Sequential abiotic stress applied to juvenile eggplant modifies the seedlings parameters, plant ontogeny and yield

https://doi.org/10.17221/162/2015-HORTSCICitation:Sękara A., Bączek-Kwinta R., Gawęda M., Kalisz A., Pokluda R., Jezdinský A. (2016): Sequential abiotic stress applied to juvenile eggplant modifies the seedlings parameters, plant ontogeny and yield. Hort. Sci. (Prague), 43: 149-157.
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The main goal of this study was to evaluate eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) susceptibility to a sequence of stress factors during plant ontogeny based on seedling morphological, biochemical and physiological parameters and the subsequent assessment of yield characteristics. After germination, seedlings at the radical stage were exposed to chilling, heat, osmotic or oxidative stress. Four weeks after development in standard conditions in a greenhouse, the seedlings were again subjected to chilling stress in a growth chamber. A non-chilled Control was implemented. Then, the yield and physiological characteristics were assessed after field cultivation. Generally, stress application after germination resulted in better plant acclimation to chilling at the 4-week-old seedling phase, evaluated on the basis of photosynthetically active pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence and some morphological characteristics. The comparable time to reach successive phenological stages by stressed and Control plants in the field suggests that stress pretreatment does not retard eggplant development. These results also confirm the thesis that stress memory can be induced in eggplant by stressor application during the early stages of development.
References:
Albacete A., Martínez-Andújar C., Acosta M., Pascual J.A., Perez-Alfocea F. (2006): Increasing plant yield and seed quality in tomato by inducing plant vigour at the earliest seedling stage. In: Proceedings 4th International Symposium on Seed, Transplant and Stand Establishment of Horticultural Crops “Translating seed and seedling physiology into technology”, San Antonio, USA, Dec. 36, 2006: 29.
 
Bruce Toby J.A., Matthes Michaela C., Napier Johnathan A., Pickett John A. (2007): Stressful “memories” of plants: Evidence and possible mechanisms. Plant Science, 173, 603-608  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2007.09.002
 
Chen K., Arora R. (2013): Priming memory invokes seed stress-tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 94, 33-45  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.03.005
 
Chinnusamy Viswanathan, Zhu Jian-Kang (2009): Epigenetic regulation of stress responses in plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 12, 133-139  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2008.12.006
 
Giannakoula A., Papastergiou I.I., Hatzigaidas A. (2006): The effects of development at chilling temperatures on the function of the photosynthetic apparatus under high and low irradiance in leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). In: Proceedings 5th WSEAS International Conference on Environment, Ecosystems and Development, Venice, Italy, Nov 20–22, 2006: 396–401.
 
Guidi L., Degl’innocenti E. (2012): Chlorophyll a fluorescence in abiotic stress. In: Venkateswarlu B., Shanker A.K., Shanker C., Maheswari M. (eds): Crop Stress and Its Management: Perspectives and Strategies. Netherlands, Springer: 359–398.
 
Illangakoon T.K., Bandara D.C., Fonseka H. (2004): Evaluation of physioagronomic and chemical traits in relation to the productivity of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Tropical Agricultural Research, 16: 14–24.
 
Koscielniak J., Biesaga-Koscielniak J. (2000): The Effect of Short Warm Breaks during Chilling on Water Status, Intensity of Photosynthesis of Maize Seedlings and Final Grain Yield. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 184, 1-12  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-037x.2000.00365.x
 
Kürklü A., Hadley P., Wheldon A. (1998): Effects of temperature and time of harvest on the growth and yield of aubergine (Solanum melongena L.). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 22: 341–348.
 
LICHTENTHALER HARTMUT K., WELLBURN ALAN R. (): Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions, 11, 591-592  https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0110591
 
Martínez-Andújar C., Albacete A., Roldán A., Pascual J.A., Dodd I.C., Pérez-Alfocea F. (2011): BAPTISM OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS BY OSMOTIC STRESS ALTERS ABA RELATIONS AND IMPROVES TOLERANCE TO SALT AND WATER STRESS AFTER TRANSPLANT. Acta Horticulturae, , 327-334  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.898.41
 
Maxwell K. (): Chlorophyll fluorescence--a practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51, 659-668  https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.345.659
 
Munné-Bosch Sergi, Alegre Leonor (2004): Die and let live: leaf senescence contributes to plant survival under drought stress. Functional Plant Biology, 31, 203-  https://doi.org/10.1071/FP03236
 
Noto G., La Malfa G. (1986): FLOWERING OF TOMATO IN RELATION TO PRE-PLANTING LOW TEMPERATURES. Acta Horticulturae, , 275-280  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1986.191.30
 
Pastor V., Luna E., Mauch-Mani B., Ton J., Flors V. (2013): Primed plants do not forget. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 94, 46-56  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.02.013
 
Sękara A. (2010): Biology of the vegetative and generative development of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) in the field production: Chosen aspects. Zeszyty Naukowe. UR 459 (336): 109.
 
Sękara Agnieszka, Bączek-Kwinta Renata, Kalisz Andrzej, Cebula Stanisław (2012): Tolerance of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seedlings to stress factors. Acta Agrobotanica, 65, 83-92  https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.2012.061
 
Sękara A., Kalisz A., Bączek-Kwinta R., Gawęda M., Pohl A., Grabowska A. (2015): The effect of abiotic stresses applied in the juvenile phase of eggplant ontogeny on the chemical composition of seedlings and fruits. Agrochimica, 61: 26–39.
 
Szalontai B., Domonkos I., Gombos Z. (2012): The role of membrane structure in acclimation to low-temperature stress. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, 34: 233−250.
 
Strasser R.J., Srivastava A., Tsimilli-Michael M. (2000): The fluorescence transient as a tool to characterize and screen photosynthetic samples. In: Yunus M., Pathre U., Mohanty P. (eds): Probing Photosynthesis: Mechanisms, Regulation and Adaptation. London, Taylor and Francis: 445–483.
 
Strauss A.J., Krüger G.H.J., Strasser R.J., Heerden P.D.R. Van (2006): Ranking of dark chilling tolerance in soybean genotypes probed by the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient O-J-I-P. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 56, 147-157  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.01.011
 
Uzun Sezgin (2006): The quantitative effects of temperature and light on the number of leaves preceding the first fruiting inflorescence on the stem of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) and aubergine (Solanum melongena L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 109, 142-146  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.04.006
 
Valluru R., Link J., Claupein W. (2012): Consequences of early chilling stress in two Triticum species: plastic responses and adaptive significance. Plant Biology, 14, 641-651  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2011.00540.x
 
Albacete A., Martínez-Andújar C., Acosta M., Pascual J.A., Perez-Alfocea F. (2006): Increasing plant yield and seed quality in tomato by inducing plant vigour at the earliest seedling stage. In: Proceedings 4th International Symposium on Seed, Transplant and Stand Establishment of Horticultural Crops “Translating seed and seedling physiology into technology”, San Antonio, USA, Dec. 36, 2006: 29.
 
Bruce Toby J.A., Matthes Michaela C., Napier Johnathan A., Pickett John A. (2007): Stressful “memories” of plants: Evidence and possible mechanisms. Plant Science, 173, 603-608  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2007.09.002
 
Chen K., Arora R. (2013): Priming memory invokes seed stress-tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 94, 33-45  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.03.005
 
Chinnusamy Viswanathan, Zhu Jian-Kang (2009): Epigenetic regulation of stress responses in plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 12, 133-139  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2008.12.006
 
Giannakoula A., Papastergiou I.I., Hatzigaidas A. (2006): The effects of development at chilling temperatures on the function of the photosynthetic apparatus under high and low irradiance in leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). In: Proceedings 5th WSEAS International Conference on Environment, Ecosystems and Development, Venice, Italy, Nov 20–22, 2006: 396–401.
 
Guidi L., Degl’innocenti E. (2012): Chlorophyll a fluorescence in abiotic stress. In: Venkateswarlu B., Shanker A.K., Shanker C., Maheswari M. (eds): Crop Stress and Its Management: Perspectives and Strategies. Netherlands, Springer: 359–398.
 
Illangakoon T.K., Bandara D.C., Fonseka H. (2004): Evaluation of physioagronomic and chemical traits in relation to the productivity of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Tropical Agricultural Research, 16: 14–24.
 
Koscielniak J., Biesaga-Koscielniak J. (2000): The Effect of Short Warm Breaks during Chilling on Water Status, Intensity of Photosynthesis of Maize Seedlings and Final Grain Yield. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 184, 1-12  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-037x.2000.00365.x
 
Kürklü A., Hadley P., Wheldon A. (1998): Effects of temperature and time of harvest on the growth and yield of aubergine (Solanum melongena L.). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 22: 341–348.
 
LICHTENTHALER HARTMUT K., WELLBURN ALAN R. (): Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions, 11, 591-592  https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0110591
 
Martínez-Andújar C., Albacete A., Roldán A., Pascual J.A., Dodd I.C., Pérez-Alfocea F. (2011): BAPTISM OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS BY OSMOTIC STRESS ALTERS ABA RELATIONS AND IMPROVES TOLERANCE TO SALT AND WATER STRESS AFTER TRANSPLANT. Acta Horticulturae, , 327-334  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.898.41
 
Maxwell K. (): Chlorophyll fluorescence--a practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51, 659-668  https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.345.659
 
Munné-Bosch Sergi, Alegre Leonor (2004): Die and let live: leaf senescence contributes to plant survival under drought stress. Functional Plant Biology, 31, 203-  https://doi.org/10.1071/FP03236
 
Noto G., La Malfa G. (1986): FLOWERING OF TOMATO IN RELATION TO PRE-PLANTING LOW TEMPERATURES. Acta Horticulturae, , 275-280  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1986.191.30
 
Pastor V., Luna E., Mauch-Mani B., Ton J., Flors V. (2013): Primed plants do not forget. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 94, 46-56  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.02.013
 
Sękara A. (2010): Biology of the vegetative and generative development of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) in the field production: Chosen aspects. Zeszyty Naukowe. UR 459 (336): 109.
 
Sękara Agnieszka, Bączek-Kwinta Renata, Kalisz Andrzej, Cebula Stanisław (2012): Tolerance of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seedlings to stress factors. Acta Agrobotanica, 65, 83-92  https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.2012.061
 
Sękara A., Kalisz A., Bączek-Kwinta R., Gawęda M., Pohl A., Grabowska A. (2015): The effect of abiotic stresses applied in the juvenile phase of eggplant ontogeny on the chemical composition of seedlings and fruits. Agrochimica, 61: 26–39.
 
Szalontai B., Domonkos I., Gombos Z. (2012): The role of membrane structure in acclimation to low-temperature stress. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, 34: 233−250.
 
Strasser R.J., Srivastava A., Tsimilli-Michael M. (2000): The fluorescence transient as a tool to characterize and screen photosynthetic samples. In: Yunus M., Pathre U., Mohanty P. (eds): Probing Photosynthesis: Mechanisms, Regulation and Adaptation. London, Taylor and Francis: 445–483.
 
Strauss A.J., Krüger G.H.J., Strasser R.J., Heerden P.D.R. Van (2006): Ranking of dark chilling tolerance in soybean genotypes probed by the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient O-J-I-P. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 56, 147-157  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.01.011
 
Uzun Sezgin (2006): The quantitative effects of temperature and light on the number of leaves preceding the first fruiting inflorescence on the stem of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) and aubergine (Solanum melongena L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 109, 142-146  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.04.006
 
Valluru R., Link J., Claupein W. (2012): Consequences of early chilling stress in two Triticum species: plastic responses and adaptive significance. Plant Biology, 14, 641-651  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2011.00540.x
 
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