Analysis of freezable water content by DSC for apple dormant bud cryopreservation
Dormant bud cryopreservation is a valuable tool for the germplasm of temperate trees preservation. Freezable water content, as an important cryopreservation characteristic, was analysed by DSC. Scions of modern apple tree varieties (Malus domestica) were collected during the winter season from orchards, freeze-dehydrated to 26–32% of water content at –5°C and cryopreserved by the two-step procedure. Samples were rehydrated in moist peat after 4 months of cryopreservation and grafted on rootstocks in a field. Regeneration by sprouting buds on rootstocks was evaluated. The varieties were divided into three groups according to their water content and percentage of crystallized water. The regeneration in the three groups decreased with decreasing bud water content. Regeneration was higher than 80% in most of the varieties and reached 100% in almost 1/3 of the tested varieties. In only one variety, was regeneration lower than 40%, which is still a high regeneration rate for considering apple genotypes as successfully cryopreserved. According to this study, the two-step cryoprotocol was successfully optimized for Central European conditions.
Bilavcik A., Zamecnik J., Faltus M. (2015): Cryotolerance of apple tree bud is independent of endodormancy. Frontiers in Plant Science, 6: 695. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00695
Boček S. (2008): Staré a krajové odrůdy, jejich význam a využití v současnosti. [Old varieties and landraces, their importance and use at present.] In: Boček S. et al. 2008: Ovocné dřeviny v krajině, sborník přednášek a seminárních prací, Hostětín, 2008: 7–19.
Dirlewanger E., Graziano E., Joobeur T., Garriga-Calderé F., Cosson P., Howad W., Arús P. (2004): Comparative mapping and marker-assisted selection in Rosaceae fruit crops. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101: 9891–9896. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0307937101
Forsline P.L., McFerson J.R., Lamboy W.F., Towill L.E., (1998a): Development of base and active collections of Malus germplasm with cryopreserved dormant buds. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 484: 75–78. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.484.8
Forsline P.L., Towill L.E., Waddell J.W., Stushnoff C., Lamboy W.F., McFerson J.R. (1998b): Recovery and longevity of cryopreserved dormant apple buds. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 123: 365–370. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.123.3.365
Hao Y.J., Liu Q.L., Deng X.X. (2001): Effect of Cryopreservation on Apple Genetic Resources at Morphological, Chromosomal, and Molecular Levels. Cryobiology 43: 46–53. https://doi.org/10.1006/cryo.2001.2339
Höfer M. (2007): Preliminary results of the cryopreservation of Malus germplasm from the fruit gene bank collection at the Institute of Fruit Breeding, Dresden. Advances in Horticultural Science, 21: 251–254.
Jenderek M.M., Forsline P., Postman J., Stover E., Ellis D. (2011): Effect of geographical location, year, and cultivar on survival of Malus sp. dormant buds stored in vapors of liquid nitrogen. HortScience, 46: 1230–1234. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.46.9.1230
Prudente D.O., Paiva R. (2017): Plant Cryopreservation: Biochemical Aspects. Journal of Cell and Developmental Biology, 1: 1.
Quamme H., Weiser C.J. and Stushnoff C. (1973): The mechanism of freezing injury in xylem of winter apple twigs. Plant Physiology, 51: 273–277. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.51.2.273
Ružić Dj., Vujović T., Cerović R. (2014): Cryopreservation of cherry rootstock Gisela 5 using vitrification procedure. Horticultural Science (Prague), 41: 55–63. https://doi.org/10.17221/234/2013-HORTSCI
Sakai A. (1965): Survival of plant tissue at super low temperatures. III. Relation between prefreezing temperature and degree of frost hardiness. Plant Physiology, 40: 882–887. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.40.5.882
Seufferheld M.J., Stushnoff C. (1999): Cryopreservation of cold-tender apple germplasm. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 124: 612–618. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.124.6.612
Toldam-Andersen T.B., Nygaard T.B., Krogholm K.S. (2007): Cryopreservation of dormant buds of apple cultivars in a mild maritime winter climate. Advances in Horticultural Science, 21: 193–197.
Towill L.E., Ellis, D.D. (2007): Cryopreservation of Dormant Buds. In: Reed B.M. (ed.): Plant Cryopreservation: A Practical Guide. New York, USA, Springer: 421–442.
Towill L.E., Forsline P.L., Walters C., Waddel J.W., Laufman J. (2004): Cryopreservation of Malus germplasm using a winter vegetative bud method: Results from 1915 accessions. CryoLetters, 25: 323–334.
Towill L.E., Bonnart R. (2005): Cryopreservation of apple using non dessicated sections from winter-collected scions. CryoLetters, 26: 323–332.
Tyler N., Stushnoff C., Gusta L.V. (1988): Freezing of water in dormant vegetative apple buds in relation to cryopreservation. Plant Physiology, 87: 201–205. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.87.1.201
Vogiatzi C., Grout B.W.W., Wetten A., Toldam-Andersen T.B. (2010): Critical steps in cryopreservation of dormant winter buds collected under relatively mild winter conditions. Abstracts/Cryobiology, 61: 368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2010.10.026
Vogiatzi C., Grout B.W.W., Toldam-Andersen T.B., Wulfsohn D. (2011): Dormant bud cryopreservation: secondary buds can affect the estimation of post-thaw survival. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 918: 147–152. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.918.17
Vogiatzi C., Grout B.W.W., Wetten A. (2012): Cryopreservation of winter-dormant apple: III—bud water status and survival after cooling –30°C and during recovery from cryopreservation. CryoLetters, 33: 160–168.
Volk G.M., Bonnart R., Waddell J., Widrlechner M.P. (2009): Cryopreservation of dormant buds from diverse Fraxinus species. CryoLetters, 30: 262–267.