Stomatal anatomy and closing ability is affected by supplementary light intensity in rose (Rosa hybrida L.)

https://doi.org/10.17221/144/2017-HORTSCICitation:Fanourakis D., Hyldgaard B., Giday H., Aulik I., Bouranis D., Körner O., Ottosen C. (2019): Stomatal anatomy and closing ability is affected by supplementary light intensity in rose (Rosa hybrida L.). Hort. Sci. (Prague), 46: 81-89.
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Increasing the light level in protected cultivation of ornamental crops via supplementary lighting is critical to enhance both production and external quality especially during the periods of low light availability. Despite wide applications the effects of light intensities were not previously addressed on water loss pathways. In this study rose plants were cultivated at 100, 200 or 400 μmol/(m2·s) photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The stomatal responsiveness to desiccation, stomatal anatomical features and cuticular transpiration were determined. Plant biomass as well as photosynthesis response to light and CO2 were also assessed. Increasing growth PPFD led to a considerable increase in plant biomass (85 and 57% for 100 to 200 and 200 to 400 μmol/(m2·s) respectively). Photosynthesis was marginally affected by increasing growth PPFD from 100 to 200 μmol/(m2·s) while a further rise to 400 μmol/(m2·s) considerably increased photosynthetic rate at high light intensities. Higher PPFD during cultivation generally led to larger stomata with bigger pores. A PPFD increase from 100 to 200 μmol/(m2·s) had a small negative effect on stomatal closing ability whereas a further rise to 400  μmol/(m2·s) had a substantial stimulatory effect. Cultivation at a PPFD higher than 100 μmol/(m2·s) led to lower rates of cuticular transpiration. In conclusion, high growth PPFD (> 200 μmol/(m2·s)) enchanced both photosynthetic and stomatal anatomical traits. High light intensity (> 200 μmol/(m2·s)) also led to a better control of water loss due to more responsive stomata and decreased cuticular permeability.

References:
Blom-Zandstra Margaretha, Pot C.Sander, Maas Frank M., Schapendonk Ad H.C.M. (1995): Effects of different light treatments on the nocturnal transpiration and dynamics of stomatal closure of two Rose cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 61, 251-262 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(94)00751-Z
 
Boyer J. S., Wong S. C., Farquhar G. D. (1997): CO2 and Water Vapor Exchange across Leaf Cuticle (Epidermis) at Various Water Potentials. Plant Physiology, 114, 185-191 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.114.1.185
 
Carvalho Dália R.A., Fanourakis Dimitrios, Correia Maria J., Monteiro José A., Araújo-Alves José Pedro L., Vasconcelos Marta W., Almeida Domingos P.F., Heuvelink Ep, Carvalho Susana M.P. (2016): Root-to-shoot ABA signaling does not contribute to genotypic variation in stomatal functioning induced by high relative air humidity. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 123, 13-21 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2015.11.001
 
Domínguez Eva, Heredia-Guerrero José Alejandro, Heredia Antonio (2011): The biophysical design of plant cuticles: an overview. New Phytologist, 189, 938-949 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03553.x
 
Drake Paul L., Froend Ray H., Franks Peter J. (2013): Smaller, faster stomata: scaling of stomatal size, rate of response, and stomatal conductance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 64, 495-505 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ers347
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Bouranis Dimitrios, Giday Habtamu, Carvalho Dália R.A., Rezaei Nejad Abdolhossein, Ottosen Carl-Otto (2016): Improving stomatal functioning at elevated growth air humidity: A review. Journal of Plant Physiology, 207, 51-60 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2016.10.003
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Carvalho Susana M.P., Almeida Domingos P.F., van Kooten Olaf, van Doorn Wouter G., Heuvelink Ep (2012): Postharvest water relations in cut rose cultivars with contrasting sensitivity to high relative air humidity during growth. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 64, 64-73 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2011.09.016
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Heuvelink Ep, Carvalho Susana M.P. (2013): A comprehensive analysis of the physiological and anatomical components involved in higher water loss rates after leaf development at high humidity. Journal of Plant Physiology, 170, 890-898 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2013.01.013
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Giday Habtamu, Milla Rubén, Pieruschka Roland, Kjaer Katrine H., Bolger Marie, Vasilevski Aleksandar, Nunes-Nesi Adriano, Fiorani Fabio, Ottosen Carl-Otto (2015): Pore size regulates operating stomatal conductance, while stomatal densities drive the partitioning of conductance between leaf sides. Annals of Botany, 115, 555-565 https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcu247
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Heuvelink Ep, Carvalho Susana M. P. (2015): Spatial heterogeneity in stomatal features during leaf elongation: an analysis using Rosa hybrida. Functional Plant Biology, 42, 737- https://doi.org/10.1071/FP15008
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Pieruschka Roland, Savvides Andreas, Macnish Andrew J., Sarlikioti Vaia, Woltering Ernst J. (2013): Sources of vase life variation in cut roses: A review. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 78, 1-15 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2012.12.001
 
Fanourakis D., Velez-Ramirez A.I., In B.-C., Barendse H., van Meeteren U., Woltering E.J. (2015): A SURVEY OF PREHARVEST CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE REGULATION OF WATER LOSS DURING VASE LIFE. Acta Horticulturae, , 195-204 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1064.22
 
Giday Habtamu, Fanourakis Dimitrios, Kjaer Katrine H., Fomsgaard Inge S., Ottosen Carl-Otto (2013): Foliar abscisic acid content underlies genotypic variation in stomatal responsiveness after growth at high relative air humidity. Annals of Botany, 112, 1857-1867 https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mct220
 
Giday Habtamu, Kjaer Katrine H., Fanourakis Dimitrios, Ottosen Carl-Otto (2013): Smaller stomata require less severe leaf drying to close: A case study in Rosa hydrida. Journal of Plant Physiology, 170, 1309-1316 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2013.04.007
 
Heuvelink E., Bakker M.J., Hogendonk L., Janse J., Kaarsemaker R., Maaswinkel R. (2006): HORTICULTURAL LIGHTING IN THE NETHERLANDS: NEW DEVELOPMENTS. Acta Horticulturae, , 25-34 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.711.1
 
James S. A., Bell D. T. (2000): Influence of light availability on leaf structure and growth of two Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus provenances. Tree Physiology, 20, 1007-1018 https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/20.15.1007
 
Kerstiens Gerhard (1996): Cuticular water permeability and its physiological significance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 47, 1813-1832 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/47.12.1813
 
Poorter Hendrik, Niinemets Ülo, Walter Achim, Fiorani Fabio, Schurr Uli (2010): A method to construct dose–response curves for a wide range of environmental factors and plant traits by means of a meta-analysis of phenotypic data. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61, 2043-2055 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erp358
 
Terashima Ichiro, Hanba Yuko T., Tazoe Youshi, Vyas Poonam, Yano Satoshi (2006): Irradiance and phenotype: comparative eco-development of sun and shade leaves in relation to photosynthetic CO2 diffusion. Journal of Experimental Botany, 57, 343-354 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erj014
 
Xue Dawei, Zhang Xiaoqin, Lu Xueli, Chen Guang, Chen Zhong-Hua (2017): Molecular and Evolutionary Mechanisms of Cuticular Wax for Plant Drought Tolerance. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, - https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00621
 
YANO S., TERASHIMA I. (2004): Developmental process of sun and shade leaves in Chenopodium album L.. Plant, Cell and Environment, 27, 781-793 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2004.01182.x
 
Blom-Zandstra Margaretha, Pot C.Sander, Maas Frank M., Schapendonk Ad H.C.M. (1995): Effects of different light treatments on the nocturnal transpiration and dynamics of stomatal closure of two Rose cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 61, 251-262 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(94)00751-Z
 
Boyer J. S., Wong S. C., Farquhar G. D. (1997): CO2 and Water Vapor Exchange across Leaf Cuticle (Epidermis) at Various Water Potentials. Plant Physiology, 114, 185-191 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.114.1.185
 
Carvalho Dália R.A., Fanourakis Dimitrios, Correia Maria J., Monteiro José A., Araújo-Alves José Pedro L., Vasconcelos Marta W., Almeida Domingos P.F., Heuvelink Ep, Carvalho Susana M.P. (2016): Root-to-shoot ABA signaling does not contribute to genotypic variation in stomatal functioning induced by high relative air humidity. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 123, 13-21 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2015.11.001
 
Domínguez Eva, Heredia-Guerrero José Alejandro, Heredia Antonio (2011): The biophysical design of plant cuticles: an overview. New Phytologist, 189, 938-949 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03553.x
 
Drake Paul L., Froend Ray H., Franks Peter J. (2013): Smaller, faster stomata: scaling of stomatal size, rate of response, and stomatal conductance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 64, 495-505 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ers347
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Bouranis Dimitrios, Giday Habtamu, Carvalho Dália R.A., Rezaei Nejad Abdolhossein, Ottosen Carl-Otto (2016): Improving stomatal functioning at elevated growth air humidity: A review. Journal of Plant Physiology, 207, 51-60 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2016.10.003
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Carvalho Susana M.P., Almeida Domingos P.F., van Kooten Olaf, van Doorn Wouter G., Heuvelink Ep (2012): Postharvest water relations in cut rose cultivars with contrasting sensitivity to high relative air humidity during growth. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 64, 64-73 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2011.09.016
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Heuvelink Ep, Carvalho Susana M.P. (2013): A comprehensive analysis of the physiological and anatomical components involved in higher water loss rates after leaf development at high humidity. Journal of Plant Physiology, 170, 890-898 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2013.01.013
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Giday Habtamu, Milla Rubén, Pieruschka Roland, Kjaer Katrine H., Bolger Marie, Vasilevski Aleksandar, Nunes-Nesi Adriano, Fiorani Fabio, Ottosen Carl-Otto (2015): Pore size regulates operating stomatal conductance, while stomatal densities drive the partitioning of conductance between leaf sides. Annals of Botany, 115, 555-565 https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcu247
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Heuvelink Ep, Carvalho Susana M. P. (2015): Spatial heterogeneity in stomatal features during leaf elongation: an analysis using Rosa hybrida. Functional Plant Biology, 42, 737- https://doi.org/10.1071/FP15008
 
Fanourakis Dimitrios, Pieruschka Roland, Savvides Andreas, Macnish Andrew J., Sarlikioti Vaia, Woltering Ernst J. (2013): Sources of vase life variation in cut roses: A review. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 78, 1-15 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2012.12.001
 
Fanourakis D., Velez-Ramirez A.I., In B.-C., Barendse H., van Meeteren U., Woltering E.J. (2015): A SURVEY OF PREHARVEST CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE REGULATION OF WATER LOSS DURING VASE LIFE. Acta Horticulturae, , 195-204 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1064.22
 
Giday Habtamu, Fanourakis Dimitrios, Kjaer Katrine H., Fomsgaard Inge S., Ottosen Carl-Otto (2013): Foliar abscisic acid content underlies genotypic variation in stomatal responsiveness after growth at high relative air humidity. Annals of Botany, 112, 1857-1867 https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mct220
 
Giday Habtamu, Kjaer Katrine H., Fanourakis Dimitrios, Ottosen Carl-Otto (2013): Smaller stomata require less severe leaf drying to close: A case study in Rosa hydrida. Journal of Plant Physiology, 170, 1309-1316 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2013.04.007
 
Heuvelink E., Bakker M.J., Hogendonk L., Janse J., Kaarsemaker R., Maaswinkel R. (2006): HORTICULTURAL LIGHTING IN THE NETHERLANDS: NEW DEVELOPMENTS. Acta Horticulturae, , 25-34 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.711.1
 
James S. A., Bell D. T. (2000): Influence of light availability on leaf structure and growth of two Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus provenances. Tree Physiology, 20, 1007-1018 https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/20.15.1007
 
Kerstiens Gerhard (1996): Cuticular water permeability and its physiological significance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 47, 1813-1832 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/47.12.1813
 
Poorter Hendrik, Niinemets Ülo, Walter Achim, Fiorani Fabio, Schurr Uli (2010): A method to construct dose–response curves for a wide range of environmental factors and plant traits by means of a meta-analysis of phenotypic data. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61, 2043-2055 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erp358
 
Terashima Ichiro, Hanba Yuko T., Tazoe Youshi, Vyas Poonam, Yano Satoshi (2006): Irradiance and phenotype: comparative eco-development of sun and shade leaves in relation to photosynthetic CO2 diffusion. Journal of Experimental Botany, 57, 343-354 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erj014
 
Xue Dawei, Zhang Xiaoqin, Lu Xueli, Chen Guang, Chen Zhong-Hua (2017): Molecular and Evolutionary Mechanisms of Cuticular Wax for Plant Drought Tolerance. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, - https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00621
 
YANO S., TERASHIMA I. (2004): Developmental process of sun and shade leaves in Chenopodium album L.. Plant, Cell and Environment, 27, 781-793 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2004.01182.x
 
supplementary materialdownload PDF

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