Folate determination in livers of different animal species

https://doi.org/10.17221/78/2019-CJFSCitation:Czarnowska-Kujawska M., Gujska E., Michalak J. (2020): Folate determination in livers of different animal species. Czech J. Food Sci., 38: 43-48.
download PDF

The liver is the main storage organ for folate. In the study the folate content in chicken, turkey, pig, and beef livers was evaluated with the use of the HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method which allowed various folate vitamers differentiation. The total folate content in the tested livers ranged from 419 to 1289 µg 100 g–1 in pork and chicken livers, respectively, and was several times higher than in folate rich vegetables, which are the most common folate sources in the human diet. Additionally, good stability of two folate abundant forms, tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, under frying was shown in the chicken liver samples. The obtained results contribute well to the general need of promoting the folate intake from various natural sources, not only of plant origin.

References:
Aramouni F.M., Godber, J.S. (1991): Folate losses in beef liver due to cooking and frozen storage. Journal of Food Quality, 14: 357–365. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.1991.tb00077.x
 
Bailey L.B. (1992): Evaluation of a new recommended dietary allowances for folate. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 92: 463–468.
 
Blakley R.L. (1969): The biochemistry of folic acid and related pteridines. North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam: 58–106.
 
Czarnowska M., Gujska E. (2012): Effect of freezing technology and storage conditions on folate content in selected vegetables. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 67: 401–406. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-012-0312-2
 
Czeizel A.E., Dudas I. (1992): Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. New England Journal of Medicine, 327: 1832–1835. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199212243272602
 
Delchier N., Herbig A.L., Rychlik M., Renard C.M.G.C. (2016): Folates in fruits and vegetables: Contents, processing and stability. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 15: 506–528. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12193
 
Ebara S. (2017): The nutritional role of folate. Congenital Anomalies, 57: 138–141. https://doi.org/10.1111/cga.12233
 
EFSA (2014): Scientific Opinion on dietary reference values for folate. Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies. EFSA Journal 12: 3893–3952.
 
Fajardo V., Alonso-Aperte E., Varela-Moreiras G. (2017): Total folate content in ready-to-eat vegetable meals from the Spanish market. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 64: 223–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.10.002
 
DGE (2004): The nutrition report 2004. German Nutrition Society, Bonn, Germany.
 
Holasová M., Fiedlerová V., Vavreinová S. (2008): Determination of folates in vegetables and their retention during boiling. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 1: 31–37. https://doi.org/10.17221/1137-CJFS
 
Holland B., Welch A.A., Unwin I.D., Buss D.H., Paul A.A., Southgate D.A.T. (1991): Meat and meat products. In: Public Health England: McCance and Widowson’s The composition of Foods. 5th Ed. The Royal Society of Chemistry and Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Cambridge: 174–249.
 
Indyk H.E., Woollard D.C. (2013): Single laboratory validation of an optical biosensor method for the determination of folate in foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 29: 87–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2012.11.002
 
Jastrebova J., Witthöft C., Granath A., Svensson U., Jägerstad M. (2003): HPLC determination of folates in raw and processed beetroots. Food Chemistry, 80: 579–588. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00506-X
 
Konings E. J. M. (1999): A validated liquid chromatographic method for determinating folates in vegetables, milk powder, liver, and flour. Journal of AOAC International, 1: 119–127. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/82.1.119
 
Konings E.J., Roomans H.H., Dorant E., Goldbohm R.A., Saris W.H., van den Brandt P.A. (2001): Folate intake of the Dutch population according to newly established liquid chromatography data for foods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73: 765–776. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/73.4.765
 
Müller H. (1993): Determination of folic acid content in foods of animal origin by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung (Journal of Food Inspection and Research), 196: 518–521. (in German) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01201330
 
Nohr D., Biesalski H.K. (2007): “Mealthy” food: meat as a healthy and valuable source of micronutrients. Animal, 1: 309–316. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731107657796
 
Okholm-Hansen B., Brogren C.H. (1991): Contents of folacin in foods. In: Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen, Copenhagen, Denmark (in Danish): 206-215.
 
Pfeiffer C. M., Rogers L. M., Gregory J.F. (1997): Determination of folate in cereal-grain products using tri-enzyme extraction and combined affinity and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45: 407–413. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960633q
 
Rychlik M. (2004): Revised folate content of foods determined by stable isotope dilution assays. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 17: 475–483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2004.03.017
 
Vahteristo L.T., Lehikoinen K.E., Ollilainen V., Koivistoinen P.E., Varo P. (1998): Oven-baking and frozen storage affect folate vitamer retention. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie (Food Science and Technology), 31: 329–333. https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1997.0362
 
Vahteristo L.T., Ollilainen V., Koivistoinen P.E., Varo P. (1996): Improvements in the analysis of reduced folate monoglutamates and folic acid in food by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44: 477–482. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9503467
 
Winkels R.M., Brouwer I.A., Siebelink E., Katan M.B., Verhoef P. (2007): Bioavailability of food folates is 80% of that of folic acid. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85: 465–473. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/85.2.465
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences