Determination of fluoride in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) using ion chromatography and its pretreatments selection
Y.-L. Zhao, L.-L. Zhu, Y. Sun, D.-Q. Zhouhttps://doi.org/10.17221/498/2013-CJFSCitation:Zhao Y.-., Zhu L.-., Sun Y., Zhou D.-. (2015): Determination of fluoride in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) using ion chromatography and its pretreatments selection. Czech J. Food Sci., 33: 77-82.
A rapid, sensitive and reliable method to quantify fluoride in Antarctic krill has been established. Four different pretreatment methods were used for the extraction of fluoride: double-deionised water extraction, sulphuric acid distillation, hydrochloric acid extraction, and pH adjustment with buffer after hydrochloric acid extraction. Four methods of comparative analysis revealed that sulphuric acid distillation was suitable preparation for ion chromatography determination of fluoride in Antarctic krill (fluoride content 288.7 ± 10.2 mg/kg). The method was partially validated in linearity, accuracy, and precision. The linear range was from 0.1 to 10.0 mg/l with the regression coefficient of 0.99998. The accuracy expressed as the recoveries of standard addition ranged from 95.3% to 101.3%, the relative standard deviation (n = 8) was 1.8–1.9%. With this method, the 3σ limit of detection was 0.06 mg/l of fluoride in Antarctic krill. Our results indicate that the method (limit of quantification 0.2 mg/l) could be well applied for the determination of fluoride in Antarctic krill.Keywords:fluoride in krill; fluoride quantification; extraction methods; preparationsReferences:
APKA V (2004): Determination of total fluorine in blood at trace concentration levels by the Wickbold decomposition method with direct potentiometric detection. Talanta, 64, 869-878 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2004.03.066Chen Y.C., Tou J.C., Jaczynski J. (2009): Amino acid and mineral composition of protein and other components and their recovery yields from whole Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation. Journal of Food Science, 74: H31–H39.Chiba Koichi., Yoshida Kazuo., Tanabe Kiyoshi., Ozaki Masanao., Haraguchi Hiroki., Winefordner J. D., Fuwa Keiichiro. (1982): Determination of ultratrace levels of fluorine in water and urine samples by a gas chromatographic/atmospheric pressure helium microwave induced plasma emission spectrometric system. Analytical Chemistry, 54, 761-764 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00241a036Sousa Maria Luz R., Marcenes Wagner, Sheiham Aubrey (2002): Caries reductions related to the use of fluorides: A retrospective cohort study. International Dental Journal, 52, 315-320 https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1875-595X.2002.tb00877.xFDA (2012): Whole fish protein concentrate. Code of Federal Regulations. 21 CFR 172.385.Frant M. S., Ross J. W. (1966): Electrode for Sensing Fluoride Ion Activity in Solution. Science, 154, 1553-1555 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.154.3756.1553Hansen Jon Øvrum, Shearer Karl Douglas, Øverland Margareth, Storebakken Trond (2011): Dietary calcium supplementation reduces the bioavailability of fluoride from krill shell and NaF in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in fresh water. Aquaculture, 318, 85-89 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.03.030Haldimann M., Zimmerli B. (1993): Evaluation of ashing procedures for the gas chromatographic determination of flouride in biological material. Analytica Chimica Acta, 282, 589-601 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2670(93)80124-4Jeyakumar S., Raut Vaibhavi V., Ramakumar K.L. (2008): Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of borate, chloride and fluoride in nuclear fuels employing ion chromatography (IC) after their extraction by pyrohydrolysis. Talanta, 76, 1246-1251 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2008.05.039Jung Hae Rim, Kim Min-A, Seo Yong-Soo, Lee Yang-Bong, Chun Byung-Soo, Kim Seon-Bong (2013): Decreasing effect of fluoride content in Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba ) by chemical treatments. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 48, 1252-1259 https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12084Khalifa M (): Spectrophotometric and complexometric methods for the determination of thorium and fluoride using bromocresol orange reagent. Talanta, 47, 547-559 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(98)00078-2Koch Matthias, Köppen Robert, Siegel David, Witt Angelika, Nehls Irene (2010): Determination of Total Sulfite in Wine by Ion Chromatography after In-Sample Oxidation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 9463-9467 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf102086xLam A., Chu C.H. (2012): Caries management with fluoride agents. The New York State Dental Journal, 78: 29–36.Lefler J. E., Ivey M. M. (2011): Ion Chromatography Detection of Fluoride in Calcium Carbonate. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 49, 582-588 https://doi.org/10.1093/chrsci/49.8.582Lipka Robert, Sobczak Marta, Kuś Stanisław, Oszwałdowski Sławomir, Jarosz Maciej (2000): Determination of fluoride impurities in Leuprolide. Comparison of analytical methods. Microchemical Journal, 65, 51-58 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0026-265X(00)00028-XLópez-Ruiz B (2000): Advances in the determination of inorganic anions by ion chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 881, 607-627 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00244-2Miyake Yuichi, Yamashita Nobuyoshi, Rostkowski Pawel, So Man Ka, Taniyasu Sachi, Lam Paul K.S., Kannan Kurunthachalam (2007): Determination of trace levels of total fluorine in water using combustion ion chromatography for fluorine: A mass balance approach to determine individual perfluorinated chemicals in water. Journal of Chromatography A, 1143, 98-104 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2006.12.071Musijowski Jacek, Szostek Bogdan, Koc Mariusz, Trojanowicz Marek (2010): Determination of fluoride as fluorosilane derivative using reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection for determination of total organic fluorine. Journal of Separation Science, 33, 2636-2644 https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201000179Parker Robert W. R., Tyedmers Peter H. (2012): Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Three Products Derived from Wild-Caught Antarctic Krill ( Euphausia superba ). Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 4958-4965 https://doi.org/10.1021/es2040703Pereira C.F. (1992): Application of ion chromatography to the determination of inorganic anions in food stuffs. Journal of Chromatography A, 624: 457–470.Ponikvar Maja, Stibilj Vekoslava, Žemva Boris (2007): Daily dietary intake of fluoride by Slovenian Military based on analysis of total fluorine in total diet samples using fluoride ion selective electrode. Food Chemistry, 103, 369-374 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.07.032Potter Jeffrey J., Hilliker Audrey E., Breen Geoffrey J. (1986): Determination of fluoride and monofluorophosphate in toothpastes by ion chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 367, 423-427 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)94864-7Rocha-Amador D., Navarro M.E., Carrizales L., Morales R., Calderón J. (2007): Decreased intelligencebe in children and exposure to fluoride and arsenic in drinking water. Cadernos De Saúde Pública, 23: S579–S587.Sands M., Nicol S., McMinn A. (1998): Fluoride in Antarctic marine crustaceans. Marine Biology, 132, 591-598 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002270050424Suzuki Taneko, Shibata Nobukazu (1990): The utilization of Antarctic krill for human food. Food Reviews International, 6, 119-147 https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129009540863Wang Lingzhao, Xue Changhu, Wang Yuming, Yang Bao (2011): Extraction of Proteins with Low Fluoride Level from Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) and Their Composition Analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6108-6112 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf201009tXie Cheng Liang, Kim Han Soo, Shim Kil Bo, Kim Yeon Kye, Yoon Na Yeong, Kim Poong Ho, Yoon Ho Dong (2012): Organic Acid Extraction of Fluoride from Antarctic Krill Euphausia superba. Fisheries and aquatic sciences, 15, 203-207 https://doi.org/10.5657/FAS.2012.0203