ISSR markers and morphometry determine genetic diversity and population structure in Hedera helix L.

Shakoor A., Zaib G., Zhao F., Li W., Lan X., Esfandani-Bozchaloyi S. (2022): ISSR markers and morphometry determine genetic diversity and population structure in Hedera helix L. Czech J. Genet. Plant Breed., 58: 73−82.

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Hedera helix L. is an invasive, but medicinally important plant. In Iran, there is no available study on the H. helix population to reveal the genetic diversity and population structure. Fifty-six individual plants belonging to nine geographical populations were collected in four provinces of Iran. High genetic diversity, polymorphisms, and a Shannon diversity index of 0.269 were detected in Mazandaran, Kandovan (Population 3). Analysis of the molecular variance indicated 40% of total genetic variation of the whole population was present in the subpopulation. A high genetic similarity (0.922) between plant Populations 5 (Kermanshah; Islamabad) and 6 (Kermanshah; Paveh) was noted. On the other hand, a low genetic similarity was observed between plant Populations 1 (Tehran; Darband) and 8 (Ardabil; Hur). The Mantel test revealed a correlation between the genetic and geographical distances. Furthermore, it demonstrated the isolation mechanism responsible for the population structure in the H. helix plant populations. The principal component analysis explained the majority of the variation in the morphological characteristics. Three components explained 87% of the variation, and the first component explained 60% of the variation. For instance, the leaf morphology showed a correlation of > 0.7 between leaf morphological and floral characters. The plant leaves and quantitative flower characteristics separated the plant populations according to the differences in length. The current results have implications for plant conservation and management.

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