Changes in stem and spike related traits resulting from breeding in Iranian wheat cultivars: associations with grain yield
This study investigated changes in stem and spike characteristics resulting from breeding in Iranian wheat cultivars, and their relationship with grain yield. Eighty-one wheat cultivars released between 1930 and 2006 were examined under well-watered (WW) and terminal drought stress (DS) conditions in Karaj during 2007–2008 and 2008–2009 and under WW condition at Parsabad in Moghan region during 2010–2011. A genetic improvement over time in stem specific weight (SSW) along with significant positive correlations between this trait and grain yield were found at Karaj under DS conditions and at Parsabad, suggesting that SSW could be used as an indirect selection criterion for yield in these environments. Time-dependent changes in spike dry weight showed that the magnitude of partitioned photoassimilates to the spike during the phase anthesis – 16 days after anthesis (16 DAA) was not changed by breeding. However, during the 16 DAA ‒ maturity phase, modern cultivars had more photoassimilates allocated to the spike than the old ones. This suggests that the sink is more limited during early grain growth than during the end of grain filling.
partitioned photoassimilates; sink limitation; stem specific weight; Triticum aestivum; Triticum durum
Álvaro Fanny, Isidro Julio, Villegas Dolors, García del Moral Luís F., Royo Conxita (2008): Breeding Effects on Grain Filling, Biomass Partitioning, and Remobilization in Mediterranean Durum Wheat. Agronomy Journal, 100, 361- https://doi.org/10.2134/agrojnl2007.0075
Blum A. (1998): Improving wheat grain filling under stress by stem reserve mobilization. Euphytica, 100: 77–83. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018303922482
Borrás Lucas, Slafer Gustavo A, Otegui Marı́a E (2004): Seed dry weight response to source–sink manipulations in wheat, maize and soybean: a quantitative reappraisal. Field Crops Research, 86, 131-146 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2003.08.002
Ehdaie B., Alloush G. A., Madore M. A., Waines J. G. (2006): Genotypic Variation for Stem Reserves and Mobilization in Wheat. Crop Science, 46, 735- https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2005.04-0033
Ehdaie B., Alloush G.A., Waines J.G. (2008): Genotypic variation in linear rate of grain growth and contribution of stem reserves to grain yield in wheat. Field Crops Research, 106, 34-43 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2007.10.012
FAO (2014): FAO Production Statistics. Available at http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC
Fischer R. A. (2011): FARRER REVIEW. Wheat physiology: a review of recent developments. Crop and Pasture Science, 62, 95- https://doi.org/10.1071/CP10344
Joudi Mehdi (2016): Environmental Conditions Affect Associations between Wheat Yield and Phenological Events = الظروف البيئية التي تؤثر على الارتباط بين محصول القمح و الأحداث الفيزيولوجية. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 12, 169-180 https://doi.org/10.12816/0030360
Joudi Mehdi, Ahmadi Ali, Mohamadi Valiollah, Abbasi Alireza, Vergauwen Rudy, Mohammadi Hamid, Van den Ende Wim (2012): Comparison of fructan dynamics in two wheat cultivars with different capacities of accumulation and remobilization under drought stress. Physiologia Plantarum, 144, 1-12 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2011.01517.x
Joudi Mehdi, Ahmadi Ali, Mohammadi Valiollah, Abbasi Alireza, Mohammadi Hamid (2014): Genetic changes in agronomic and phenologic traits of Iranian wheat cultivars grown in different environmental conditions. Euphytica, 196, 237-249 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-013-1027-7
Reynolds M.P., Hobbs P.R., Braun H.J. (2007): Challenges to international wheat improvement. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 145: 223–227.
Royo Conxita, Álvaro Fanny, Martos Vanessa, Ramdani Abdelhamid, Isidro Julio, Villegas Dolors, García del Moral Luis F. (2007): Genetic changes in durum wheat yield components and associated traits in Italian and Spanish varieties during the 20th century. Euphytica, 155, 259-270 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-006-9327-9
Saini H.S., Westgate M.E. (2000): Reproductive development in grain crops during drought. Advance in Agronomy, 68: 59–96.
SPSS (1998): SPSS Base 17.0 for Windows user’s guide. Chicago, SPSS Inc.
Tambussi Eduardo A., Nogués Salvador, Araus José Luis (2005): Ear of durum wheat under water stress: water relations and photosynthetic metabolism. Planta, 221, 446-458 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-004-1455-7
Zhang Yongping, Zhang Yinghua, Wang Zhimin, Wang Zhijie (2011): Characteristics of canopy structure and contributions of non-leaf organs to yield in winter wheat under different irrigated conditions. Field Crops Research, 123, 187-195 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2011.04.014