Comparing phenolic composition of Cabernet Gernischet wines between rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation

https://doi.org/10.17221/429/2015-CJFSCitation:Yan-Nan H., Peng-Fei N., Tai-Xin Y., Zhen-Wen Z. (2016): Comparing phenolic composition of Cabernet Gernischet wines between rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation. Czech J. Food Sci., 34: 254-270.
download PDF
The phenolic compounds of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet wine in 2010 and 2011 vintage from rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation were detected and compared by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation increased the total anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolic compound concentration. For the compositions, ratios of peonidin-derivative and malvidin-derivative pigments were similar in the two vintages, rain-shelter cultivation increased the proportion of these derivatives; ratios of delphinidin-derivative and petunidin-derivative pigments were different in the two vintages. In the wine of rain-shelter cultivation, the ratio of flavan-3-ol and hydroxybenzoic acids was increased, the ratio of flavonol was decreased and the composition of other compounds varied between the two vintages. To most of the phenolic compounds identified, their content in wine under rain-shelter cultivation was higher compared to those under open-field cultivation.
References:
Berli Federico J., Fanzone Martín, Piccoli Patricia, Bottini Rubén (2011): Solar UV-B and ABA Are Involved in Phenol Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Increasing Biosynthesis of Berry Skin Polyphenols. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 4874-4884  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf200040z
 
BOSS P.K., DAVIES C., ROBINSON S. P. (1996): Anthocyanin composition and anthocyanin pathway gene expression in grapevine sports differing in berry skin colour. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 2, 163-170  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0238.1996.tb00104.x
 
Boulton R. (2001): The copigmentation of anthocyanins and its role in the color of red wine: a critical review. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 52: 67–87.
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Sônego Olavo Roberto, Marodin Gilmar Arduíno Bettio, Bergamaschi Homero, Cardoso Loana Silveira (2007): Incidência de doenças e necessidade de controle em cultivo protegido de videira. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 29, 477-482  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452007000300014
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Felippeto João, Marodin Gilmar Arduíno Bettio, Bergamaschi Homero, Cardoso Loana Silveira, Fialho Flávio Bello (2008): Relações hídricas e trocas gasosas em vinhedo sob cobertura plástica. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 30, 1022-1029  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452008000400030
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Cardoso Loana Silveira, Bergamaschi Homero, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Mandelli Francisco, Marodin Gilmar Arduino Bettio (2009): Microclima de vinhedos sob cultivo protegido. Ciência Rural, 39, 2029-2034  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782009005000147
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Zanus Mauro Celso, Marodin Gilmar Arduíno Bettio, Zorzan Cristiano (2011): Cobertura plástica sobre o vinhedo e suas influências nas características físico-químicas do mosto e do vinho. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 33, 809-815  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452011005000093
 
Conceição M.A.F., Marin F.R. (2009): Microclimate conditions inside an irrigated vineyard covered with a plastic screen. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 31: 423–431.
 
Considine JA, Kriedemann PE (1972): Fruit splitting in grapes: Determination of the critical turgor pressure. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 23, 17-  https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9720017
 
Cortell Jessica M., Halbleib Michael, Gallagher Andrew V., Righetti Timothy L., Kennedy James A. (2007): Influence of Vine Vigor on Grape ( Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) Anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin Concentration and Composition in Fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 6575-6584  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf070195v
 
Cynkar Wieslawa, Cozzolino Daniel, Dambergs Robert G. (2009): The effect of sample storage and homogenisation techniques on the chemical composition and near infrared spectra of white grapes. Food Research International, 42, 653-658  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.02.002
 
de Freitas Victor, Mateus Nuno (2001): Structural Features of Procyanidin Interactions with Salivary Proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 940-945  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000981z
 
VILLIERS A, VANHOENACKER G, MAJEK P, SANDRA P (2004): Determination of anthocyanins in wine by direct injection liquid chromatography–diode array detection–mass spectrometry and classification of wines using discriminant analysis. Journal of Chromatography A, 1054, 195-204  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(04)01291-9
 
Fanizza G., Ricciardi L. (1991): The effect of vineyard overhead plastic sheet covering on some morphological and physiological characteristics in the table grape cv. Regina dei Vigneti (Vitis vinifera L.). Agricoltura Mediterranea, 121: 239–243.
 
Fanzone Martín, Zamora Fernando, Jofré Viviana, Assof Mariela, Gómez-Cordovés Carmen, Peña-Neira Álvaro (2012): Phenolic characterisation of red wines from different grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza province (Argentina). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92, 704-718  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4638
 
Ferrandino Alessandra, Guidoni Silvia (2010): Anthocyanins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamates: an attempt to use them to discriminate Vitis vinifera L. cv ‘Barbera’ clones. European Food Research and Technology, 230, 417-427  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1180-3
 
Garrido Jorge, Borges Fernanda (2011): Wine and grape polyphenols—A chemical perspective. Food Research International, 44, 3134-  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.11.001
 
GAWEL RICHARD (1998): Red wine astringency: a review. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 4, 74-95  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0238.1998.tb00137.x
 
GB/T15038 (2006): Ampeliology Analytical Methods of Wine and Fruit Wine. GB/T 15038; Beijing, China Standards Press: 2–23.
 
Gil M., Esteruelas M., González E., Kontoudakis N., Jiménez J., Fort F., Canals J. M., Hermosín-Gutiérrez I., Zamora F. (2013): Effect of Two Different Treatments for Reducing Grape Yield in Vitis vinifera cv Syrah on Wine Composition and Quality: Berry Thinning versus Cluster Thinning. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 4968-4978  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf400722z
 
Gladstones J. (2005): Climate and Australian viticulture. In: Dry P.R., Coombe B.G.: Viticulture. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. Adelaide, Winetitles: 90–118.
 
Han Fu-Liang, Zhang Wen-Na, Pan Qiu-Hong, Zheng Cheng-Rong, Chen Hai-Yan, Duan Chang-Qing (2008): Principal Component Regression Analysis of the Relation Between CIELAB Color and Monomeric Anthocyanins in Young Cabernet Sauvignon Wines. Molecules, 13, 2859-2870  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules13112859
 
He Jian-Jun, Liu Yan-Xia, Pan Qiu-Hong, Cui Xiang-Yun, Duan Chang-Qing (2010): Different Anthocyanin Profiles of the Skin and the Pulp of Yan73 (Muscat Hamburg × Alicante Bouschet) Grape Berries. Molecules, 15, 1141-1153  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15031141
 
He F., Liang N.N., Mu L., Pan Q.H., Wang J., Reeves M.J., Duan C.Q. (2012a): Anthocyanins and their variation in red wines I. Monomeric anthocyanins and their color expression. Molecules, 17: 1571–1601.
 
He F., Liang N.N., Mu L., Pan Q.H., Wang J., Reeves M.J., Duan C.Q. (2012b): Anthocyanins and their variation in red wines II. Anthocyanin derived pigments and their color evolution. Molecules, 17: 1483–1519.
 
He P.C. (1999): Ampeliology. Beijing, China Agriculture Press.
 
Hufnagel Jan Carlos, Hofmann Thomas (2008): Orosensory-Directed Identification of Astringent Mouthfeel and Bitter-Tasting Compounds in Red Wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 1376-1386  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf073031n
 
Kennedy James A (2008): Grape and wine phenolics: Observations and recent findings. Ciencia e investigación agraria, 35, -  https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-16202008000200001
 
Li Zheng, Pan Qiuhong, Jin Zanmin, Mu Lin, Duan Changqing (2011): Comparison on phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wines from five wine-growing regions in China. Food Chemistry, 125, 77-83  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.08.039
 
Makris Dimitris P., Kallithraka Stamatina, Kefalas Panagiotis (2006): Flavonols in grapes, grape products and wines: Burden, profile and influential parameters. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19, 396-404  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.10.003
 
Mattivi Fulvio, Guzzon Raffaele, Vrhovsek Urska, Stefanini Marco, Velasco Riccardo (2006): Metabolite Profiling of Grape:  Flavonols and Anthocyanins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 7692-7702  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061538c
 
Meng Jiang-Fei, Fang Yu-Lin, Qin Min-Yang, Zhuang Xi-Fu, Zhang Zhen-Wen (2012): Varietal differences among the phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of four cultivars of spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) in Chongyi County (China). Food Chemistry, 134, 2049-2056  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.005
 
Meng Jiang-Fei, Ning Peng-Fei, Xu Teng-Fei, Zhang Zhen-Wen (2013): Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases. Molecules, 18, 381-397  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18010381
 
Obreque-Slier Elías, Peña-Neira Álvaro, López-Solís Remigio, Zamora-Marín Fernando, Ricardo-da Silva Jorge M., Laureano Olga (2010): Comparative Study of the Phenolic Composition of Seeds and Skins from Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Varieties ( Vitis vinifera L.) during Ripening. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 3591-3599  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf904314u
 
OIV (2013): Statistical report on World vitiviniculture 2013. Available at http://www.oiv.int/oiv/cms/index?rubricId=44538631-7ad2-49cb-9710-ad5b957296c7/EN/Report.pdf (accessed May 15, 2013).
 
Pedro Júnior M.J., Hernandes J.L., Rolim G.D., Blain G.C. (2011): Microclimate and yield of ’Niagara Rosada’ grapevine grown in vertical upright trellis and” Y” shaped under permeable plastic cover overhead. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 33: 511–518.
 
Peleg Hanna, Gacon Karine, Schlich Pascal, Noble Ann C (1999): Bitterness and astringency of flavan-3-ol monomers, dimers and trimers. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79, 1123-1128  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199906)79:8<1123::AID-JSFA336>3.0.CO;2-D
 
Pena-Neira A., Caceres A., Pastenes C. (2007): Low Molecular Weight Phenolic and Anthocyanin Composition of Grape Skins from cv. Syrah (Vitis vinifera L.) in the Maipo Valley (Chile): Effect of Clusters Thinning and Vineyard Yield. Food Science and Technology International, 13, 153-158  https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013207077920
 
Puértolas Eduardo, Hernández-Orte Purificación, Sladaña Guillermo, Álvarez Ignacio, Raso Javier (2010): Improvement of winemaking process using pulsed electric fields at pilot-plant scale. Evolution of chromatic parameters and phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. Food Research International, 43, 761-766  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.11.005
 
Saiko P., Szakmary A., Jaeger W., Szekeres T. (2008): Resveratrol and its analogs: defense against cancer, coronary disease and neurodegenerative maladies or just a fad? Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research, 658: 68–94.
 
Tanaka Yoshikazu, Sasaki Nobuhiro, Ohmiya Akemi (2008): Biosynthesis of plant pigments: anthocyanins, betalains and carotenoids. The Plant Journal, 54, 733-749  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03447.x
 
. Serpil Gok Tangolar, . Semih Tangolar, . Hatice Blllr, . Gutekin Ozdemir, . Ali Sabir, . Bahri Cevlk (2007): The Effects of Different Irrigation Levels on Yield and Quality of Some Early Grape Cultivars Grown in Greenhouse. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 643-647  https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2007.643.647
 
Vitrac Xavier, Monti Jean-Pierre, Vercauteren Joseph, Deffieux Gérard, Mérillon Jean-Michel (2002): Direct liquid chromatographic analysis of resveratrol derivatives and flavanonols in wines with absorbance and fluorescence detection. Analytica Chimica Acta, 458, 103-110  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(01)01498-2
 
Zhu Lei, Zhang Yali, Deng Jiajin, Li Huirong, Lu Jiang (2012): Phenolic Concentrations and Antioxidant Properties of Wines Made from North American Grapes Grown in China. Molecules, 17, 3304-3323  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033304
 
Berli Federico J., Fanzone Martín, Piccoli Patricia, Bottini Rubén (2011): Solar UV-B and ABA Are Involved in Phenol Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Increasing Biosynthesis of Berry Skin Polyphenols. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 4874-4884  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf200040z
 
BOSS P.K., DAVIES C., ROBINSON S. P. (1996): Anthocyanin composition and anthocyanin pathway gene expression in grapevine sports differing in berry skin colour. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 2, 163-170  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0238.1996.tb00104.x
 
Boulton R. (2001): The copigmentation of anthocyanins and its role in the color of red wine: a critical review. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 52: 67–87.
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Sônego Olavo Roberto, Marodin Gilmar Arduíno Bettio, Bergamaschi Homero, Cardoso Loana Silveira (2007): Incidência de doenças e necessidade de controle em cultivo protegido de videira. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 29, 477-482  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452007000300014
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Felippeto João, Marodin Gilmar Arduíno Bettio, Bergamaschi Homero, Cardoso Loana Silveira, Fialho Flávio Bello (2008): Relações hídricas e trocas gasosas em vinhedo sob cobertura plástica. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 30, 1022-1029  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452008000400030
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Cardoso Loana Silveira, Bergamaschi Homero, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Mandelli Francisco, Marodin Gilmar Arduino Bettio (2009): Microclima de vinhedos sob cultivo protegido. Ciência Rural, 39, 2029-2034  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782009005000147
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Zanus Mauro Celso, Marodin Gilmar Arduíno Bettio, Zorzan Cristiano (2011): Cobertura plástica sobre o vinhedo e suas influências nas características físico-químicas do mosto e do vinho. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 33, 809-815  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452011005000093
 
Conceição M.A.F., Marin F.R. (2009): Microclimate conditions inside an irrigated vineyard covered with a plastic screen. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 31: 423–431.
 
Considine JA, Kriedemann PE (1972): Fruit splitting in grapes: Determination of the critical turgor pressure. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 23, 17-  https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9720017
 
Cortell Jessica M., Halbleib Michael, Gallagher Andrew V., Righetti Timothy L., Kennedy James A. (2007): Influence of Vine Vigor on Grape ( Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) Anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin Concentration and Composition in Fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 6575-6584  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf070195v
 
Cynkar Wieslawa, Cozzolino Daniel, Dambergs Robert G. (2009): The effect of sample storage and homogenisation techniques on the chemical composition and near infrared spectra of white grapes. Food Research International, 42, 653-658  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.02.002
 
de Freitas Victor, Mateus Nuno (2001): Structural Features of Procyanidin Interactions with Salivary Proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 940-945  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000981z
 
VILLIERS A, VANHOENACKER G, MAJEK P, SANDRA P (2004): Determination of anthocyanins in wine by direct injection liquid chromatography–diode array detection–mass spectrometry and classification of wines using discriminant analysis. Journal of Chromatography A, 1054, 195-204  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(04)01291-9
 
Fanizza G., Ricciardi L. (1991): The effect of vineyard overhead plastic sheet covering on some morphological and physiological characteristics in the table grape cv. Regina dei Vigneti (Vitis vinifera L.). Agricoltura Mediterranea, 121: 239–243.
 
Fanzone Martín, Zamora Fernando, Jofré Viviana, Assof Mariela, Gómez-Cordovés Carmen, Peña-Neira Álvaro (2012): Phenolic characterisation of red wines from different grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza province (Argentina). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92, 704-718  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4638
 
Ferrandino Alessandra, Guidoni Silvia (2010): Anthocyanins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamates: an attempt to use them to discriminate Vitis vinifera L. cv ‘Barbera’ clones. European Food Research and Technology, 230, 417-427  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1180-3
 
Garrido Jorge, Borges Fernanda (2011): Wine and grape polyphenols—A chemical perspective. Food Research International, 44, 3134-  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.11.001
 
GAWEL RICHARD (1998): Red wine astringency: a review. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 4, 74-95  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0238.1998.tb00137.x
 
GB/T15038 (2006): Ampeliology Analytical Methods of Wine and Fruit Wine. GB/T 15038; Beijing, China Standards Press: 2–23.
 
Gil M., Esteruelas M., González E., Kontoudakis N., Jiménez J., Fort F., Canals J. M., Hermosín-Gutiérrez I., Zamora F. (2013): Effect of Two Different Treatments for Reducing Grape Yield in Vitis vinifera cv Syrah on Wine Composition and Quality: Berry Thinning versus Cluster Thinning. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 4968-4978  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf400722z
 
Gladstones J. (2005): Climate and Australian viticulture. In: Dry P.R., Coombe B.G.: Viticulture. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. Adelaide, Winetitles: 90–118.
 
Han Fu-Liang, Zhang Wen-Na, Pan Qiu-Hong, Zheng Cheng-Rong, Chen Hai-Yan, Duan Chang-Qing (2008): Principal Component Regression Analysis of the Relation Between CIELAB Color and Monomeric Anthocyanins in Young Cabernet Sauvignon Wines. Molecules, 13, 2859-2870  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules13112859
 
He Jian-Jun, Liu Yan-Xia, Pan Qiu-Hong, Cui Xiang-Yun, Duan Chang-Qing (2010): Different Anthocyanin Profiles of the Skin and the Pulp of Yan73 (Muscat Hamburg × Alicante Bouschet) Grape Berries. Molecules, 15, 1141-1153  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15031141
 
He F., Liang N.N., Mu L., Pan Q.H., Wang J., Reeves M.J., Duan C.Q. (2012a): Anthocyanins and their variation in red wines I. Monomeric anthocyanins and their color expression. Molecules, 17: 1571–1601.
 
He F., Liang N.N., Mu L., Pan Q.H., Wang J., Reeves M.J., Duan C.Q. (2012b): Anthocyanins and their variation in red wines II. Anthocyanin derived pigments and their color evolution. Molecules, 17: 1483–1519.
 
He P.C. (1999): Ampeliology. Beijing, China Agriculture Press.
 
Hufnagel Jan Carlos, Hofmann Thomas (2008): Orosensory-Directed Identification of Astringent Mouthfeel and Bitter-Tasting Compounds in Red Wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 1376-1386  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf073031n
 
Kennedy James A (2008): Grape and wine phenolics: Observations and recent findings. Ciencia e investigación agraria, 35, -  https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-16202008000200001
 
Li Zheng, Pan Qiuhong, Jin Zanmin, Mu Lin, Duan Changqing (2011): Comparison on phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wines from five wine-growing regions in China. Food Chemistry, 125, 77-83  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.08.039
 
Makris Dimitris P., Kallithraka Stamatina, Kefalas Panagiotis (2006): Flavonols in grapes, grape products and wines: Burden, profile and influential parameters. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19, 396-404  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.10.003
 
Mattivi Fulvio, Guzzon Raffaele, Vrhovsek Urska, Stefanini Marco, Velasco Riccardo (2006): Metabolite Profiling of Grape:  Flavonols and Anthocyanins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 7692-7702  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061538c
 
Meng Jiang-Fei, Fang Yu-Lin, Qin Min-Yang, Zhuang Xi-Fu, Zhang Zhen-Wen (2012): Varietal differences among the phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of four cultivars of spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) in Chongyi County (China). Food Chemistry, 134, 2049-2056  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.005
 
Meng Jiang-Fei, Ning Peng-Fei, Xu Teng-Fei, Zhang Zhen-Wen (2013): Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases. Molecules, 18, 381-397  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18010381
 
Obreque-Slier Elías, Peña-Neira Álvaro, López-Solís Remigio, Zamora-Marín Fernando, Ricardo-da Silva Jorge M., Laureano Olga (2010): Comparative Study of the Phenolic Composition of Seeds and Skins from Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Varieties ( Vitis vinifera L.) during Ripening. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 3591-3599  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf904314u
 
OIV (2013): Statistical report on World vitiviniculture 2013. Available at http://www.oiv.int/oiv/cms/index?rubricId=44538631-7ad2-49cb-9710-ad5b957296c7/EN/Report.pdf (accessed May 15, 2013).
 
Pedro Júnior M.J., Hernandes J.L., Rolim G.D., Blain G.C. (2011): Microclimate and yield of ’Niagara Rosada’ grapevine grown in vertical upright trellis and” Y” shaped under permeable plastic cover overhead. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 33: 511–518.
 
Peleg Hanna, Gacon Karine, Schlich Pascal, Noble Ann C (1999): Bitterness and astringency of flavan-3-ol monomers, dimers and trimers. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79, 1123-1128  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199906)79:8<1123::AID-JSFA336>3.0.CO;2-D
 
Pena-Neira A., Caceres A., Pastenes C. (2007): Low Molecular Weight Phenolic and Anthocyanin Composition of Grape Skins from cv. Syrah (Vitis vinifera L.) in the Maipo Valley (Chile): Effect of Clusters Thinning and Vineyard Yield. Food Science and Technology International, 13, 153-158  https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013207077920
 
Puértolas Eduardo, Hernández-Orte Purificación, Sladaña Guillermo, Álvarez Ignacio, Raso Javier (2010): Improvement of winemaking process using pulsed electric fields at pilot-plant scale. Evolution of chromatic parameters and phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. Food Research International, 43, 761-766  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.11.005
 
Saiko P., Szakmary A., Jaeger W., Szekeres T. (2008): Resveratrol and its analogs: defense against cancer, coronary disease and neurodegenerative maladies or just a fad? Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research, 658: 68–94.
 
Tanaka Yoshikazu, Sasaki Nobuhiro, Ohmiya Akemi (2008): Biosynthesis of plant pigments: anthocyanins, betalains and carotenoids. The Plant Journal, 54, 733-749  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03447.x
 
. Serpil Gok Tangolar, . Semih Tangolar, . Hatice Blllr, . Gutekin Ozdemir, . Ali Sabir, . Bahri Cevlk (2007): The Effects of Different Irrigation Levels on Yield and Quality of Some Early Grape Cultivars Grown in Greenhouse. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 643-647  https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2007.643.647
 
Vitrac Xavier, Monti Jean-Pierre, Vercauteren Joseph, Deffieux Gérard, Mérillon Jean-Michel (2002): Direct liquid chromatographic analysis of resveratrol derivatives and flavanonols in wines with absorbance and fluorescence detection. Analytica Chimica Acta, 458, 103-110  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(01)01498-2
 
Zhu Lei, Zhang Yali, Deng Jiajin, Li Huirong, Lu Jiang (2012): Phenolic Concentrations and Antioxidant Properties of Wines Made from North American Grapes Grown in China. Molecules, 17, 3304-3323  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033304
 
Berli Federico J., Fanzone Martín, Piccoli Patricia, Bottini Rubén (2011): Solar UV-B and ABA Are Involved in Phenol Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Increasing Biosynthesis of Berry Skin Polyphenols. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 4874-4884  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf200040z
 
BOSS P.K., DAVIES C., ROBINSON S. P. (1996): Anthocyanin composition and anthocyanin pathway gene expression in grapevine sports differing in berry skin colour. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 2, 163-170  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0238.1996.tb00104.x
 
Boulton R. (2001): The copigmentation of anthocyanins and its role in the color of red wine: a critical review. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 52: 67–87.
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Sônego Olavo Roberto, Marodin Gilmar Arduíno Bettio, Bergamaschi Homero, Cardoso Loana Silveira (2007): Incidência de doenças e necessidade de controle em cultivo protegido de videira. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 29, 477-482  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452007000300014
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Felippeto João, Marodin Gilmar Arduíno Bettio, Bergamaschi Homero, Cardoso Loana Silveira, Fialho Flávio Bello (2008): Relações hídricas e trocas gasosas em vinhedo sob cobertura plástica. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 30, 1022-1029  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452008000400030
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Cardoso Loana Silveira, Bergamaschi Homero, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Mandelli Francisco, Marodin Gilmar Arduino Bettio (2009): Microclima de vinhedos sob cultivo protegido. Ciência Rural, 39, 2029-2034  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782009005000147
 
Chavarria Geraldo, Santos Henrique Pessoa dos, Zanus Mauro Celso, Marodin Gilmar Arduíno Bettio, Zorzan Cristiano (2011): Cobertura plástica sobre o vinhedo e suas influências nas características físico-químicas do mosto e do vinho. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 33, 809-815  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452011005000093
 
Conceição M.A.F., Marin F.R. (2009): Microclimate conditions inside an irrigated vineyard covered with a plastic screen. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 31: 423–431.
 
Considine JA, Kriedemann PE (1972): Fruit splitting in grapes: Determination of the critical turgor pressure. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 23, 17-  https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9720017
 
Cortell Jessica M., Halbleib Michael, Gallagher Andrew V., Righetti Timothy L., Kennedy James A. (2007): Influence of Vine Vigor on Grape ( Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) Anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin Concentration and Composition in Fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 6575-6584  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf070195v
 
Cynkar Wieslawa, Cozzolino Daniel, Dambergs Robert G. (2009): The effect of sample storage and homogenisation techniques on the chemical composition and near infrared spectra of white grapes. Food Research International, 42, 653-658  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.02.002
 
de Freitas Victor, Mateus Nuno (2001): Structural Features of Procyanidin Interactions with Salivary Proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 940-945  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000981z
 
VILLIERS A, VANHOENACKER G, MAJEK P, SANDRA P (2004): Determination of anthocyanins in wine by direct injection liquid chromatography–diode array detection–mass spectrometry and classification of wines using discriminant analysis. Journal of Chromatography A, 1054, 195-204  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(04)01291-9
 
Fanizza G., Ricciardi L. (1991): The effect of vineyard overhead plastic sheet covering on some morphological and physiological characteristics in the table grape cv. Regina dei Vigneti (Vitis vinifera L.). Agricoltura Mediterranea, 121: 239–243.
 
Fanzone Martín, Zamora Fernando, Jofré Viviana, Assof Mariela, Gómez-Cordovés Carmen, Peña-Neira Álvaro (2012): Phenolic characterisation of red wines from different grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza province (Argentina). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92, 704-718  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4638
 
Ferrandino Alessandra, Guidoni Silvia (2010): Anthocyanins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamates: an attempt to use them to discriminate Vitis vinifera L. cv ‘Barbera’ clones. European Food Research and Technology, 230, 417-427  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1180-3
 
Garrido Jorge, Borges Fernanda (2011): Wine and grape polyphenols—A chemical perspective. Food Research International, 44, 3134-  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.11.001
 
GAWEL RICHARD (1998): Red wine astringency: a review. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 4, 74-95  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0238.1998.tb00137.x
 
GB/T15038 (2006): Ampeliology Analytical Methods of Wine and Fruit Wine. GB/T 15038; Beijing, China Standards Press: 2–23.
 
Gil M., Esteruelas M., González E., Kontoudakis N., Jiménez J., Fort F., Canals J. M., Hermosín-Gutiérrez I., Zamora F. (2013): Effect of Two Different Treatments for Reducing Grape Yield in Vitis vinifera cv Syrah on Wine Composition and Quality: Berry Thinning versus Cluster Thinning. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 4968-4978  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf400722z
 
Gladstones J. (2005): Climate and Australian viticulture. In: Dry P.R., Coombe B.G.: Viticulture. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. Adelaide, Winetitles: 90–118.
 
Han Fu-Liang, Zhang Wen-Na, Pan Qiu-Hong, Zheng Cheng-Rong, Chen Hai-Yan, Duan Chang-Qing (2008): Principal Component Regression Analysis of the Relation Between CIELAB Color and Monomeric Anthocyanins in Young Cabernet Sauvignon Wines. Molecules, 13, 2859-2870  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules13112859
 
He Jian-Jun, Liu Yan-Xia, Pan Qiu-Hong, Cui Xiang-Yun, Duan Chang-Qing (2010): Different Anthocyanin Profiles of the Skin and the Pulp of Yan73 (Muscat Hamburg × Alicante Bouschet) Grape Berries. Molecules, 15, 1141-1153  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15031141
 
He F., Liang N.N., Mu L., Pan Q.H., Wang J., Reeves M.J., Duan C.Q. (2012a): Anthocyanins and their variation in red wines I. Monomeric anthocyanins and their color expression. Molecules, 17: 1571–1601.
 
He F., Liang N.N., Mu L., Pan Q.H., Wang J., Reeves M.J., Duan C.Q. (2012b): Anthocyanins and their variation in red wines II. Anthocyanin derived pigments and their color evolution. Molecules, 17: 1483–1519.
 
He P.C. (1999): Ampeliology. Beijing, China Agriculture Press.
 
Hufnagel Jan Carlos, Hofmann Thomas (2008): Orosensory-Directed Identification of Astringent Mouthfeel and Bitter-Tasting Compounds in Red Wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 1376-1386  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf073031n
 
Kennedy James A (2008): Grape and wine phenolics: Observations and recent findings. Ciencia e investigación agraria, 35, -  https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-16202008000200001
 
Li Zheng, Pan Qiuhong, Jin Zanmin, Mu Lin, Duan Changqing (2011): Comparison on phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wines from five wine-growing regions in China. Food Chemistry, 125, 77-83  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.08.039
 
Makris Dimitris P., Kallithraka Stamatina, Kefalas Panagiotis (2006): Flavonols in grapes, grape products and wines: Burden, profile and influential parameters. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19, 396-404  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.10.003
 
Mattivi Fulvio, Guzzon Raffaele, Vrhovsek Urska, Stefanini Marco, Velasco Riccardo (2006): Metabolite Profiling of Grape:  Flavonols and Anthocyanins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 7692-7702  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061538c
 
Meng Jiang-Fei, Fang Yu-Lin, Qin Min-Yang, Zhuang Xi-Fu, Zhang Zhen-Wen (2012): Varietal differences among the phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of four cultivars of spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) in Chongyi County (China). Food Chemistry, 134, 2049-2056  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.005
 
Meng Jiang-Fei, Ning Peng-Fei, Xu Teng-Fei, Zhang Zhen-Wen (2013): Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases. Molecules, 18, 381-397  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18010381
 
Obreque-Slier Elías, Peña-Neira Álvaro, López-Solís Remigio, Zamora-Marín Fernando, Ricardo-da Silva Jorge M., Laureano Olga (2010): Comparative Study of the Phenolic Composition of Seeds and Skins from Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Varieties ( Vitis vinifera L.) during Ripening. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 3591-3599  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf904314u
 
OIV (2013): Statistical report on World vitiviniculture 2013. Available at http://www.oiv.int/oiv/cms/index?rubricId=44538631-7ad2-49cb-9710-ad5b957296c7/EN/Report.pdf (accessed May 15, 2013).
 
Pedro Júnior M.J., Hernandes J.L., Rolim G.D., Blain G.C. (2011): Microclimate and yield of ’Niagara Rosada’ grapevine grown in vertical upright trellis and” Y” shaped under permeable plastic cover overhead. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 33: 511–518.
 
Peleg Hanna, Gacon Karine, Schlich Pascal, Noble Ann C (1999): Bitterness and astringency of flavan-3-ol monomers, dimers and trimers. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79, 1123-1128  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199906)79:8<1123::AID-JSFA336>3.0.CO;2-D
 
Pena-Neira A., Caceres A., Pastenes C. (2007): Low Molecular Weight Phenolic and Anthocyanin Composition of Grape Skins from cv. Syrah (Vitis vinifera L.) in the Maipo Valley (Chile): Effect of Clusters Thinning and Vineyard Yield. Food Science and Technology International, 13, 153-158  https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013207077920
 
Puértolas Eduardo, Hernández-Orte Purificación, Sladaña Guillermo, Álvarez Ignacio, Raso Javier (2010): Improvement of winemaking process using pulsed electric fields at pilot-plant scale. Evolution of chromatic parameters and phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. Food Research International, 43, 761-766  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.11.005
 
Saiko P., Szakmary A., Jaeger W., Szekeres T. (2008): Resveratrol and its analogs: defense against cancer, coronary disease and neurodegenerative maladies or just a fad? Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research, 658: 68–94.
 
Tanaka Yoshikazu, Sasaki Nobuhiro, Ohmiya Akemi (2008): Biosynthesis of plant pigments: anthocyanins, betalains and carotenoids. The Plant Journal, 54, 733-749  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03447.x
 
. Serpil Gok Tangolar, . Semih Tangolar, . Hatice Blllr, . Gutekin Ozdemir, . Ali Sabir, . Bahri Cevlk (2007): The Effects of Different Irrigation Levels on Yield and Quality of Some Early Grape Cultivars Grown in Greenhouse. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 643-647  https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2007.643.647
 
Vitrac Xavier, Monti Jean-Pierre, Vercauteren Joseph, Deffieux Gérard, Mérillon Jean-Michel (2002): Direct liquid chromatographic analysis of resveratrol derivatives and flavanonols in wines with absorbance and fluorescence detection. Analytica Chimica Acta, 458, 103-110  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(01)01498-2
 
Zhu Lei, Zhang Yali, Deng Jiajin, Li Huirong, Lu Jiang (2012): Phenolic Concentrations and Antioxidant Properties of Wines Made from North American Grapes Grown in China. Molecules, 17, 3304-3323  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17033304
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences