Molecular analysis of temporal genetic structuring in pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars bred in the Czech Republic and in former Czechoslovakia since the mid-20th century

https://doi.org/10.17221/127/2011-CJGPBCitation:Cieslarová J., Hýbl M., Griga M., Smýkal P. (2012): Molecular analysis of temporal genetic structuring in pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars bred in the Czech Republic and in former Czechoslovakia since the mid-20th century. Czech J. Genet. Plant Breed., 48: 61-73.
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Changes in genetic diversity of peas bred in the Czech Republic and in former Czechoslovakia since the mid-20th century were analysed using 38 molecular marker loci, including retrotransposons and microsatellites, differentiating a total of 84 alleles. Both marker types were comparably effective in revealing the genetic diversity, with a high correlation (r = 0.81), although the pairwise genetic distances of each marker type differed. In total, 175 accessions, selected from the Czech pea gene bank collection and representing the pea cultivars collected or bred in the country, were divided into three groups according to their date of sampling or variety registration. The first group contained 70 old cultivars and landraces collected prior to 1961. The second group contained 46 cultivars released from 1961 to 1980. The third group contained 59 cultivars released between 1981 and 2004. In spite of the decline in several diversity measures, differences in allele frequencies and even allele loss in three microsatellite loci were recorded over the 70-year period, while these differences between the groups were not statistically significant. In addition, genetic heterogeneity was detected in 29 accessions (15%). This indicates that although no genetic erosion could be observed since then, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity, furthermore it highlights the vital role of germplasm collections for the crop diversity conservation. 
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