Effect of microwave technology on some quality parameters and sensory attributes of black tea
Ayşe Karadağ, Nazmiye Avci, Kadriye Nur Kasapoğlu, Beraat Özçelikhttps://doi.org/10.17221/5/2016-CJFSCitation:Karadağ A., Avci N., Nur Kasapoğlu K., Özçelik B. (2016): Effect of microwave technology on some quality parameters and sensory attributes of black tea. Czech J. Food Sci., 34: 397-405.
Although the quality of black tea mainly depends on the constituents and conditions of raw material, the manufacturing process also plays a significant role in obtaining high quality tea products. In this study, microwave technology is used for black tea production in withering and drying steps to increase its quality characteristics. Total polyphenols, theaflavin (TF), total thearubigins (TR), liquor brightness, and total colour were measured by spectrophotometric methods. Total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method. Microwaved black teas showed higher amounts of quality constituents with similar phenolic contents and antioxidant activities compared to commercial Turkish teas. The plucking season was also found to have an effect on these constituents of black teas. Generally, microvawed black teas have higher spectrophotometric brightness and lower total colour values. The analytical and sensory results showed that using a microwave dryer during the black tea process is highly acceptable in respect to these quality parameters when compared with other commercial black teas obtained from the markets in Turkey and other countries.Keywords:
hot drink; microwave drying; polyphenols; antioxidant activity; quality characteristics; sensory analysisReferences:
Alasalvar Cesarettin, Pelvan Ebru, Özdemir Kübra Sultan, Kocadağlı Tolgahan, Mogol Burçe Ataç, Paslı Ayça Ayfer, Özcan Nihat, Özçelik Beraat, Gökmen Vural (2013): Compositional, Nutritional, and Functional Characteristics of Instant Teas Produced from Low- and High-Quality Black Teas. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 7529-7536 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf4015137Apak Reşat, Gorinstein Shela, Böhm Volker, Schaich Karen M., Özyürek Mustafa, Güçlü Kubilay (2013): Methods of measurement and evaluation of natural antioxidant capacity/activity (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 85, - https://doi.org/10.1351/PAC-REP-12-07-15ATOUI A (2005): Tea and herbal infusions: Their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. Food Chemistry, 89, 27-36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.01.075Baruah Ananta Madhab, Mahanta Pradip Kumar (2003): Fermentation Characteristics of Some Assamica Clones and Process Optimization of Black Tea Manufacturing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 6578-6588 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030019wBramati Lorenzo, Aquilano Francesca, Pietta Piergiorgio (2003): Unfermented Rooibos Tea: Quantitative Characterization of Flavonoids by HPLC−UV and Determination of the Total Antioxidant Activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 7472-7474 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0347721Brand-Williams W., Cuvelier M.E., Berset C. (1995): Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 28, 25-30 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5Büyükbalci Aynur, El Sedef Nehir (2008): Determination of In Vitro Antidiabetic Effects, Antioxidant Activities and Phenol Contents of Some Herbal Teas. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 63, 27-33 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-007-0065-5Carloni Patricia, Tiano Luca, Padella Lucia, Bacchetti Tiziana, Customu Chisomo, Kay Alexander, Damiani Elisabetta (2013): Antioxidant activity of white, green and black tea obtained from the same tea cultivar. Food Research International, 53, 900-908 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.07.057de Carvalho Rodrigues Vanessa, da Silva Marcos V., dos Santos Adriele R., Zielinski Acácio A. F., Haminiuk Charles W. I. (2015): Evaluation of hot and cold extraction of bioactive compounds in teas. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 50, 2038-2045 https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12858Cloughley John B. (1980): The effect of fermentation temperature on the quality parameters and price evaluation of Central African black teas. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 31, 911-919 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740310908Dong Juane, Ma Xihan, Fu Zhuorui, Guo Ying (2011): Effects of microwave drying on the contents of functional constituents of Eucommia ulmoides flower tea. Industrial Crops and Products, 34, 1102-1110 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.03.026FAO (2014): FAOSTAT – Tea Production 2012. Rome, FAO.Hilton P.J. (1973): Tea. In: Snell F.D., Ettre L.S. (eds): Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemical Analysis. New York, John Wiley: 455–516.Hilton P. J., Ellis R. T. (1972): Estimation of the market value of Central African tea by theaflavin analysis. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 23, 227-232 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740230210Hu Qiuhui, Xu Jaun, Pan Genxing (2001): Effect of selenium spraying on green tea quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81, 1387-1390 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.952Huang Yuanyuan, Sheng Jianchun, Yang Fangmei, Hu QiuHui (2007): Effect of enzyme inactivation by microwave and oven heating on preservation quality of green tea. Journal of Food Engineering, 78, 687-692 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.11.007Kacar B. (1987): Fermentasyon. In: Cayın Biyokimyası ve Işleme Teknolojisi. Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü- Rize ’Çaykur Yayını, No. 6: 134–160.Karadag Ayse, Ozcelik Beraat, Saner Samim (2009): Review of Methods to Determine Antioxidant Capacities. Food Analytical Methods, 2, 41-60 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-008-9067-7Khokhar S., Magnusdottir S. G. M. (2002): Total Phenol, Catechin, and Caffeine Contents of Teas Commonly Consumed in the United Kingdom. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 565-570 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010153lLiang Yuerong, Lu Jianliang, Zhang Lingyun, Wu Shan, Wu Ying (2003): Estimation of black tea quality by analysis of chemical composition and colour difference of tea infusions. Food Chemistry, 80, 283-290 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00415-6Nowak Dariusz, Gośliński Michał, Wojtowicz Elżbieta (2015): Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Fruit Juices and Nectars: Chokeberry Juice as a Rich Source of Polyphenols. International Journal of Food Properties, 19, 1317-1324 https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2015.1063068Obanda Martin, Okinda Owuor P, Mang'oka Richard (2001): Changes in the chemical and sensory quality parameters of black tea due to variations of fermentation time and temperature. Food Chemistry, 75, 395-404 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00223-0Owuor P.Okinda, Obanda Martin (2001): Comparative responses in plain black tea quality parameters of different tea clones to fermentation temperature and duration. Food Chemistry, 72, 319-327 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00232-6Ozcelik B., Lee J.H., Min D.B. (2003): Effects of Light, Oxygen, and pH on the Absorbance of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Journal of Food Science, 68, 487-490 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb05699.xRavichandran Ramaswamy, Parthiban Ramaswamy (1998): The impact of mechanization of tea harvesting on the quality of south indian CTC teas. Food Chemistry, 63, 61-64 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00219-7Robertson Alastair (1983): Effects of physical and chemical conditions on the in vitro oxidation of tea leaf catechins. Phytochemistry, 22, 889-896 https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(83)85017-1Roberts E. A. H., Smith R. F. (1963): The phenolic substances of manufactured tea. IX.—the spectrophotometric evaluation of tea liquors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 14, 689-700 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740141002Shahidi F. (2000): Antioxidants in food and food antioxidants. Nahrung/Food, 44, 158-163 https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3803(20000501)44:3<158::AID-FOOD158>3.0.CO;2-LSingleton V.L., Rossi J.A. (1965): Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16: 144–158.Temple S.J, Temple C.M, Boxtel A.J.B van, Clifford M.N (2001): The effect of drying on black tea quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81, 764-772 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.881Tsubaki Shuntaro, Iida Hiroyuki, Sakamoto Masahiro, Azuma Jun-ichi (2008): Microwave Heating of Tea Residue Yields Polysaccharides, Polyphenols, and Plant Biopolyester. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 11293-11299 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf802253sTüfekci Mehmet, Güner Saadettin (1997): The determination of optimum fermentation time in Turkish black tea manufacture. Food Chemistry, 60, 53-56 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00302-0TURKMEN N, SARI F, VELIOGLU Y (2005): The effect of cooking methods on total phenolics and antioxidant activity of selected green vegetables. Food Chemistry, 93, 713-718 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.12.038Ullah Mohammed R., Gogoi Nogen, Baruah Deepika (1984): The effect of withering on fermentation of tea leaf and development of liquor characters of black teas. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 35, 1142-1147 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740351014Wright Louwrance P, Mphangwe Nicholas I.K, Nyirenda Hastings E, Apostolides Zeno (2000): Analysis of caffeine and flavan-3-ol composition in the fresh leaf ofCamellia sinesis for predicting the quality of the black tea produced in Central and Southern Africa. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80, 1823-1830 https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0010(200010)80:13<1823::AID-JSFA702>3.0.CO;2-EWright Louwrance P, Mphangwe Nicholas I.K, Nyirenda Hastings E, Apostolides Zeno (2002): Analysis of the theaflavin composition in black tea (Camellia sinensis) for predicting the quality of tea produced in Central and Southern Africa. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82, 517-525 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1074