Leaf pinching and phytohormones – two important components for the branching induction on sweet cherry 

https://doi.org/10.17221/12/2019-HORTSCICitation:Laňar L., Mészáros M., Kyselová K., Sus J., Náměstek J., Bělíková H., Čonka P. (2019): Leaf pinching and phytohormones – two important components for the branching induction on sweet cherry . Hort. Sci. (Prague), 46: 171-179.
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The promising branching agent cyclanilide [1-(2,4-dichlorophenylaminocarbonyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid] is not permitted in the EU and the low vigour rootstocks preferred by growers make the branching of young sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees difficult in the temperate zone production regions. To increase the number and length of new branches (“feathers”) on such trees, chemical (6-benzyladenine [BA], gibberellic acid [GA4/7]), mechanical (leaf pinching, summer notching) and various combined treatments were tested from 2015–2018. The numbers of feathers divided into three different lengths (1–10 cm, 10–30 cm and > 30 cm) were assessed as the main indicator of quality, supplemented with other morphological characteristics. Summer notching induced an insufficient number of feathers and led to some negative effects on the trees. The number of feathers from BA or BA with GA4/7 treatment also was insufficient. The effect of pinching alone was variable. The number of all feathers generally was highest when pinching was combined with BA, regardless of the year or cultivar.

References:
Atay E., Koyuncu F. (2013): A new approach for augmenting branching of nursery trees and its comparison with other methods. Scientia Horticulturae, 160: 345–350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.06.025
 
Baryla P., Kaplan M., Krawiec M. (2014): The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. ‘Regina’. Acta Agrobotanica, 67: 43–50. https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.2014.051
 
Cook N.C., De Wit I., Wustenberghs H., Andersone D., Keulemans J., Coucke W. (2004): Rootstock and nutrition modify sylleptic branching in sweet cherry cv. ‘Bigarreau Van’. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 658: 45–49. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.658.2
 
Elfving D.C. (2010): Plant bioregulators in the deciduous fruit tree nursery. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 884: 159–166. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.884.18
 
Elfving D.C., Visser D.B. (2006a): The use of bioregulators in the production of deciduous fruit trees. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 727: 57–66. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.727.4
 
Elfving D.C., Visser D.B. (2006b): Cyclanilide induces lateral branching in sweet cherry trees. HortScience, 41: 149–153. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.41.1.149
 
Elfving D.C., Visser D.B. (2006c): Timing cyclanilide and cytokinin applications in the nursery to obtain desired lateral branch height in apple and sweet cherry trees. HortScience, 41: 1238–1242. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.41.5.1238
 
Elfving D.C., Visser D.B. (2007): Improving the efficacy of cytokinin applications for stimulation of lateral branch development in young sweet cherry trees in the orchard. HortScience, 42: 251–256. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.42.2.251
 
Greene D.W., Autio W.R. (1994): Notching techniques increase branching of young apple trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 119: 678–682. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.119.4.678
 
Hrotkó K., Magyar L., Yao C., Rónay Z. (1998): Effect of repeated BA (benzyladenine) application on feathering of ‘Idared’ apple nursery trees. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 463: 169–176. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.463.19
 
Hrotkó K., Magyar L., Öri B. (1999): Improved feathering on one-year-old ‘Germersdorfi FL 45’ sweet cherry trees in the nursery. Gartenbauwissenschaft, 64: 75–78.
 
Hrotkó K., Magyar L., Rónay Z. (2000): Improved feathering on apple nursery trees by BA application. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 514: 113–119. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2000.514.12
 
Koyuncu F., Yildirim A.N. (2008): Induction of lateral branching of 0900 ‘Ziraat’ sweet cherry in the nursery with 6-benzyladenine+GA4/7. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 795: 391–394. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.795.58
 
Laňar L., Sus J., Mészáros M. (2015): Effect of added surfactant and frequency of spraying on branching of apple variety ‘Rubinola’ in fruit tree nursery. Vědecké práce ovocnářské. 24: 169–176.
 
Lordan J., Robinson T. L., Miranda Sazo M., Cowgill W., Black B. L., Huffman L. Grigg-McGuffin K., Francescatto P., McArtney S. (2017): Use of plant growth regulators for feathering and flower suppression of apple nursery trees. HortScience, 52: 1080–1091. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI11918-17
 
Moghadam E.G., Zamanipour M. (2013): Induction of lateral branching in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cvs ‘Siah Mashhad’ & ‘Dovomras’) trees in nursery. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5: 23–30.
 
Neri D., Mazzoni M., Zucconi F. (2004): Feathering control in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) nursery, by deblading and cytokinin. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 636: 119–127. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.636.14
 
R Core Team (2018): R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
 
Stanisavljević A., Bošnjak D., Todorčić V.T., Teklić T., Špoljarević M., Štolfa I., Tomaš V., Dugalić K., Lisjak M. (2015): Induction of lateral shoots of sweet cherry on the Gisela 6 rootstock. Poljoprivreda, 21: 59–67. https://doi.org/10.18047/poljo.21.1.10
 
Tromp J. (1996): Sylleptic shoot formation in young apple trees exposed to various soil temperature and air humidity regimes in three successive periods of the growing season. Annals of Botany, 77: 63–70. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1996.0008
 
Tromp J., Boertjes B.C. (1996): The effect of air temperature in successive periods of the growing season on sylleptic shoot formation in young apple trees. Plant Growth Regulation, 19, 177–182. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00024583
 
van den Berg A. (2003): Certified nursery tree production in Holland. The Compact Fruit Tree. 36: 43–45.
 
von Bennewitz E., Fredes C., Gutierrez L., Lošák T. (2014): Effect of the co-application of Promalin® at different bud phenological stages and notching at different distances on lateral branching of three sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus Avium L.) in central Chile. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 58: 45–50. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201058020045
 
Wolf J., Venuta R., Ondrásek I., Nečas T. (2018): Use of plant growth regulators in fruit nursery production of plums and sweet cherries. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 1206: 299–307. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1206.42
 
Wustenberghs H., Keulemans J. (1999): The sweet cherry: quality improvement of planting stock. Le Fruit Belge, 67: 106–110.
 
Atay E., Koyuncu F. (2013): A new approach for augmenting branching of nursery trees and its comparison with other methods. Scientia Horticulturae, 160: 345–350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.06.025
 
Baryla P., Kaplan M., Krawiec M. (2014): The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. ‘Regina’. Acta Agrobotanica, 67: 43–50. https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.2014.051
 
Cook N.C., De Wit I., Wustenberghs H., Andersone D., Keulemans J., Coucke W. (2004): Rootstock and nutrition modify sylleptic branching in sweet cherry cv. ‘Bigarreau Van’. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 658: 45–49. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.658.2
 
Elfving D.C. (2010): Plant bioregulators in the deciduous fruit tree nursery. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 884: 159–166. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.884.18
 
Elfving D.C., Visser D.B. (2006a): The use of bioregulators in the production of deciduous fruit trees. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 727: 57–66. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.727.4
 
Elfving D.C., Visser D.B. (2006b): Cyclanilide induces lateral branching in sweet cherry trees. HortScience, 41: 149–153. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.41.1.149
 
Elfving D.C., Visser D.B. (2006c): Timing cyclanilide and cytokinin applications in the nursery to obtain desired lateral branch height in apple and sweet cherry trees. HortScience, 41: 1238–1242. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.41.5.1238
 
Elfving D.C., Visser D.B. (2007): Improving the efficacy of cytokinin applications for stimulation of lateral branch development in young sweet cherry trees in the orchard. HortScience, 42: 251–256. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.42.2.251
 
Greene D.W., Autio W.R. (1994): Notching techniques increase branching of young apple trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 119: 678–682. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.119.4.678
 
Hrotkó K., Magyar L., Yao C., Rónay Z. (1998): Effect of repeated BA (benzyladenine) application on feathering of ‘Idared’ apple nursery trees. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 463: 169–176. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.463.19
 
Hrotkó K., Magyar L., Öri B. (1999): Improved feathering on one-year-old ‘Germersdorfi FL 45’ sweet cherry trees in the nursery. Gartenbauwissenschaft, 64: 75–78.
 
Hrotkó K., Magyar L., Rónay Z. (2000): Improved feathering on apple nursery trees by BA application. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 514: 113–119. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2000.514.12
 
Koyuncu F., Yildirim A.N. (2008): Induction of lateral branching of 0900 ‘Ziraat’ sweet cherry in the nursery with 6-benzyladenine+GA4/7. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 795: 391–394. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.795.58
 
Laňar L., Sus J., Mészáros M. (2015): Effect of added surfactant and frequency of spraying on branching of apple variety ‘Rubinola’ in fruit tree nursery. Vědecké práce ovocnářské. 24: 169–176.
 
Lordan J., Robinson T. L., Miranda Sazo M., Cowgill W., Black B. L., Huffman L. Grigg-McGuffin K., Francescatto P., McArtney S. (2017): Use of plant growth regulators for feathering and flower suppression of apple nursery trees. HortScience, 52: 1080–1091. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI11918-17
 
Moghadam E.G., Zamanipour M. (2013): Induction of lateral branching in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cvs ‘Siah Mashhad’ & ‘Dovomras’) trees in nursery. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5: 23–30.
 
Neri D., Mazzoni M., Zucconi F. (2004): Feathering control in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) nursery, by deblading and cytokinin. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 636: 119–127. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.636.14
 
R Core Team (2018): R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
 
Stanisavljević A., Bošnjak D., Todorčić V.T., Teklić T., Špoljarević M., Štolfa I., Tomaš V., Dugalić K., Lisjak M. (2015): Induction of lateral shoots of sweet cherry on the Gisela 6 rootstock. Poljoprivreda, 21: 59–67. https://doi.org/10.18047/poljo.21.1.10
 
Tromp J. (1996): Sylleptic shoot formation in young apple trees exposed to various soil temperature and air humidity regimes in three successive periods of the growing season. Annals of Botany, 77: 63–70. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1996.0008
 
Tromp J., Boertjes B.C. (1996): The effect of air temperature in successive periods of the growing season on sylleptic shoot formation in young apple trees. Plant Growth Regulation, 19, 177–182. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00024583
 
van den Berg A. (2003): Certified nursery tree production in Holland. The Compact Fruit Tree. 36: 43–45.
 
von Bennewitz E., Fredes C., Gutierrez L., Lošák T. (2014): Effect of the co-application of Promalin® at different bud phenological stages and notching at different distances on lateral branching of three sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus Avium L.) in central Chile. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 58: 45–50. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201058020045
 
Wolf J., Venuta R., Ondrásek I., Nečas T. (2018): Use of plant growth regulators in fruit nursery production of plums and sweet cherries. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 1206: 299–307. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1206.42
 
Wustenberghs H., Keulemans J. (1999): The sweet cherry: quality improvement of planting stock. Le Fruit Belge, 67: 106–110.
 
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