Identification of apple scab and powdery mildew resistance genes in Czech apple (Malus × domestica) genetic resources by PCR molecular markers

https://doi.org/10.17221/140/2011-CJGPBCitation:Patzak J., Paprštein F., Henychová A. (2011): Identification of apple scab and powdery mildew resistance genes in Czech apple (Malus × domestica) genetic resources by PCR molecular markers. Czech J. Genet. Plant Breed., 47: 156-165.
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The presence of genes for resistance to scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) was studied using molecular markers in a sample of 279 apple cultivars from the Czech collection of apple genetic resources. The sample comprised 37 cultivars supposed to have the Vf gene for scab resistance, 97 reference world cultivars and 145 old and local cultivars. Six PCR molecular markers for the scab resistance genes Vf, Vm, Vbj, Vr and Vh and three PCR molecular markers for the powdery mildew resistance genes Pl-w, Pl-1 and Pl-d were used. The marker for the major scab resistance gene Vf was detected in all cultivars supposed to have Vf, except in Romus 1, and in the three small-fruited cultivars Malus Evereste, Golden Gem and Hilleri. The markers of the Vr and Vh scab resistance genes were detected in 22 cultivars in combination with the marker for Vf, in 56 reference world cultivars and in 82 old and local apple cultivars. PCR molecular markers for one or two of the powdery mildew resistance genes were detected in the small-fruited cultivars Malus Evereste, Golden Gem, prof. Sprengeri and Hilleri; and in the larger fruited cultivars Hagloe Crab, Borovinka and Tita Zetei. We did not find markers for the scab resistance genes Vm and Vbj in any of the studied cultivars. They are absent also in the remaining part of the Czech collection of apple genetic resources. PCR molecular markers are useful tools for the identification of resistance genes within apple germplasm collections and can be used to increase the number of sources for disease resistance in breeding programmes.
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