Comparing the number of Iranian pomegranate genotypes based on morphological and biochemical properties
Punica granatum L. is one of the oldest known edible fruits. Numerous chemical compounds have been isolated from pomegranate seeds, juice, and peels, which have beneficial effects on human health. This study aimed to perform the physicochemical and morphological properties of twenty-four pomegranate genotypes from various provinces of Iran. Fifteen fruits of each cultivar are collected at harvest maturity in the normal ripening period for the pomegranate from the Iranian pomegranate genetic collection in Yazd, Iran. Five fruits were randomly harvested from each of four orientations of the tree, and were immediately taken to the laboratory for analysis. Three replicates were maintained for each analysis. The results indicated the highest levels of anthocyanin was observed in S783 and R633, while polyphenols in Q529, the antioxidant capacity in N755 and the total soluble solids levels in R633 and the total acidity levels were found in K477 and E336. On the other hand, the fruit weight (in S948), fruit diameter (in SH1738), crown diameter (in R533), total weight of the seeds (in S948), peel thickness (in S716), peel colour (in S948), and red juice (in S783) are significantly affected by the genotype. At a similarity of 50%, the genotypes were divided into nine sub-clusters including A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I. These identified genotypes can be rolled out in future breeding programmes.
Akbarpour V., Hemmati K.H., Sharifani M. (2009): Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit in maturation stage. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environment Science, 6: 411–416.
Akpinar-Bayizit A., Özcan-Yisay T., Yilmaz-Ersan L. (2012): The therapeutic potential of pomegranate and its products for prevention of cancer. In: Georgakilas A.G. (ed.): Cancer Prevention – from Mechanisms to Translational Benefits. IntechOpen.
Barzegar M., Fadavi A., Azizi T.M.H. (2004): Evaluation of physico-chemical composition of cultivated pomegranates in Yazd. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Science and Food Technology, 1: 9–14. (in Persian)
Blasco A.J., Rogerio M.C., Gonzalez M.C., Escarpa A. (2005): Electrochemical index as a screening method to determine total polyphenolics in foods: A proposal. Analytica Chimica Acta, 539: 237–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2005.02.056
Borochov-Neori H., Judeinstein S., Tripler E., Harari M., Greenberg A., Shomer I. (2009): Seasonal and cultivar variations in antioxidant and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22: 189–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.10.011
Dahham S.S., Ali M.N., Tabassum H., Khan M. (2010): Studies on antibacterial and antifungal activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environment Science, 9: 273–281.
Feyzi F., Seifi E., Varasteh F., Hemmati K.H., Fereydooni H. (2015): Evalution of some biochemical properties of two pomegranate cultivars in three different fruits during different cold storage conditions. Biomedical Research International, 5: 338–342.
Gil M.I., Tomas-Barberan F.A., Hess-Pierce B., Holcroft D.M., Kader A.A. (2000): Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48: 4581–4589. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000404a
Giusti M.M., Wrolstad R.E. (2001): Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by UV-visible spectroscopy. In: Wrolstad R.E., Schwartz S.J. (eds.): Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry. New York, John Wiley and Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/0471142913.faf0102s00
Hernandez F., Melgarejo P., Tomas-Barberan F.A., Artes F. (1999): Evolution of juice anthocyanins during ripening of new selected pomegranate (Punica granatum) clones. European Food Research and Technology, 210: 39–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170050529
Jaiswal V., Der Marderosian A., Porter J.R. (2009): Anthocyanins and polyphenol oxidase from dried arils of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Food Chemistry, 118: 11–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.095
Jalili Moghadam Z. (2015): A Comprehensive Guide for Pomegranate Cultivation. Tehran, Agricultural Education and Extension Publishing. (in Persian)
Kim M.M., Kim K. (2002): Composition for improving oral hygiene containing Punica granatum L. extracts. Korean Patent 2002, KR 2002066042.
Lansky E.P., Newman R.A. (2007): Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. Journal of Ethnology and Pharmacology, 109: 177–2060. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.09.006
Melgarejo P., Salazar D.M., Artes F. (2000): Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits. European Food Research and Technology, 211: 185–190. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170050021
Mirdehghan S.H., Rahemi M. (2007): Seasonal changes of mineral nutrients and phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit. Journal of Scientia Horticulturae, 111: 120–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.10.001
Mirjalili S.A. (2002): Recognition of Pomegranate. Karaj, Agricultural Education Publishing.
Mirjalili S.A. (2016): Pomegranate, biodiversity and genetic resources. Rostaniha, 17: 1–18. (in Persian)
Mirjalili S.A., Ghabouli M., Poorazizi E., Aghajani M. (2019): Investigation of biochemical, phenolic and anthocyanins variation occurrence in juice of 25 genotypes of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) malas cultivars. Ecophytochemistry of Medicinal Plants, 6: 1–13.
Mousavinejad G., Emam-Djomeh Z., Rezaei K., Khodaparast M.H.H. (2009): Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds and their effects on antioxidant activity in pomegranate juices of eight Iranian cultivars. Food Chemistry, 115: 1274–1279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.044
Pokorny J., Yanishlieva N., Gordon M. (2001): Antioxidants in food. Practical pomegranates grown in Turkey. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 15: 567–575.
Prevec T., Šegatin N., PoklarUlrih N., Cigig B. (2013): DPPH assay of vegetable oils & model antioxidants in protic and aprotic solvents. Talanta, 109: 13–19.
Roginsky V., Lissi E. (2005): Review of methods to determine chain-breaking antioxidant activity in food. Food Chemistry, 92: 235–254 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.08.004
Saxena A., Vikram N.K. (2004): Role of selected Indian plants in management of type 2 diabetes: A review. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10: 369–373. https://doi.org/10.1089/107555304323062365
Singleton V.L., Orthofer R., Lamuela-Raventós R.M. (1999): Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. In: Oxidants and Antioxidants Part A. Elsevier: 152–178.
Tatari M., Ghazvini R.F., Ghasemnejad M., Mousavi S.A., Tabatabaii S.Z. (2011): Morphological and biochemical characteristics of fruit in some pomegranate cultivars in climatical conditions of Saveh. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 27: 69–87. (in Persian)
Tehranifar A., Zarei M., Nemati Z., Esfandiyari B., Vazifeshenas M.R. (2010): Investigation of physico-chemical properties and antioxidant activity of twenty Iranian pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 126: 180–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.07.001
Van Elswijk D.A., Schobel U.P., Lansky E.P., Irth Van der Greef H.J., Kiadis L.N. (2004): Rapid dereplication of estrogenic compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) using on-line biochemical detection coupled to mass spectrometry, Phytochemistry, 65: 233–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2003.07.001
Watanabe K., Hatakoshi M. (2002): Punica granatum leaf extracts for inactivation of allergen. Japanese Patent, JP 2002370996, A2 20021224.