Effect of plant density on stem and flower quality of single-stem ornamental sunflower genotypes
The aim of this research was to determine the optimum planting density for the production of high-quality cut flowers with desirable characteristics. 25 single-stem ornamental sunflower genotypes were planted at different densities and evaluated for flowering time, flower diameter, and stem circumference and length over a two-year production cycle. Three spacing patterns were used: 25 × 25 cm, 30 × 30 cm, and 70 × 30 cm, which led to the planting densities of 160 000, 90 000, and 60 000 plants/ha, respectively. The plant density had the most important effect on the stem circumference, flower diameter, and stem length (total variation 52, 60, and 58%, AMMI analysis) and a small effect on the flowering time (total variation 1%, AMMI analysis). Based on environment-focused scaling, all high-density environments could be suitable for the production of single-stem sunflower genotypes. The results demonstrated the adaptation of several sunflower genotypes G9, G11, G12, G21, and G22 as the most suitable based on the optimum flower diameter, stem circumference, and stem length. These results may lead to progress in growing ornamental sunflowers as a cut flower.
Ali A., Afzal M., Rasool I.J., Hussain S., Ahmad M. (2011): Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids performance at different plant spacing under agro-ecological conditions of Sargodha, Pakistan. In: International Conference on Food Engineering and Biotechnology, IACSIT Press, Singapoore 9: 317–322.
Amjad A., Ahmad I. (2012): Optimizing plant density, planting depth and postharvest preservatives for Lilium longifolium. Journal of Ornamental and Horticultural Plants, 2: 13–20.
Baghdadi A., Ridzwan A.H., Nasiri A., Ahmad I., Aslani F. (2014): Influence of plant spacing and sowing time on yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 12: 688–691.
Balalić I., Zorić M., Branković G., Terzić S., Crnobarac J. (2012): Interpretation of hybrid× sowing date interaction for oil content and oil yield in sunflower. Field Crops Research, 137: 70–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2012.08.005
Beg A., Pourdad S.S., Alpour S.(2007): Row and plant spacing effect on agronomic performance of sunflower in warm and semi-cold areas of Iran. Helia, 30: 99–104. https://doi.org/10.2298/HEL0747099B
Bhosale A.B., Deshmukh M.R., Takte R.L. (2012): Effect of different planting densities on performance of gerbera under polyhouse conditions. The Asian journal of Horticulture. 7: 449–453.
Burnett R.B. (2017): Pinching and spacing effects on cut sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Production in East Texas. [MSc Thesis.] Stephen F. Austin State University SFA ScholarWorks.
Craine J.M., Dybzinski R. (2013): Mechanisms of plant competition for nutrients, water and light. Functional Ecology, 27: 833–840. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12081
Cvejić S., Jocić S., Mladenović E., Jocković M., Miladinović D., Imerovski I., Dimitrijević A. (2017): Evaluation of combining ability in ornamental sunflower for floral and morphological traits. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 53: 83−88. https://doi.org/10.17221/50/2016-CJGPB
Fambrini M., Cionini G., BertiniD., Michelotti V., Conti A., Pugliesi C. (2003): MISSING FLOWERS gene controls axillary meristems initiation in sunflower. Genesis, 36: 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1002/gene.10194
Ford E.D. (2014): The dynamic relationship between plant architecture and competition. Frontiers in Plant Science, 5: 275. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00275
Gurav S.B., Singh B.R., Desai U.T., Katwate S.M., Kakade D.S., Dhane A.V. (2005): Effect of spacing on yield and quality of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex hoof. ) under polyhouse. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture, 8: 62–64.
GhobadiM. E., Ghobadi M. (2010): The effects of sowing dates and densities on yield and yield components of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation, 10: 725–728.
Ibrahim H.M.(2012): Response of some sunflower hybrids to different levels of plant density. APCBEE Procedia, 4: 175–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2012.11.030
Kapczyńska A. (2013): Effect of plant spacing on the growth, flowering and bulb production of four lachenalia cultivars. South African Journal of Botany, 88: 164–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2013.07.015
Kaya Y., Jocić S., Miladinović D.(2012): Sunflower. In: Gupta, S.K. (eds): Technological innovations in major world oil crops: Breeding, Springer, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York: 85–130.
Khorshidi J.F., Tabatabaei M., Omidbaigi R., Sefidkon F. (2009): Effect of densities of planting on yield and essential oil components of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. Soroksary). Journal of Agricultural Science, 1: 152–157. https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v1n1p152
Kumar K., Singh G.P., Singh N., Bhatla A.K., Nehra B.K. (2007): Performance of seed crop of coriander under different levels of row spacing, nitrogen and cycocel. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 36: 127–128.
Lentz D.L., Pohl M.D., Alvarado J.L., Tarighat S., Bye R.(2008): Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States, 105: 256–264. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0711760105
Mladenović E., Cvejić S., Jocić S., Čukanović J., Jocković M., Malidža G. (2017): Variability of morphological characters among ornamental sunflower collection. Genetika (Belgrade), 49 : 573–582. https://doi.org/10.2298/GENSR1702573M
Mojiri A., Arzani A. (2003): Effects of nitrogen rate and plant density on yield and yield components of sunflower. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 7: 115–125.
Moosavi S.G.R., Seghatoleslami M.J., Zareie M.H.(2012): The effect of planting date and plant density on morphological traits and essential oil yield of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 4: 496–501.
Nair Sujatha A., Medhi R.P. (2002): Performance of gerbera cultivars in Bray Island. Indian Journal Horticulture 59: 322–325.
Rajcan I., Swanton C.J. (2001): Understanding maize-weed competition: resource competition, light qualiy and the whole plant. Field Crops Research, 71: 139–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(01)00159-9
Roghayeh S.A., Ahmad T., Shahzad J-e-S. (2012): Effect of plant density on phenology and oil yield of safflower herb under irrigated and rainfed planting systems. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6: 2493–2503.
Schoellhorn R., Emino E., Alvarez E. (2003): Specialty cut flower production guides for Florida: sunflower. Gainesville: University of Florida, IFAS Extension.
Sher A., Khan A., Ashraf U., Liu H.H., Li J.C. (2018): Characterization of the effect of increased plant density on canopy morphology and stalk lodging risk. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9: 1047. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01047
Sloan R.C., Harkness S.S. (2006): Field evaluation of pollen-free sunflower cultivars for cut flower production. HortTechnology, 16: 324–327. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.16.2.0324
Süzer, S. (2011): Effects of nitrogen and plant density on dwarf sunflower hybrids. Helia, 33: 207–214. https://doi.org/10.2298/HEL1053207S
Vuppalapti P. (2005): Sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., cut flower variety trial. [Masters Theses.]. Western Kentucky University, USA.
Yan W., Tinker N.A. (2006): Biplot analysis of multi-environment trial data: Principles and applications. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 86: 623–645. https://doi.org/10.4141/P05-169
Yan W.,Tinker N.A. (2005): An integrated biplot analysis system for displaying, interpreting, and exploring genotype-byenvironment interactions. Crop Science, 45: 1004–1016. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2004.0076
Zobel J. (1998): How reliable are the results of large-scale information retrieval experiments?. In: Proceedings of the 21st annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval: 307–314.