Esters of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol in foodstuffs

https://doi.org/10.17221/3423-CJFSCitation:Svejkovská B., Novotný O., Divinová V., Réblová Z., Doležal M., Velíšek J. (2004): Esters of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol in foodstuffs. Czech J. Food Sci., 22: 190-196.
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We provide here for the first time the evidence that 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) occurs in foodstuffs in its free form and also in the form of esters with higher fatty acids. These esters represent a new class of food contaminants as 3-MCPD may be released in vivoby a lipase-catalysed hydrolysis reaction. We analysed 20 samples of selected retail food products for their free and bound 3-MCPD content. All samples contained free 3-MCPD at approximately 9.6–82.7 µg/kg food (3 replications, RSD = 0.4–7.0%). The levels of bound 3-MCPD (monoesters and diesters of 3-MCPD with higher fatty acids) found in the foodstuffs analysed varied between the LOD (1.1 mg per kg of fat) and 36.8 mg/kg fat with RSD = 0.3–3.3%. Five foodstuffs of plant origin processed at high temperatures contained elevated levels of bound 3-MCPD (0.14–6.10 mg/kg). A high level of bound 3-MCPD (0.28 mg/kg) was also found in a sample of pickled fish. Some variables potentially influencing the levels of either free or bound 3-MCPD in foodstuffs were determined (pH, water, chlorides, glycerol, fat and its components) and their significance was discussed.    
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