Optimisation of extrusion variables for the production of corn snack products enriched with defatted hemp cake
Antun Jozinović, Đurđica Ačkar, Stela Jokić, Jurislav Babić, Jelena Panak Balentić, Marija Banožić, Drago Šubarićhttps://doi.org/10.17221/83/2017-CJFSCitation:Jozinović A., Ačkar Đ., Jokić S., Babić J., Panak Balentić J., Banožić M., Šubarić D. (2017): Optimisation of extrusion variables for the production of corn snack products enriched with defatted hemp cake. Czech J. Food Sci., 35: 507-516.
The effects of defatted hemp cake added to corn grits (at ratios of 0, 5, and 10% DM), the moisture content of the mixtures (15, 20, and 25%) and the temperature in the extruder ejection zone (150, 165, and 180°C) on the physical properties of extruded products have been investigated. Statistical optimization of investigated extrusion conditions using the response surface methodology was performed. The hemp cake was completely defatted by means of a supercritical CO2 extraction. The extrusion was performed on a laboratory single screw extruder and regulated by the following parameters: temperature in the dosing and compression zone (120 and 150°C), screw compression ratio (4 : 1), round die (4 mm). The change of extrusion process conditions significantly affected the physical properties of produced snacks. The expansion ratio ranged between 1.38 and 3.11, bulk density between 0.14 and 0.49 g/cm3, hardness between 18.15 and 70.62 N, fracturability from 3.65 to 10.38 mm, and the total colour change between 3.25 and 24.73.Keywords:
extruded snacks; hemp; response surface methodologyReferences:
Akdogan H., Tomas R.L., Oliveira J.C. (1997): Rheological properties of rice starch at high moisture contents during twin-screw extrusion. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie, 30: 488–496.Aladić K. (2015): Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly Journal, 28, 481-490 https://doi.org/10.15255/CABEQ.2013.1895ALVAREZ-MARTINEZ L., KONDURY K.P., HARPER J.M. (1988): A General Model for Expansion of Extruded Products. Journal of Food Science, 53, 609-615 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1988.tb07768.xAnderson R.A., Conway H.F., Pfeifer V.F., Griffin E.L. (1969): Gelatinization of corn grits by roll and extrusion cooking. Cereal Science Today, 14: 4–12.Anwar Farooq, Latif Sajid, Ashraf Muhammad (2006): Analytical characterization of hemp (Cannabis sativa) seed oil from different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 83, 323-329 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-1207-xBaş Deniz, Boyacı İsmail H. (2007): Modeling and optimization I: Usability of response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 78, 836-845 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.11.024Brnčić M., Tripalo B., Jeżek D., Semenski D., Drvar N., Ukrainczyk M. (2006): Effect of twin-screw extrusion parameters on mechanical hardness of direct-expanded extrudates. Sadhana, 31, 527-536 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02715911Brnčić M., Ježek D., Rimac Brnčić S., Bosiljkov T., Tripalo B. (2008): Influence of whey protein concentrate addition on textural properties of corn flour extrudates. Mljekarstvo, 58: 131–149.Garber B. W., Hsieh F., Huff H. E. (1997): Influence of Particle Size on the Twin-Screw Extrusion of Corn Meal. Cereal Chemistry Journal, 74, 656-661 https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.19188.8.131.526Gutkoski L.C., El-Dash A.A. (1999): Effect of extrusion process variables on physical and chemical properties of extruded oat products. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 54: 315–325. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008101209353Hagenimana Anastase, Ding Xiaolin, Fang Tao (2006): Evaluation of rice flour modified by extrusion cooking. Journal of Cereal Science, 43, 38-46 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2005.09.003Hong Sunghyun, Sowndhararajan Kandhasamy, Joo Taewoo, Lim Chanmook, Cho Haeme, Kim Songmun, Kim Gur-Yoo, Jhoo Jin-Woo (2015): Ethanol and supercritical fluid extracts of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) increase gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, 4, 147-152 https://doi.org/10.1016/S2305-0500(15)30012-9Ilo S., Liu Y., Berghofer E. (1999): Extrusion Cooking of Rice Flour and Amaranth Blends. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 32, 79-88 https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1998.0497Jokić S., Moslavac T., Bošnjak A., Aladić K., Rajić M., Bilić M. (2014): Optimization of walnut oil production. Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6: 27–35.Jozinović A., Šubarić D., Ačkar Đ., Babić J., Klarić I., Kopjar M., Valek Lendić K. (2012): Influence of buckwheat and chestnut flour addition on properties of corn extrudates. Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 4: 26–33.Jozinović Antun, Šubarić Drago, Ačkar Đurđica, Babić Jurislav, Miličević Borislav (2016): Influence of spelt flour addition on properties of extruded products based on corn grits. Journal of Food Engineering, 172, 31-37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.04.012Lazou Andriana, Krokida Magdalini (2010): Structural and textural characterization of corn–lentil extruded snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 100, 392-408 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.04.024Nascimento Elisabete Maria da Graça Costa do, Carvalho Carlos Wanderlei Piler, Takeiti Cristina Yoshie, Freitas Daniela De Grandi Castro, Ascheri José Luis Ramírez (2012): Use of sesame oil cake (Sesamum indicum L.) on corn expanded extrudates. Food Research International, 45, 434-443 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.11.009Obradović Valentina, Babić Jurislav, Šubarić Drago, Jozinović Antun, Ačkar Đurđica, Klarić Ilija (2015): Influence of dried Hokkaido pumpkin and ascorbic acid addition on chemical properties and colour of corn extrudates. Food Chemistry, 183, 136-143 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.045Paraman Ilankovan, Sharif Mian K., Supriyadi Susmoko, Rizvi Syed S.H. (2015): Agro-food industry byproducts into value-added extruded foods. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 96, 78-85 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2015.07.003Paula Amanda Maldo, Conti-Silva Ana Carolina (2014): Texture profile and correlation between sensory and instrumental analyses on extruded snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 121, 9-14 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.08.007Ryu Gi Hyung, Ng P. K. W. (2001): Effects of Selected Process Parameters on Expansion and Mechanical Properties of Wheat Flour and Whole Cornmeal Extrudates. Starch - Stärke, 53, 147-154 https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-379X(200104)53:3/4<147::AID-STAR147>3.0.CO;2-VSingh Baljit, Sekhon K.S., Singh Narpinder (2007): Effects of moisture, temperature and level of pea grits on extrusion behaviour and product characteristics of rice. Food Chemistry, 100, 198-202 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.042Stojceska Valentina, Ainsworth Paul, Plunkett Andrew, İbanoğlu Şenol (2009): The effect of extrusion cooking using different water feed rates on the quality of ready-to-eat snacks made from food by-products. Food Chemistry, 114, 226-232 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.09.043Wang Yuan-Yuan, Ryu Gi-Hyung (2013): Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded corn grits with corn fiber by CO2 injection extrusion process. Journal of Cereal Science, 58, 110-116 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.03.013Yağcı Sibel, Göğüş Fahrettin (2008): Response surface methodology for evaluation of physical and functional properties of extruded snack foods developed from food-by-products. Journal of Food Engineering, 86, 122-132 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.09.018