The Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) is the only cultivated species of the genus Lupinus originating from South America. Attempts were made to introduce this species to European soil and climatic conditions. The main disadvantages of the Andean lupin include too long and non-uniform maturation of pods in a plant, dropping flowers and pod buds, and a high alkaloid content (up to 5%). The aim of this study was to identify in post-mutagen treated material genotypes with low alkaloid content in seeds, which would be useful for improving L. mutabilis by breeding. The iodine test was annually performed to test the presence of alkaloids in seeds, using Lugol’s solution (I in KI). Based on the turbidity of the test samples, the investigated plants were divided into four groups, labelled as follows: G – individuals with a high content of alkaloids (very bitter), P – individuals with an intermediate content of alkaloids (bitter), PS – individuals with a low alkaloid content (fairly sweet) and S – individuals with a very low alkaloid level (sweet). For further propagation, mainly individuals from the S and PS groups were selected, and by part from the group P, while all bitter forms (G group) were rejected. Thirty chosen lines were examined for the content and composition of alkaloids by gas chromatography. The alkaloid content did not exceed 0.1% in 13 favourable lines, and even two lines had less than 0.05%. The seeds of the studied material contained 7 to 9 different alkaloids. The prevailing alkaloids in the seeds of the Andean lupin were 4-hydroxylupanine and lupanine. Significant progress has been achieved in reducing the content of alkaloids in subsequent generations of the investigated representatives of Lupinus mutabilis from South America.
Adomas B., Galek R., Gas M., Helios W., Hurej M., Kotecki A., Kozak M., Malarz W., Okorski A., Piotrowicz-Cieślak A. I., Pszczółkowska A., Sawicka-Sienkiewicz E., Twardowski J. (2015): Adaptation of the Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) to natural conditions of south-western Poland. In: Kotecki A. (ed.): Monography CXCV. Wroclaw, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences: 121.
Baldeón M.E., Castro J., Villacrés E., Narváez L., Fornasi-ni M. (2012): Hypoglycemic effect of cooked Lupinus mutabilis and its purified alkaloids in subjects with type-2 diabetes. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 27: 1261–1266.
Boersma J.G., Pollotta M., Li.C., Buirchell B.J., Sivasithamparam K., Yang H. (2005): Construction of genetic linkage map using MFLP, and identification of molecular markers linked to domestication genes in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius). Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters, 10: 331–344.
Caligari P.D.S., Rahim M.A., Röemer P., Huyghe C., Neves-Martins J.M., Sawicka-Sienkiewicz E.J. (2000): The potential of Lupinus mutabilis as a crop. In: Linking Research and Marketing Opportunities for Pulses in the 21st Century. Dordrecht, Springer: 569–573.
Cowling W.A., Buirchell B.J., Tapia M.E. (1998): Lupin. Lupinus L. Promoting the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected Crops, 23. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), Rome.
Falconi C.E. (2012): Lupinus mutabilis in Ecuador with Special Emphasis on Anthracnose Resistance. [PhD. Thesis.] Wageningen, Wageningen University.
Forbes Ian, Beck Elmer W. (1954): A Rapid Biological Technique for Screening Blue Lupine Populations for Low-Alkaloid Plants1. Agronomy Journal, 46, 528- https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1954.00021962004600110017x
Gross R., von Baer E., Koch F., Marquard R., Trugo L., Wink M. (1988): Chemical composition of a new variety of the Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis cv. Inti) with low-alkaloid content. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 1, 353-361 https://doi.org/10.1016/0889-1575(88)90035-X
Jansen Gisela, Jürgens Hans-Ulrich, Schliephake Edgar, Ordon Frank (2012): Effect of the Soil pH on the Alkaloid Content of Lupinus angustifolius
. International Journal of Agronomy, 2012, 1-5 https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/269878
Kamel Katarzyna A., Święcicki Wojciech, Kaczmarek Zygmunt, Barzyk Paweł (): Quantitative and qualitative content of alkaloids in seeds of a narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) collection. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, , - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-015-0278-7
Mujica A., Jacobsen S.E., Izquierdo J. (2002): Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) – forty years research in Peru. In: 10th Conf., Laugarvatn, June 19–24, 2002: 100.
Römer P. (1994): A determined mutant of Lupinus mutabilis as a possible source of early maturity. In: Proc. 7th Int. Lupin Conf., Evora, April 18–23, 1993: 90–92.
Sawicka E.J. (1993): Induced mutations of Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet). Papers of Botanical Garden of Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) 3, Monographs and Theses: 1–112. (in Polish)
Stawiński S., Rybiński W. (2001): Domestication of Andean lupin by means of mutation. In: Proc. 4th European Conf. Grain Legumes, Cracow, July 8–12, 2001: 223.
Święcicki W.K., Nawrot Cz. (2004): Zasoby genowe rodzaju Lupinus. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych, 497: 605–612.
Święcicki W., Święcicki W.K. (1995): Domestication and breeding improvement of narrow-leafed lupin (L. angustifolius L.). Journal of Applied Genetics, 36: 155–167.
Von Baer E. (2008): Efficiency and quality in the production of sweet lupin. In: Proc. 12th Int. Lupin Conf., Fremantle, Sept 14–18, 2008: 71–74.
Von Baer E. (2011): Domestication of Andean lupin (L. mutabilis). In: Proc. 13th Int. Lupin Conf., Poznań, June 6–10, 2011: 129–132.
Williams Watkin, Harrison Jill E. M., Jayasekera Sumithra (1984): Genetical control of alkaloid production in Lupinus mutabilis and the effect of a mutant allele Mutal isolated following chemical mutagenesis. Euphytica, 33, 811-817 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00021907
Wink M. (1992): Lupinus mutabilis: Compositions and potential applications of quinolizidine alkaloids. Agriculture Agrimed Research Programme, Commision of the European Communities. Report EUR 14102 EN, Luxemburg, Commision of the European Communities: 47–54.
Wink M. (2011): A summary of 30 years of research in lupins and lupin alkaloids. In: Proc. 13th Int. Lupin Conf., Poznań, June 6–10, 2011: 225–228.