Breeding for salt tolerance in wheat: The contribution of carbon isotopic signatures

https://doi.org/10.17221/51/2021-CJGPBCitation:

Zoubeir Ch., Zouari I., Jallouli S., Ayadi S., Abdenour S., Trifa Y. (2022): Breeding for salt tolerance in wheat: The contribution of carbon isotopic signatures. Czech J. Genet. Plant Breed., 58: 43−54.

download PDF

Use of low-quality water for supplemental irrigation is expected to become soon a common practice in the Mediterranean area, where durum wheat is the main cultivated cereal. Breeding for salt stress tolerance may contribute to the improvement of wheat resilience to irrigation with brackish water. Various traits can be considered as indicators of salt stress tolerance, which include agronomical and physiological criteria. However, the complexity of salinity tolerance mechanisms, the G × E interaction and the lack of correlation between controlled and open field conditions causes uncertainty in the selection process. The present review highlights the main advantages and limitations of different agronomical and physiological traits used in screening for salt stress tolerance in wheat. Special focus is given to carbon and nitrogen isotope discrimination, that remains a bottleneck in breeding for salt stress tolerance. The use of different statistical tools to analyse data related to salt stress tolerance is also discussed in this review.

References:
Akçura M., Kaya Y., Taner S. (2005): Genotype-environment interaction and phenotypic stability analysis for grain yield of durum wheat in the central Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 29: 369–375.
 
Annicchiarico P. (2002): Genotype × Environment Interactions: Challenges and Opportunities for Plant Breeding and Cultivar Recommendations. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper No. 174. Rome, FAO.
 
Annunziata M.G., Ciarmiello L.F., Woodrow P., Maximova E., Fuggi A., Carillo P. (2017): Durum wheat roots adapt to salinity remodeling the cellular content of nitrogen metabolites and sucrose. Frontier in Plant Sciences, 7: 20–35. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.02035
 
Araus J.L. (2004): The problem of sustainable water use in the Mediterranean and research requirements for agriculture. Annals of Applied Biology, 144: 259–272. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2004.tb00342.x
 
Araus J.L., Amaro T., Casadesus J., Asbati A., Nachit M.M. (1998): Relationships between ash content carbon isotope discrimination and yield in durum wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 25: 835–842.
 
Araus J.L., Slafer G., Royo C., Serret M.D. (2008): Breeding for yield potential and stress adaptation in cereals. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 27: 377–412. https://doi.org/10.1080/07352680802467736
 
Araus J.L., Cabrera-Bosquet L., Serret M.D., Bort J., Nieto-Taladriz M.T. (2013): Comparative performance of 13C, 18O and 15N for phenotyping durum wheat adaptation to a dryland environment. Functional Plant Biology, 40: 595–608. https://doi.org/10.1071/FP12254
 
Ayed-Slama O., Bouhaouel I., Chamekh Z., Trifa Y., Sahli A., Aissa N.B., Slim-Amara H. (2018): Genetic variation of salt-stressed durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Desf.) genotypes under field conditions and gynogenetic capacity. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 16: 161–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.11.004
 
Azizpour K., Shakiba M.R., Sima N.A., Khosh K., Alyari H., Mogaddam M., Esfandiari E., Pessarakli M. (2010): Physiological response of spring durum wheat genotypes to salinity. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 33: 859–873. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904161003654097
 
Basford K.E., Cooper M. (1998): Genotype × environment interactions and some considerations of their implications for wheat breeding in Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 49: 153–174. https://doi.org/10.1071/A97035
 
Berzsenyi Z., Gyrffy B., Lap D.Q. (2000): Effect of crop rotation and fertilisation on maize and wheat yields and yield stability in a long-term experiment. European Journal of Agronomy, 13: 225–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(00)00076-9
 
Borrelli B. (2011): The assessment, monitoring, and enhancement of treatment fidelity in public health clinical trials. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 71: S52–S63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-7325.2011.00233.x
 
Borrelli V.M.G., Brambilla V., Rogowsky P., Marocco A., Lanubile A. (2018): The enhancement of plant disease resistance using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Frontier in Plant Sciences, 9: 1245. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01245
 
Carillo P., Mastrolonardo G., Nacca F., Fuggi A. (2005): Nitrate reductase in durum wheat seedlings as affected by nitrate nutrition and salinity. Functional Plant Biology, 32: 209–219. https://doi.org/10.1071/FP04184
 
Chaabane R., Bchini H., Ouji H., Ben Salah H., Khamassi K., Khoufi S., Babay E., Ben Naceur M. (2011): Behaviour of Tunisian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) varieties under saline stress. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10: 539–542. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2011.539.542
 
Chahed Y. (2009): Tunisia GRAIN 2009. Grain and Feed Annual. USDA Foreign Agriculture Service. Grain Report.
 
Chamekh Z., Karmous C., Ayadi S., Sahli A., Hammami Z., Belhaj F.M., Benaissa N., Trifa Y., Slim–Amara H. (2015): Stability analysis of yield component traits in 25 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) genotypes under contrasting irrigation water salinity. Agricultural Water Management, 152: 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.12.009
 
Chamekh Z., Ayadi A., Karmous C., Boudabbous K., Trifa Y., Amara H., Yousfi S., Serret M.D., Araus J.L. (2016): Comparative effect of salinity on growth, grain yield, water use efficiency, δ13C and δ15N of landraces and improved durum wheat varieties. Plant Science, 251: 44–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2016.07.005
 
Chamekh Z., Karmous C., Ayadi S., Yousfi S., Sahli A., Belhaj F.M., McCann I., Trifa Y., Amara H., Serret M.D., Araus J.L. (2017): Comparative performance of δ13C, ion accumulation and agronomic parameters for phenotyping durum wheat genotypes under various irrigation water salinities. Annals of Applied Biology, 170: 229–239. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12332
 
Condon A.G., Richards R.A., Rebetzke G.J., Farquhar G.D. (2004): Breeding for high water use efficiency. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55: 2447–2460. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erh277
 
Coplen T.B. (2008): Explanatory glossary of terms used in expression of relative isotope ratios and gas ratios. IUPAC Provisional Recommendations. Inorganic Chemistry Division. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. Available at http://old.iupac.org/reports/provisional/abstract08/coplen_310508.html/
 
Coque M., Bertin P., Hirel B., Gallais A. (2006): Genetic variation and QTLs for δ15N natural abundance in a set of maize recombinant inbred lines. Field Crops Research, 97: 310–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2005.11.002
 
Crossa J., Gauch H.G., Zobel R.W. (1990): Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis of two international maize cultivar trials. Crop Science, 30: 493–500. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1990.0011183X003000030003x
 
Cuthbert J.L., Somers D.J., Brûlé-Babel A.L., Brown P.D., Crow G.H. (2008): Molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci for yield and yield components in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 117: 595–608. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-008-0804-5
 
De Vita P., Li Destri Nicosia O., Nigro F., Platani C., Riefolo C., Di Fonzo N., Cattivelli L. (2007): Breeding progress in morpho-physiological, agronomical and qualitative traits of durum wheat cultivars released in Italy during the 20th century. European Journal of Agronomy, 26: 39–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2006.08.009
 
Dewey D.R., Lu K. (1959): A correlation and path-coefficient analysis of components of crested wheatgrass seed production. Agronomy Journal, 51: 515–518. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1959.00021962005100090002x
 
Draper N.R., Smith H. (1966): Applied Regression Analysis. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Duvick D.N., Smith J.S.C., Cooper M. (2004): Changes in performance, parentage, and genetic diversity of successful corn hybrids, 1930 to 2000. In: Smith C.W., Betrian J., Runge E.C.A. (eds.): Corn: Origin, History, Technology and Production. Hoboken, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 65–97.
 
Eberhart S.A., Russell W.A. (1966): Stability parameters for comparing varieties. Crop Science, 6: 36–40. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1966.0011183X000600010011x
 
El-Hendawy S.E., Hu Y., Schmidhalter U. (2007): Assessing the suitability of various physiological traits to screen wheat genotypes for salt tolerance. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 49: 1352–1360. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00533.x
 
El–Hendawy S., Ruan E.Y., Hu Y., Schmidhalter U. (2009): A comparison of screening criteria for salt tolerance in wheat under field and controlled environmental conditions. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 195: 356–367. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2009.00372.x
 
El-Hendawy S.E., Hassan W.M., Al-Suhaibani N.A., Refay Y., Abdella K.A. (2017): Comparative performance of multivariable agro-physiological parameters for detecting salt tolerance of wheat cultivars under simulated saline field growing conditions. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8: 435. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00435
 
Farquhar G.D., Ehleringer J.R., Hubick K.T. (1989): Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 40: 503–537. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.40.060189.002443
 
Finlay W.K., Wilkinson G.N. (1963): The analysis of adaptation in a plant breeding programme. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 14: 742–754. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9630742
 
Flowers T.J., Yeo A.R. (1995): Breeding for salinity resistance in crop plants: Where next? Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 22: 875–884. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP9950875
 
Garcia G.M., Stalker H.T., Kochert G. (1995): Introgression analysis of an interspecific hybrid population in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) using RFLP and RAPD markers. Genome, 38: 166–176. https://doi.org/10.1139/g95-021
 
Geerts S., Raes D. (2009): Deficit irrigation as an on-farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas. Agricultural Water Management, 96: 1275–1284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.04.009
 
Hasegawa P.M., Bressan R.A., Zhu J.K., Bohnert H.J. (2000): Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 51: 463–499. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.51.1.463
 
Hay R., Porter J. (2006): The Physiology of Crop Yield. 2nd Ed. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing.
 
Högberg P. (1997): 15N natural abundance in soil–plant systems. New Phytologist, 137: 179–203. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00808.x
 
Hussain N., Ghaffar A., Zafar Z.U., Javed M., Shah K.S., Noreen S., Manzoor H., Iqbal M., Hassan I.F.Z., Bano H., Gul H.S., Aamir M., Khalid A., Sohail Y., Ashraf M., Athar H.u.R. (2021): Identification of novel source of salt tolerance in local bread wheat germplasm using morpho-physiological and biochemical attributes. Scientific Reports, 11: 10854.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90280-w
 
Javed I.U.H., Akhtar S., Akram M., Arfan M., Shazia Y. (2003): Differential yield responses of barley genotypes to NaCl salinity. International Journal of Agricultural and Biology, 5: 233–235.
 
Khan M.H., Din N.U., Khakwani A.A., Baloch M.S., Zubair M., Khan S., Khan A.W. (2011): Hashim– 8: A short duration, high yielding and disease resistant wheat variety for rainfed areas of Pakistan. International Journal of Agricultural and Biology, 13: 956–960.
 
Kingsbury R., Epstein E. (1984): Selection for salt-resistant spring wheat. Crop Science, 24: 310–315. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1984.0011183X002400020024x
 
Leilah A.A., Al–Khateeb S.A. (2005): Statistical analysis of wheat yield under drought conditions. Journal of Arid Environments, 61: 483–496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.10.011
 
Ma L., Zhou E., Huo N., Zhou R., Wang G., Jia J. (2007): Genetic analysis of salt tolerance in a recombinant inbred population of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica, 153: 109–117. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-006-9247-8
 
Maas E.V., Grieve C.M. (1990): Spike and leaf development in salt-stressed wheat. Crop Science, 30: 1309–1313. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1990.0011183X003000060031x
 
Mariotti A., Martiotti F., Champigny M.L., Amarger N., Moyse A. (1982): Nitrogen isotope fractionation associated with nitrate reductase activity and uptake of nitrate by pearl millet Pennisetum spp. Plant Physiology, 69: 880–884. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.69.4.880
 
Memon S.A., Sheikh I.A., Talpur M.A., Mangrio M.A. (2021): Impact of deficit irrigation strategies on winter wheat in semi-arid climate of sindh. Agricultural Water Management, 243: 106389 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106389
 
Meneguzzo S.F., Navari–Izzo., Izzo R. (2000): NaCl effects on water relations and accumulation of mineral nutrients in shoots, roots and cell sap of wheat seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology, 156: 711–716. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(00)80236-9
 
Messina C.D., Podlich D., Dong Z., Samples M., Cooper M. (2011): Yield-trait performance landscapes: From theory to application in breeding maize for drought tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62: 855–868. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq329
 
Mir R.R., Zaman-Allah M., Sreenivasulu N., Trethowan R., Varshney R.K. (2012): Integrated genomics, physiology and breeding approaches for improving drought tolerance in crops. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 125: 625–645. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-012-1904-9
 
Mohamed N.A. (1999): Some statistical procedures for evaluation of the relative contribution for yield components in wheat. Zagazig Journal of Agricultural Research, 26: 281–290.
 
Mollasadeghi V., Valizadeh M., Shahryari R., Imani A.A. (2011): Evaluation of drought tolerance of bread wheat genotypes using stress tolerance indices at presence of potassium humate. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 10: 151–156.
 
Munns R. (2002): Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell & Environment, 25: 239–250.
 
Munns R., James R.A. (2003): Screening methods for salinity tolerance: A case study with tetraploid wheat. Plant and Soil, 253: 201–218. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024553303144
 
Munns R., Tester M. (2008): Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 59: 651–681. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092911
 
Munns R., James R.A., Läuchli A. (2006): Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. Journal of Experimental Botany, 57: 1025–1043. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erj100
 
Naser S.M., Leilah A.A. (1993): Integrated analysis of the relative contribution for some variables in sugar beet using some statistical techniques. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 44: 253–266.
 
Okuyama Y., Fujii N., Wakabayashi M., Kawakita A., Ito M., Watanabe M., Kato M. (2005): Nonuniform concerted evolution and chloroplast capture: heterogeneity of observed introgression patterns in three molecular data partition phylogenies of Asian Mitella (Saxifragaceae). Molecular Biology and Evolution, 22: 285–296. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msi016
 
Oyiga B.C., Sharma R.C., Shen J., Baum M., Ogbonnaya F.C., Léon J., Ballvora A. (2016): Identification and characterization of salt tolerance of wheat germplasm using a multivariable screening approach. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 202: 472–485. https://doi.org/10.1111/jac.12178
 
Płażek A., Tatrzańska M., Maciejewski M., Kościelniak J., Gondek K., Bojarczuk J., Dubert F. (2013): Investigation of the salt tolerance of new Polish bread and durum wheat cultivars. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35: 2513–2523. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-013-1287-9
 
Pritchard E.S, Guy R.D. (2005): Nitrogen isotope discrimination in white spruce fed with low concentrations of ammonium and nitrate. Trees, 19: 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-004-0367-2
 
Rashid A., Qureshi R.H., Hollington P.A., Wyn Jones R.G. (1999): Comparative response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to salinity at seedling stage. Agronomy and Crop Science, 182: 199–207. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-037x.1999.00295.x
 
Rivelli A.R., James R.A., Munns R., Condon A.G. (2002): Effects of salinity on water relations and growth of wheat genotypes with contrasting sodium uptake. Functional Plant Biology, 29: 1065–1074. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP01154
 
Richards R.A. (2006): Physiological traits used in the breeding of new cultivars for water-scarce environments. Agricultural Water Management, 80: 197–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.07.013
 
Rharrabti Y., Villegas D., Royo C., Martos-Nunez V., García Del Moral L.F. (2003): Durum quality in Mediterranean environments II. Influence of climatic variables and relationships between quality parameters. Field Crop Research, 80: 133–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(02)00177-6
 
Robinson D., Hley L.L., Scrimgeour C.M., Gordon C., Forster B.P., Ellis R.P. (2000): Using stable isotope natural abundances (δ15N and δ13C) to integrate the stress responses of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch.) genotypes. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51: 41–50. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.342.41
 
Romagosa I., Fox P.N. (1993): Genotype × environment interaction and adaptation. In: Hayard M.D., Romagnosa I., Bosemark N. (eds.): Plant Breeding: Principles and Prospects. London, New York, Chapman & Hall.
 
Royo A., Abió D. (2003): Salt tolerance in durum wheat cultivars. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 3: 27–36. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2003013-32
 
Sayed H.I. (1985): Diversity of salt tolerance in a germplasm collection of wheat (Triticum spp.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 69: 651–657. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00251118
 
Sayer A.A., Syddall H., Martin H., Patel H., Baylis D., Cooper C. (2008): The developmental origins of sarcopenia. The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 12: 427–432. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02982703
 
Serret M.D., Ortiz–Monasterio I., Pardo A., Araus J.L. (2008): The effects of urea fertilization and genotype on yield, nitrogen use efficiency, δ 15N and δ 13C in wheat. Annals Applied Biology, 153: 243–257.
 
Shannon M.J. (1990): Toward a rationale for public design education. Design Issues, 7: 29–41. https://doi.org/10.2307/1511469
 
Smart D.R., Bloom A.J. (2001): Wheat leaves emit nitrous oxide during nitrate assimilation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98: 7875–7878. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.131572798
 
Soleymanifard B., Heravi M.M., Shiri M., Zolfigol M.A., Rafiee M., Kruger H.G., Rasekhmanesh F. (2012): Synthesis of arylidenepyruvic amide derivatives via Ugi-four component condensation. Tetrahedron Letters, 53: 3546–3549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2012.04.126
 
Taleisnik E., Rodriguez A., Bustos D., Erdei L., Ortega L., Eugenia S.M. (2009): Leaf expansion in grasses under salt stress. Journal of Plant Physiology, 166: 1123–1140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2009.03.015
 
Tanentzap A.J., Lamb A., Walker S., Farmer A. (2015): Resolving conflicts between agriculture and the natural environment. PLoS Biology, 13: e1002242. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002242
 
Tcherkez G. (2011): Natural 15N/14N isotope composition in C3 leaves: are enzymatic isotope effects informative for predicting the 15N abundance in key metabolites? Functional Plant Biology, 38: 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1071/FP10091
 
Tollenaar M., Lee E.A. (2002): Yield potential, yield stability and stress tolerance in maize. Field Crop Research, 75: 161–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(02)00024-2
 
Tshikunde N.M., Mashilo J., Shimelis H., Odindo A. (2019): Agronomic and physiological traits, and associated quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting yield response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): A review. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10: 1428.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01428
 
Villa-Castorena M., Ulery A.L., CatalánValencia E.A., Remmenga M. (2003): Salinity and nitrogen rate effects on the growth and yield of Chile pepper plants. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67: 1781–1789. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2003.1781
 
Xu F., Uszkoreit H., Li H. (2007): A seed-driven bottom-up machine learning framework for extracting relations of various complexity. In: Proc. 45th Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics, Prague, Jun, 2007: 584–591.
 
Yan W., Hunt L.A. (2002): Biplot analysis of multi-environment trial data. In: Kang M.S. (ed.): Quantitative Genetics, Genomics and Plant Breeding. CABI Publishing.
 
Yoneyama T., Kamachi K., Yamaya T., Mae T. (1993): Fractionation of nitrogen isotopes by glutamine synthetase isolated from spinach leaves. Plant Cell Physiology, 34: 489–491.
 
Yousfi S., Serret M.D., Araus J.L. (2009): Shoot d15N gives a better indication than ion concentration or ∆13C of genotypic differences in the response of durum wheat to salinity. Functional Plant. Biology, 36: 144–155.
 
Yousfi S., Serret M.D., Voltas J., Araus J.L. (2010): Effect of salinity and water stress during the reproductive stage on growth, ion concentrations, delta 13C and delta 15N of durum wheat and related amphiploids. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61: 3529–3542. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq184
 
Yousfi S., Serret M.D., Márquez A.J., Voltas J., Araus J.L. (2012): Combined use of δ13C, δ18O and δ15N tracks nitrogen metabolism and genotypic adaptation of durum wheat to salinity and water deficit. New Physiologist, 194: 230–244. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.04036.x
 
Yousfi S., Serret M.D., Araus J.L. (2013): Comparative response of δ13C, δ18O and δ15N in durum wheat exposed to salinity at the vegetative and reproductive stages. Plant, Cell & Environment, 36: 1214–1227.
 
Zeng L. (2005): Exploration of relationships between physiological parameters and growth performance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under salinity stress using multivariate analysis. Plant and Soil, 268: 51–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-004-0180-0
 
Zeng L., Shannon M.C. (2000): Salinity effects on seedling growth and yield components of rice. Crop Science, 40: 996–1003. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.404996x
 
Zeng L., Shannon M.C., Grieve C.M. (2002): Evaluation of salt tolerance in rice genotypes by multiple agronomic parameters. Euphytica, 127: 235–245. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020262932277
 
Zhang B.C., Li F.M., Huang G.B., Gan Y., Liu P.H., Cheng Z.Y. (2005): Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on grain yield and water use efficiency of spring wheat in an arid environment. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 85: 165. https://doi.org/10.4141/P04-165
 
Zheng C., Sun D. W., Zheng L. (2006): Recent developments and applications of image features for food quality evaluation and inspection – A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17: 642–655.
 
Zhou L. (2020): Influences of deficit irrigation on soil water content distribution and spring wheat growth in Hetao Irrigation District, Inner Mongolia of China. Water Supply, 20: 3722–3729. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2020.155
 
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti