. (2010): Edible Packaging Materials. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 1, 415-448 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.080708.100836
 
Jiménez Alberto, Fabra María José, Talens Pau, Chiralt Amparo (2012): Effect of sodium caseinate on properties and ageing behaviour of corn starch based films. Food Hydrocolloids, 29, 265-271 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.03.014
 
Jung H.H., Aristippos G. (2005): Edible films and coatings: a review. In: Jung H. (ed.): Innovations in Food Packaging. San Diego, Elsevier: 239–259.
 
Liu Z. (2005): 19 Edible Films and Coatings from Starches. California, Elsevier: 318-336.
 
Liu Huihua, Chaudhary Deeptangshu, Yusa Shin-ichi, Tadé Moses O. (2011): Glycerol/starch/Na+-montmorillonite nanocomposites: A XRD, FTIR, DSC and 1H NMR study. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83, 1591-1597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.10.018
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
López Olivia V., García María A., Zaritzky Noemí E. (2008): Film forming capacity of chemically modified corn starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, 573-581 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.12.023
 
Ma Xiaofei, Yu Jiugao (2004): The Effects of Plasticizers Containing Amide Groups on the Properties of Thermoplastic Starch. STARCH - ST�RKE, 56, 545-551 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200300256
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., Garcı́a Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2005): Mechanical and thermal properties of yam starch films. Food Hydrocolloids, 19, 157-164 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2004.05.002
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., García Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2006): Effects of controlled storage on thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of plasticized films from different starch sources. Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 453-460 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.04.031
 
McHUGH T. HABIG, AVENA-BUSTILLOS R., KROCHTA J.M. (1993): Hydrophilic Edible Films: Modified Procedure for Water Vapor Permeability and Explanation of Thickness Effects. Journal of Food Science, 58, 899-903 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb09387.x
 
Mohammadi Nafchi Abdorreza, Moradpour Mahdiyeh, Saeidi Maliheh, Alias Abd Karim (2013): Thermoplastic starches: Properties, challenges, and prospects. Starch - Stärke, 65, 61-72 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201200201
 
Moreira María del R., Roura Sara I., Ponce Alejandra (2011): Effectiveness of chitosan edible coatings to improve microbiological and sensory quality of fresh cut broccoli. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44, 2335-2341 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.04.009
 
Muscat D., Adhikari B., Adhikari R., Chaudhary D.S. (2012): Comparative study of film forming behaviour of low and high amylose starches using glycerol and xylitol as plasticizers. Journal of Food Engineering, 109, 189-201 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.10.019
 
Othman N., Azahari N.A., Ismail H. (2011): Thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)/corn sarch bend flm. Malaysian Polymer Journal, 6: 147–154.
 
PARETA R, EDIRISINGHE M (2006): A novel method for the preparation of starch films and coatings. Carbohydrate Polymers, 63, 425-431 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.09.018
 
Romero-Bastida Claudia A., Bello-Pérez Luis A., García María A., Martino Miriam N., Solorza-Feria Javier, Zaritzky Noemí E. (2005): Physicochemical and microstructural characterization of films prepared by thermal and cold gelatinization from non-conventional sources of starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 60, 235-244 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.01.004
 
Skurtys O., Acevedo C., Pedreschi F., Enrione J., Osorio F., Aguilera J.M. (2010): Food Hydrocolloid Edible Films and Coatings. Santiago, Nova Science Publishers: 9-12.
 
Souza A.C., Benze R., Ferrão E.S., Ditchfield C., Coelho A.C.V., Tadini C.C. (2012): Cassava starch biodegradable films: Influence of glycerol and clay nanoparticles content on tensile and barrier properties and glass transition temperature. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 46, 110-117 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.10.018
 
Tanner K.E., Getz J.J., Burnett S.W., Youngblood E., Draper P.R. (2003): Film forming compositions comprising modified starches and iota-carrageenan and methods for manufacturing soft capsules using same. U.S Patents 6-582-727.
 
Thakur Rahul, Saberi Bahareh, Pristijono Penta, Golding John, Stathopoulos Costas, Scarlett Christopher, Bowyer Michael, Vuong Quan (2016): Characterization of rice starch-ι-carrageenan biodegradable edible film. Effect of stearic acid on the film properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 93, 952-960 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.053
 
Vásconez María B., Flores Silvia K., Campos Carmen A., Alvarado Juan, Gerschenson Lía N. (2009): Antimicrobial activity and physical properties of chitosan–tapioca starch based edible films and coatings. Food Research International, 42, 762-769 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.02.026
 
Xu Y.X., Kim K.M., Hanna M.A., Nag D. (2005): Chitosan–starch composite film: preparation and characterization. Industrial Crops and Products, 21, 185-192 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2004.03.002
 
Yao Kunhua, Cai Jie, Liu Miao, Yu Yan, Xiong Hanguo, Tang Shanwen, Ding Shiyong (2011): Structure and properties of starch/PVA/nano-SiO2 hybrid films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86, 1784-1789 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.008
 
Yin Y J, Yao K D, Cheng G X, Ma J B (1999): Properties of polyelectrolyte complex films of chitosan and gelatin. Polymer International, 48, 429-432 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0126(199906)48:6<429::AID-PI160>3.0.CO;2-1
 
Zhang Yachuan, Han J.H. (2010): Crystallization of High-Amylose Starch by the Addition of Plasticizers at Low and Intermediate Concentrations. Journal of Food Science, 75, N8-N16 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01404.x
 
Andrade Ricardo D., Skurtys Olivier, Osorio Fernando A. (2012): Atomizing Spray Systems for Application of Edible Coatings. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11, 323-337 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00186.x
 
Bultosa Geremew, Taylor John R. N. (): Chemical and Physical Characterisation of Grain Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Starch Granule Composition. Starch - Stärke, 55, 304-312 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200390065
 
De Giacomo O., Cesàro A., Quaroni L. (2008): Synchrotron Based FTIR Spectromicroscopy of Biopolymer Blends Undergoing Phase Separation. Food Biophysics, 3, 77-86 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-007-9051-6
 
Fabra M.J., Hambleton A., Talens P., Debeaufort F., Chiralt A. (2011): Effect of ferulic acid and α-tocopherol antioxidants on properties of sodium caseinate edible films. Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 1441-1447 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.01.012
 
García M.A., Pinotti A., Martino M.N., Zaritzky N.E. (2009): Characterization of starch and composite edible films and coatings. New York, Springer: 169–209.
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
Janjarasskul Theeranun, Krochta John M. (2010): Edible Packaging Materials. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 1, 415-448 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.080708.100836
 
Jiménez Alberto, Fabra María José, Talens Pau, Chiralt Amparo (2012): Effect of sodium caseinate on properties and ageing behaviour of corn starch based films. Food Hydrocolloids, 29, 265-271 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.03.014
 
Jung H.H., Aristippos G. (2005): Edible films and coatings: a review. In: Jung H. (ed.): Innovations in Food Packaging. San Diego, Elsevier: 239–259.
 
Liu Z. (2005): 19 Edible Films and Coatings from Starches. California, Elsevier: 318-336.
 
Liu Huihua, Chaudhary Deeptangshu, Yusa Shin-ichi, Tadé Moses O. (2011): Glycerol/starch/Na+-montmorillonite nanocomposites: A XRD, FTIR, DSC and 1H NMR study. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83, 1591-1597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.10.018
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
López Olivia V., García María A., Zaritzky Noemí E. (2008): Film forming capacity of chemically modified corn starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, 573-581 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.12.023
 
Ma Xiaofei, Yu Jiugao (2004): The Effects of Plasticizers Containing Amide Groups on the Properties of Thermoplastic Starch. STARCH - ST�RKE, 56, 545-551 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200300256
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., Garcı́a Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2005): Mechanical and thermal properties of yam starch films. Food Hydrocolloids, 19, 157-164 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2004.05.002
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., García Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2006): Effects of controlled storage on thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of plasticized films from different starch sources. Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 453-460 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.04.031
 
McHUGH T. HABIG, AVENA-BUSTILLOS R., KROCHTA J.M. (1993): Hydrophilic Edible Films: Modified Procedure for Water Vapor Permeability and Explanation of Thickness Effects. Journal of Food Science, 58, 899-903 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb09387.x
 
Mohammadi Nafchi Abdorreza, Moradpour Mahdiyeh, Saeidi Maliheh, Alias Abd Karim (2013): Thermoplastic starches: Properties, challenges, and prospects. Starch - Stärke, 65, 61-72 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201200201
 
Moreira María del R., Roura Sara I., Ponce Alejandra (2011): Effectiveness of chitosan edible coatings to improve microbiological and sensory quality of fresh cut broccoli. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44, 2335-2341 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.04.009
 
Muscat D., Adhikari B., Adhikari R., Chaudhary D.S. (2012): Comparative study of film forming behaviour of low and high amylose starches using glycerol and xylitol as plasticizers. Journal of Food Engineering, 109, 189-201 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.10.019
 
Othman N., Azahari N.A., Ismail H. (2011): Thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)/corn sarch bend flm. Malaysian Polymer Journal, 6: 147–154.
 
PARETA R, EDIRISINGHE M (2006): A novel method for the preparation of starch films and coatings. Carbohydrate Polymers, 63, 425-431 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.09.018
 
Romero-Bastida Claudia A., Bello-Pérez Luis A., García María A., Martino Miriam N., Solorza-Feria Javier, Zaritzky Noemí E. (2005): Physicochemical and microstructural characterization of films prepared by thermal and cold gelatinization from non-conventional sources of starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 60, 235-244 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.01.004
 
Skurtys O., Acevedo C., Pedreschi F., Enrione J., Osorio F., Aguilera J.M. (2010): Food Hydrocolloid Edible Films and Coatings. Santiago, Nova Science Publishers: 9-12.
 
Souza A.C., Benze R., Ferrão E.S., Ditchfield C., Coelho A.C.V., Tadini C.C. (2012): Cassava starch biodegradable films: Influence of glycerol and clay nanoparticles content on tensile and barrier properties and glass transition temperature. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 46, 110-117 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.10.018
 
Tanner K.E., Getz J.J., Burnett S.W., Youngblood E., Draper P.R. (2003): Film forming compositions comprising modified starches and iota-carrageenan and methods for manufacturing soft capsules using same. U.S Patents 6-582-727.
 
Thakur Rahul, Saberi Bahareh, Pristijono Penta, Golding John, Stathopoulos Costas, Scarlett Christopher, Bowyer Michael, Vuong Quan (2016): Characterization of rice starch-ι-carrageenan biodegradable edible film. Effect of stearic acid on the film properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 93, 952-960 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.053
 
Vásconez María B., Flores Silvia K., Campos Carmen A., Alvarado Juan, Gerschenson Lía N. (2009): Antimicrobial activity and physical properties of chitosan–tapioca starch based edible films and coatings. Food Research International, 42, 762-769 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.02.026
 
Xu Y.X., Kim K.M., Hanna M.A., Nag D. (2005): Chitosan–starch composite film: preparation and characterization. Industrial Crops and Products, 21, 185-192 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2004.03.002
 
Yao Kunhua, Cai Jie, Liu Miao, Yu Yan, Xiong Hanguo, Tang Shanwen, Ding Shiyong (2011): Structure and properties of starch/PVA/nano-SiO2 hybrid films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86, 1784-1789 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.008
 
Yin Y J, Yao K D, Cheng G X, Ma J B (1999): Properties of polyelectrolyte complex films of chitosan and gelatin. Polymer International, 48, 429-432 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0126(199906)48:6<429::AID-PI160>3.0.CO;2-1
 
Zhang Yachuan, Han J.H. (2010): Crystallization of High-Amylose Starch by the Addition of Plasticizers at Low and Intermediate Concentrations. Journal of Food Science, 75, N8-N16 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01404.x
 
Andrade Ricardo D., Skurtys Olivier, Osorio Fernando A. (2012): Atomizing Spray Systems for Application of Edible Coatings. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11, 323-337 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00186.x
 
Bultosa Geremew, Taylor John R. N. (): Chemical and Physical Characterisation of Grain Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Starch Granule Composition. Starch - Stärke, 55, 304-312 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200390065
 
De Giacomo O., Cesàro A., Quaroni L. (2008): Synchrotron Based FTIR Spectromicroscopy of Biopolymer Blends Undergoing Phase Separation. Food Biophysics, 3, 77-86 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-007-9051-6
 
Fabra M.J., Hambleton A., Talens P., Debeaufort F., Chiralt A. (2011): Effect of ferulic acid and α-tocopherol antioxidants on properties of sodium caseinate edible films. Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 1441-1447 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.01.012
 
García M.A., Pinotti A., Martino M.N., Zaritzky N.E. (2009): Characterization of starch and composite edible films and coatings. New York, Springer: 169–209.
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
Janjarasskul Theeranun, Krochta John M. (2010): Edible Packaging Materials. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 1, 415-448 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.080708.100836
 
Jiménez Alberto, Fabra María José, Talens Pau, Chiralt Amparo (2012): Effect of sodium caseinate on properties and ageing behaviour of corn starch based films. Food Hydrocolloids, 29, 265-271 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.03.014
 
Jung H.H., Aristippos G. (2005): Edible films and coatings: a review. In: Jung H. (ed.): Innovations in Food Packaging. San Diego, Elsevier: 239–259.
 
Liu Z. (2005): 19 Edible Films and Coatings from Starches. California, Elsevier: 318-336.
 
Liu Huihua, Chaudhary Deeptangshu, Yusa Shin-ichi, Tadé Moses O. (2011): Glycerol/starch/Na+-montmorillonite nanocomposites: A XRD, FTIR, DSC and 1H NMR study. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83, 1591-1597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.10.018
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
López Olivia V., García María A., Zaritzky Noemí E. (2008): Film forming capacity of chemically modified corn starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, 573-581 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.12.023
 
Ma Xiaofei, Yu Jiugao (2004): The Effects of Plasticizers Containing Amide Groups on the Properties of Thermoplastic Starch. STARCH - ST�RKE, 56, 545-551 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200300256
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., Garcı́a Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2005): Mechanical and thermal properties of yam starch films. Food Hydrocolloids, 19, 157-164 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2004.05.002
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., García Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2006): Effects of controlled storage on thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of plasticized films from different starch sources. Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 453-460 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.04.031
 
McHUGH T. HABIG, AVENA-BUSTILLOS R., KROCHTA J.M. (1993): Hydrophilic Edible Films: Modified Procedure for Water Vapor Permeability and Explanation of Thickness Effects. Journal of Food Science, 58, 899-903 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb09387.x
 
Mohammadi Nafchi Abdorreza, Moradpour Mahdiyeh, Saeidi Maliheh, Alias Abd Karim (2013): Thermoplastic starches: Properties, challenges, and prospects. Starch - Stärke, 65, 61-72 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201200201
 
Moreira María del R., Roura Sara I., Ponce Alejandra (2011): Effectiveness of chitosan edible coatings to improve microbiological and sensory quality of fresh cut broccoli. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44, 2335-2341 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.04.009
 
Muscat D., Adhikari B., Adhikari R., Chaudhary D.S. (2012): Comparative study of film forming behaviour of low and high amylose starches using glycerol and xylitol as plasticizers. Journal of Food Engineering, 109, 189-201 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.10.019
 
Othman N., Azahari N.A., Ismail H. (2011): Thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)/corn sarch bend flm. Malaysian Polymer Journal, 6: 147–154.
 
PARETA R, EDIRISINGHE M (2006): A novel method for the preparation of starch films and coatings. Carbohydrate Polymers, 63, 425-431 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.09.018
 
Romero-Bastida Claudia A., Bello-Pérez Luis A., García María A., Martino Miriam N., Solorza-Feria Javier, Zaritzky Noemí E. (2005): Physicochemical and microstructural characterization of films prepared by thermal and cold gelatinization from non-conventional sources of starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 60, 235-244 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.01.004
 
Skurtys O., Acevedo C., Pedreschi F., Enrione J., Osorio F., Aguilera J.M. (2010): Food Hydrocolloid Edible Films and Coatings. Santiago, Nova Science Publishers: 9-12.
 
Souza A.C., Benze R., Ferrão E.S., Ditchfield C., Coelho A.C.V., Tadini C.C. (2012): Cassava starch biodegradable films: Influence of glycerol and clay nanoparticles content on tensile and barrier properties and glass transition temperature. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 46, 110-117 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.10.018
 
Tanner K.E., Getz J.J., Burnett S.W., Youngblood E., Draper P.R. (2003): Film forming compositions comprising modified starches and iota-carrageenan and methods for manufacturing soft capsules using same. U.S Patents 6-582-727.
 
Thakur Rahul, Saberi Bahareh, Pristijono Penta, Golding John, Stathopoulos Costas, Scarlett Christopher, Bowyer Michael, Vuong Quan (2016): Characterization of rice starch-ι-carrageenan biodegradable edible film. Effect of stearic acid on the film properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 93, 952-960 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.053
 
Vásconez María B., Flores Silvia K., Campos Carmen A., Alvarado Juan, Gerschenson Lía N. (2009): Antimicrobial activity and physical properties of chitosan–tapioca starch based edible films and coatings. Food Research International, 42, 762-769 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.02.026
 
Xu Y.X., Kim K.M., Hanna M.A., Nag D. (2005): Chitosan–starch composite film: preparation and characterization. Industrial Crops and Products, 21, 185-192 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2004.03.002
 
Yao Kunhua, Cai Jie, Liu Miao, Yu Yan, Xiong Hanguo, Tang Shanwen, Ding Shiyong (2011): Structure and properties of starch/PVA/nano-SiO2 hybrid films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86, 1784-1789 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.008
 
Yin Y J, Yao K D, Cheng G X, Ma J B (1999): Properties of polyelectrolyte complex films of chitosan and gelatin. Polymer International, 48, 429-432 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0126(199906)48:6<429::AID-PI160>3.0.CO;2-1
 
Zhang Yachuan, Han J.H. (2010): Crystallization of High-Amylose Starch by the Addition of Plasticizers at Low and Intermediate Concentrations. Journal of Food Science, 75, N8-N16 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01404.x
 
Andrade Ricardo D., Skurtys Olivier, Osorio Fernando A. (2012): Atomizing Spray Systems for Application of Edible Coatings. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11, 323-337 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00186.x
 
Bultosa Geremew, Taylor John R. N. (): Chemical and Physical Characterisation of Grain Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Starch Granule Composition. Starch - Stärke, 55, 304-312 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200390065
 
De Giacomo O., Cesàro A., Quaroni L. (2008): Synchrotron Based FTIR Spectromicroscopy of Biopolymer Blends Undergoing Phase Separation. Food Biophysics, 3, 77-86 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-007-9051-6
 
Fabra M.J., Hambleton A., Talens P., Debeaufort F., Chiralt A. (2011): Effect of ferulic acid and α-tocopherol antioxidants on properties of sodium caseinate edible films. Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 1441-1447 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.01.012
 
García M.A., Pinotti A., Martino M.N., Zaritzky N.E. (2009): Characterization of starch and composite edible films and coatings. New York, Springer: 169–209.
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
Janjarasskul Theeranun, Krochta John M. (2010): Edible Packaging Materials. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 1, 415-448 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.080708.100836
 
Jiménez Alberto, Fabra María José, Talens Pau, Chiralt Amparo (2012): Effect of sodium caseinate on properties and ageing behaviour of corn starch based films. Food Hydrocolloids, 29, 265-271 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.03.014
 
Jung H.H., Aristippos G. (2005): Edible films and coatings: a review. In: Jung H. (ed.): Innovations in Food Packaging. San Diego, Elsevier: 239–259.
 
Liu Z. (2005): 19 Edible Films and Coatings from Starches. California, Elsevier: 318-336.
 
Liu Huihua, Chaudhary Deeptangshu, Yusa Shin-ichi, Tadé Moses O. (2011): Glycerol/starch/Na+-montmorillonite nanocomposites: A XRD, FTIR, DSC and 1H NMR study. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83, 1591-1597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.10.018
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
López Olivia V., García María A., Zaritzky Noemí E. (2008): Film forming capacity of chemically modified corn starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, 573-581 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.12.023
 
Ma Xiaofei, Yu Jiugao (2004): The Effects of Plasticizers Containing Amide Groups on the Properties of Thermoplastic Starch. STARCH - ST�RKE, 56, 545-551 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200300256
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., Garcı́a Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2005): Mechanical and thermal properties of yam starch films. Food Hydrocolloids, 19, 157-164 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2004.05.002
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., García Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2006): Effects of controlled storage on thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of plasticized films from different starch sources. Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 453-460 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.04.031
 
McHUGH T. HABIG, AVENA-BUSTILLOS R., KROCHTA J.M. (1993): Hydrophilic Edible Films: Modified Procedure for Water Vapor Permeability and Explanation of Thickness Effects. Journal of Food Science, 58, 899-903 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb09387.x
 
Mohammadi Nafchi Abdorreza, Moradpour Mahdiyeh, Saeidi Maliheh, Alias Abd Karim (2013): Thermoplastic starches: Properties, challenges, and prospects. Starch - Stärke, 65, 61-72 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201200201
 
Moreira María del R., Roura Sara I., Ponce Alejandra (2011): Effectiveness of chitosan edible coatings to improve microbiological and sensory quality of fresh cut broccoli. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44, 2335-2341 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.04.009
 
Muscat D., Adhikari B., Adhikari R., Chaudhary D.S. (2012): Comparative study of film forming behaviour of low and high amylose starches using glycerol and xylitol as plasticizers. Journal of Food Engineering, 109, 189-201 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.10.019
 
Othman N., Azahari N.A., Ismail H. (2011): Thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)/corn sarch bend flm. Malaysian Polymer Journal, 6: 147–154.
 
PARETA R, EDIRISINGHE M (2006): A novel method for the preparation of starch films and coatings. Carbohydrate Polymers, 63, 425-431 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.09.018
 
Romero-Bastida Claudia A., Bello-Pérez Luis A., García María A., Martino Miriam N., Solorza-Feria Javier, Zaritzky Noemí E. (2005): Physicochemical and microstructural characterization of films prepared by thermal and cold gelatinization from non-conventional sources of starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 60, 235-244 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.01.004
 
Skurtys O., Acevedo C., Pedreschi F., Enrione J., Osorio F., Aguilera J.M. (2010): Food Hydrocolloid Edible Films and Coatings. Santiago, Nova Science Publishers: 9-12.
 
Souza A.C., Benze R., Ferrão E.S., Ditchfield C., Coelho A.C.V., Tadini C.C. (2012): Cassava starch biodegradable films: Influence of glycerol and clay nanoparticles content on tensile and barrier properties and glass transition temperature. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 46, 110-117 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.10.018
 
Tanner K.E., Getz J.J., Burnett S.W., Youngblood E., Draper P.R. (2003): Film forming compositions comprising modified starches and iota-carrageenan and methods for manufacturing soft capsules using same. U.S Patents 6-582-727.
 
Thakur Rahul, Saberi Bahareh, Pristijono Penta, Golding John, Stathopoulos Costas, Scarlett Christopher, Bowyer Michael, Vuong Quan (2016): Characterization of rice starch-ι-carrageenan biodegradable edible film. Effect of stearic acid on the film properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 93, 952-960 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.053
 
Vásconez María B., Flores Silvia K., Campos Carmen A., Alvarado Juan, Gerschenson Lía N. (2009): Antimicrobial activity and physical properties of chitosan–tapioca starch based edible films and coatings. Food Research International, 42, 762-769 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.02.026
 
Xu Y.X., Kim K.M., Hanna M.A., Nag D. (2005): Chitosan–starch composite film: preparation and characterization. Industrial Crops and Products, 21, 185-192 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2004.03.002
 
Yao Kunhua, Cai Jie, Liu Miao, Yu Yan, Xiong Hanguo, Tang Shanwen, Ding Shiyong (2011): Structure and properties of starch/PVA/nano-SiO2 hybrid films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86, 1784-1789 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.008
 
Yin Y J, Yao K D, Cheng G X, Ma J B (1999): Properties of polyelectrolyte complex films of chitosan and gelatin. Polymer International, 48, 429-432 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0126(199906)48:6<429::AID-PI160>3.0.CO;2-1
 
Zhang Yachuan, Han J.H. (2010): Crystallization of High-Amylose Starch by the Addition of Plasticizers at Low and Intermediate Concentrations. Journal of Food Science, 75, N8-N16 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01404.x
 
Andrade Ricardo D., Skurtys Olivier, Osorio Fernando A. (2012): Atomizing Spray Systems for Application of Edible Coatings. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11, 323-337 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00186.x
 
Bultosa Geremew, Taylor John R. N. (): Chemical and Physical Characterisation of Grain Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Starch Granule Composition. Starch - Stärke, 55, 304-312 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200390065
 
De Giacomo O., Cesàro A., Quaroni L. (2008): Synchrotron Based FTIR Spectromicroscopy of Biopolymer Blends Undergoing Phase Separation. Food Biophysics, 3, 77-86 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-007-9051-6
 
Fabra M.J., Hambleton A., Talens P., Debeaufort F., Chiralt A. (2011): Effect of ferulic acid and α-tocopherol antioxidants on properties of sodium caseinate edible films. Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 1441-1447 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.01.012
 
García M.A., Pinotti A., Martino M.N., Zaritzky N.E. (2009): Characterization of starch and composite edible films and coatings. New York, Springer: 169–209.
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
Janjarasskul Theeranun, Krochta John M. (2010): Edible Packaging Materials. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 1, 415-448 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.080708.100836
 
Jiménez Alberto, Fabra María José, Talens Pau, Chiralt Amparo (2012): Effect of sodium caseinate on properties and ageing behaviour of corn starch based films. Food Hydrocolloids, 29, 265-271 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.03.014
 
Jung H.H., Aristippos G. (2005): Edible films and coatings: a review. In: Jung H. (ed.): Innovations in Food Packaging. San Diego, Elsevier: 239–259.
 
Liu Z. (2005): 19 Edible Films and Coatings from Starches. California, Elsevier: 318-336.
 
Liu Huihua, Chaudhary Deeptangshu, Yusa Shin-ichi, Tadé Moses O. (2011): Glycerol/starch/Na+-montmorillonite nanocomposites: A XRD, FTIR, DSC and 1H NMR study. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83, 1591-1597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.10.018
 
Liu Huihua, Adhikari Raju, Guo Qipeng, Adhikari Benu (2013): Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized (high-amylose) starch–chitosan films. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 588-597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.037
 
López Olivia V., García María A., Zaritzky Noemí E. (2008): Film forming capacity of chemically modified corn starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, 573-581 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.12.023
 
Ma Xiaofei, Yu Jiugao (2004): The Effects of Plasticizers Containing Amide Groups on the Properties of Thermoplastic Starch. STARCH - ST�RKE, 56, 545-551 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200300256
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., Garcı́a Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2005): Mechanical and thermal properties of yam starch films. Food Hydrocolloids, 19, 157-164 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2004.05.002
 
Mali Suzana, Grossmann Maria Victória E., García Maria A., Martino Miriam N., Zaritzky Noemi E. (2006): Effects of controlled storage on thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of plasticized films from different starch sources. Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 453-460 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.04.031
 
McHUGH T. HABIG, AVENA-BUSTILLOS R., KROCHTA J.M. (1993): Hydrophilic Edible Films: Modified Procedure for Water Vapor Permeability and Explanation of Thickness Effects. Journal of Food Science, 58, 899-903 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb09387.x
 
Mohammadi Nafchi Abdorreza, Moradpour Mahdiyeh, Saeidi Maliheh, Alias Abd Karim (2013): Thermoplastic starches: Properties, challenges, and prospects. Starch - Stärke, 65, 61-72 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201200201
 
Moreira María del R., Roura Sara I., Ponce Alejandra (2011): Effectiveness of chitosan edible coatings to improve microbiological and sensory quality of fresh cut broccoli. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44, 2335-2341 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.04.009
 
Muscat D., Adhikari B., Adhikari R., Chaudhary D.S. (2012): Comparative study of film forming behaviour of low and high amylose starches using glycerol and xylitol as plasticizers. Journal of Food Engineering, 109, 189-201 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.10.019
 
Othman N., Azahari N.A., Ismail H. (2011): Thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)/corn sarch bend flm. Malaysian Polymer Journal, 6: 147–154.
 
PARETA R, EDIRISINGHE M (2006): A novel method for the preparation of starch films and coatings. Carbohydrate Polymers, 63, 425-431 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.09.018
 
Romero-Bastida Claudia A., Bello-Pérez Luis A., García María A., Martino Miriam N., Solorza-Feria Javier, Zaritzky Noemí E. (2005): Physicochemical and microstructural characterization of films prepared by thermal and cold gelatinization from non-conventional sources of starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 60, 235-244 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.01.004
 
Skurtys O., Acevedo C., Pedreschi F., Enrione J., Osorio F., Aguilera J.M. (2010): Food Hydrocolloid Edible Films and Coatings. Santiago, Nova Science Publishers: 9-12.
 
Souza A.C., Benze R., Ferrão E.S., Ditchfield C., Coelho A.C.V., Tadini C.C. (2012): Cassava starch biodegradable films: Influence of glycerol and clay nanoparticles content on tensile and barrier properties and glass transition temperature. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 46, 110-117 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.10.018
 
Tanner K.E., Getz J.J., Burnett S.W., Youngblood E., Draper P.R. (2003): Film forming compositions comprising modified starches and iota-carrageenan and methods for manufacturing soft capsules using same. U.S Patents 6-582-727.
 
Thakur Rahul, Saberi Bahareh, Pristijono Penta, Golding John, Stathopoulos Costas, Scarlett Christopher, Bowyer Michael, Vuong Quan (2016): Characterization of rice starch-ι-carrageenan biodegradable edible film. Effect of stearic acid on the film properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 93, 952-960 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.053
 
Vásconez María B., Flores Silvia K., Campos Carmen A., Alvarado Juan, Gerschenson Lía N. (2009): Antimicrobial activity and physical properties of chitosan–tapioca starch based edible films and coatings. Food Research International, 42, 762-769 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.02.026
 
Xu Y.X., Kim K.M., Hanna M.A., Nag D. (2005): Chitosan–starch composite film: preparation and characterization. Industrial Crops and Products, 21, 185-192 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2004.03.002
 
Yao Kunhua, Cai Jie, Liu Miao, Yu Yan, Xiong Hanguo, Tang Shanwen, Ding Shiyong (2011): Structure and properties of starch/PVA/nano-SiO2 hybrid films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86, 1784-1789 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.008
 
Yin Y J, Yao K D, Cheng G X, Ma J B (1999): Properties of polyelectrolyte complex films of chitosan and gelatin. Polymer International, 48, 429-432 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0126(199906)48:6<429::AID-PI160>3.0.CO;2-1
 
Zhang Yachuan, Han J.H. (2010): Crystallization of High-Amylose Starch by the Addition of Plasticizers at Low and Intermediate Concentrations. Journal of Food Science, 75, N8-N16 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01404.x
 
download PDF

© 2018 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences