Environmental and genetic effects on cadmium accumulation capacity and yield of maize

https://doi.org/10.17221/5/2018-CJGPBCitation:Kovačević V., Kádár I., Andrić L., Zdunić Z., Iljkić D., Varga I., Jović J. (2019): Environmental and genetic effects on cadmium accumulation capacity and yield of maize. Czech J. Genet. Plant Breed., 55: 70-75.
download PDF

Maize (Zea mays) is an economic crop suitable for use in phytoremediation in low to moderately cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils due to its ability to accumulate high concentration of Cd in parts of maize that are not used in human diet. The aim of this study was to test Cd content in nine female parents of the commercial maize hybrids (C1 = ♀2-48; C2 = ♀1767/99; C3 = ♀87-24; C4 = ♀135-88, C5 = ♀84-28; C6 = ♀84-44; C7 = ♀438-95; C8 = ♀30-8; C9 = ♀B-73) grown under field conditions in two soils (B1: eutric cambisol, B2: stagnosol) during three growing seasons (A1: 2006, A2: 2007, A3: 2008). The stationary trial was conducted in four replicates. The ear-leaves at flowering and grain at maturity were taken for chemical analysis. The average quantities of leaf-Cd were 0.081, 0.088 and 0.143 mg per kg of dry matter for A1, A2 and A3, 0.089 and 0.118, for B1 and B2, respectively. Grain-Cd was below the threshold (< 0.02 mg/kg). Five Cd-inefficient genotypes (C3, C5, C6, C7 and C9) had low leaf-Cd (average 0.049 mg/kg), while this content was about 6-times higher (average 0.299 mg/kg) in Cd-efficient genotype C4. The yield among the years ranged from 2.36 to 4.31 t/ha. Maize grown on B2 had about 26% lower yield than on B1. Five genotypes (C1, C2, C8 and C9) achieved yields less than 3.50 t/ha (mean 3.15 t/ha), while in two genotypes (C3 and C5) yields were above 4.00 t/ha (mean 4.14 t/ha). Very strong correlations (r) of leaf-Cd status among years (ranged from 0.52 to 0.77) confirmed high genetic effect on the capability of Cd accumulation in maize. However, correlations between Cd content and yield were low (ranged from –0.17 to 0.06). Cd-efficient C4 female parent could be used for development of maize hybrids suitable for phytoremediation, while Cd-inefficient female parents for hybrids could be suitable as forage maize crop contributing to the lower Cd input into food chain.


Antunović M., Kovačević V., Varga I. (2014): Subsequent effects of liming with carbocalk on maize grain yields. Poljoprivreda/Agriculture, 20: 12–18.
Bergmann W. (1992): Nutritional Disorders of Plants – Development, Visual and Analytical Diagnosis. Jena, Stuttgart, New York, Gustav Fischer Verlag: 303–321.
Brkić Andrija, Brkić Ivan, Raspudić Emilija, Brmež Mirjana, Brkić Josip, Šimić Domagoj (2015): Relations among Western corn rootworm resistance traits and elements concentration in maize germplasm roots. Poljoprivreda, 21, 3-7 https://doi.org/10.18047/poljo.21.1.1
Čosić T., Čoga L., Pavlović I., Petek M., Slunjski S. (2007): Internal Handbook for Excerscise from Plant Nutrition. Zagreb, Faculty of Agronomy University of Zagreb: 35–45.
FAO (1990): Revised Legend, Soil Map of the World. World Soil Resources Report No. 60. Rome, FAO-Unesco-ISRIC.
Florijn P. J., Van Beusichem M. L. (1993): Uptake and distribution of cadmium in maize inbred lines. Plant and Soil, 150, 25-32 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00779172
Galić Vlatko, Franić Mario, Jambrović Antun, Zdunić Zvonimir, Brkić Andrija, Šimić Domagoj (2017): QTL mapping for grain quality traits in testcrosses of a maize biparental population using genotyping-by-sequencing data. Poljoprivreda, 23, 28-33 https://doi.org/10.18047/poljo.23.1.5
Gao Xiaopeng, Mohr Ramona M., McLaren Debra L., Grant Cynthia A. (2011): Grain cadmium and zinc concentrations in wheat as affected by genotypic variation and potassium chloride fertilization. Field Crops Research, 122, 95-103 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2011.03.005
Gondola I., Kadar I. (1995): Heavy metal content of flue-cured tobacco leaf in different growing regions of Hungary. Acta Agronomica Hungarica, 43: 243–251.
Grant C.A., Clarke J.M., Duguid S., Chaney R.L. (2008): Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation. Science of The Total Environment, 390, 301-310 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.10.038
Ivezić Vladimir, Almås Åsgeir Rossebø, Singh Bal Ram, Lončarić Zdenko (2013): Prediction of trace metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in wheat grain from unpolluted agricultural soils. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science, 63, 360-369 https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2013.785586
Ivezić Vladimir, Singh Bal Ram, Gvozdić Vlatka, Lončarić Zdenko (2015): Trace Metal Availability and Soil Quality Index Relationships under Different Land Uses. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 79, 1629- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2015.03.0125
Jambrovic Antun, Mazur Maja, Radan Zvonko, Zdunic Zvonimir, Ledencan Tatjana, Brkic Andrija, Brkic Josip, Brkic Ivan, Simic Domagoj (2014): Array-based genotyping and genetic dissimilarity analysis of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups. , 46, 343-352 https://doi.org/10.2298/GENSR1402343J
Kabata-Pendias A., Pendias H. (2001): Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. 3rd Ed. Boca Raton, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.
Kadar I., Koncz J., Fekete S. (2002): Movement of Cd, Hg, Mo, Pb and Se in soil-plant-animal chain. In: Proc. Alps-Adria Scientific Workshop, Budapest, March 4–8, 2002: 90–94.
Kovačević V., Vragolovic A. (2011): Genotype and environmental effects on cadmium concentration in maize. Journal of Life Science, 5: 926–932.
Kovačević V., Kadar I., Konz J. (2002): Soil and genotype influences on cadmium and strontium status in maize plants. Poljoprivreda/Agriculture, 8: 25–28.
Kovacevic Vlado, Simic Domagoj, Kadar Imre, Knezevic Desimir, Loncaric Zdenko (2011): Genotype and liming effects on cadmium concentration in maize (Zea mays L.). , 43, 607-615 https://doi.org/10.2298/GENSR1103607K
Lakanen E., Erviö R. (1971): A comparison of eight extractants for the determination of plant available micronutrients in soil. Acta Agralia Fennica, 123: 223–232.
Lončarić Z., Popović B., Karalić K., Jurković Z., Nevistić A., Engler M. (2012): Soil chemicals properties and wheat genotype impact on micronutrient and toxic elements content in wheat integral flour. Medicinski Glasnik, 9: 97–103.
Novoselec Josip, Klir Željka, Domaćinović Matija, Lončarić Zdenko, Antunović Zvonko (2018): Biofortification of feedstuffs with microelements in animal nutrition. Poljoprivreda, 24, 25-34 https://doi.org/10.18047/poljo.24.1.4
Procházková D., Sairam R.K., Lekshmy S., Wilhelmová N. (2013): Differential response of maize hybrid and its parental lines to salinity stress. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 49, 9-15 https://doi.org/10.17221/158/2011-CJGPB
Rebekić Andrijana, Lončarić Zdenko, Petrović Sonja, Marić Sonja (2015): PEARSON'S OR SPEARMAN'S CORRELATION COEFFICIENT - WHICH ONE TO USE?. Poljoprivreda, 21, 47-54 https://doi.org/10.18047/poljo.21.2.8
SHS (2008): Meteorological Reports 2006–2008 – Osijek Weather Bureau. Zagreb, State Hydrometeorological Service in Zagreb.
Vahter Marie, Berglund Marika, Slorach Stuart, Friberg Lars, Sarić Marko, Zheng Xingquan, Fujita Masahiko (1991): Methods for integrated exposure monitoring of lead and cadmium. Environmental Research, 56, 78-89 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-9351(05)80111-2
Waalkes M (2003): Cadmium carcinogenesis. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 533, 107-120 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2003.07.011
Xu Wending, Lu Guining, Dang Zhi, Liao Changjun, Chen Qiangpei, Yi Xiaoyun (2013): Uptake and Distribution of Cd in Sweet Maize Grown on Contaminated Soils: A Field-Scale Study. Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications, 2013, 1-8 https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/959764
Zhang Lei, Song Feng Bin (2006): Effects of Forms and Rates of Zinc Fertilizers on Cadmium Concentrations in Two Cultivars of Maize. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 37, 1905-1916 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103620600767140
Zhang Lei, Zhang Lei, Song Fengbin (2008): Cadmium Uptake and Distribution by Different Maize Genotypes in Maturing Stage. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 39, 1517-1531 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103620802006651
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences