Pigments of higher fungi – a review
J. Velíšek, K. Cejpekhttps://doi.org/10.17221/524/2010-CJFSCitation:Velíšek J., Cejpek K. (2011): Pigments of higher fungi – a review. Czech J. Food Sci., 29: 87-102.
This review surveys the literature dealing with the structure of pigments produced by fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota and also covers their significant colourless precursors that are arranged according to their biochemical origin to the shikimate, polyketide and terpenoid derived compounds. The main groups of pigments and their leucoforms include simple benzoquinones, terphenylquinones, pulvinic acids, and derived products, anthraquinones, terpenoid quinones, benzotropolones, compounds of fatty acid origin and nitrogen-containing pigments (betalains and other alkaloids). Out of three orders proposed, the concern is only focused on the orders Agaricales and Boletales and the taxonomic groups (incertae sedis) Cantharellales, Hymenochaetales, Polyporales, Russulales, and Telephorales that cover most of the so called higher fungi often referred to as mushrooms. Included are only the European species that have generated scientific interest due to their attractive colours, taxonomic importance and distinct biological activity.Keywords:
higher fungi; Basidiomycota; mushroom pigments; mushroom colour; pigment precursors