Effects of cultural cycle and nutrient solution electrical conductivity on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of ‘Friariello’ pepper grown in hydroponics

https://doi.org/10.17221/172/2015-HORTSCICitation:Amalfitano C.A., Del Vacchio L.D.V., Somma S., Cuciniello A.C., Caruso G. (2017): Effects of cultural cycle and nutrient solution electrical conductivity on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of ‘Friariello’ pepper grown in hydroponics. Hort. Sci. (Prague), 44: 91-98.
download PDF

‘Friariello’ pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was grown with nutrient film technique (NFT) in order to evaluate the effects of four nutritive solutions, at electrical conductivities (EC) of 3.5, 3.8, 4.1, 4.4 mS/cm, in two cultural cycles (winter-summer versus spring-autumn) on growth, yield and fruit quality. In the winter-summer cycle, fruit yield was significantly higher than in the spring-autumn one. The 3.8 mS/m EC resulted in the highest yield in the winter-summer crops, whereas the 4.1 mS/m EC was the most effective under the spring-autumn cycle. Water consumption was 34% higher in winter-summer than in spring-autumn season. The 3.8 mS/m EC caused the highest water consumption, whereas a 25% reduction was recorded under 4.4 mS/cm. The macronutrients absorption was the highest with 3.8–4.1 mS/cm EC and the lowest with 3.5 mS/cm. Fruits harvested in late summer and berries obtained under 4.4 mS/cm EC mostly showed the best quality. The fruit ascorbic acid and α-carotene content was higher in late summer than in late spring and all fruit antioxidants attained the highest values with 4.4 mS/cm EC.

Adams P., Ho L. C. (2015): Effects of constant and fluctuating salinity on the yield, quality and calcium status of tomatoes. Journal of Horticultural Science, 64, 725-732  https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.1989.11516015
Authority EFS (2008): Nitrate in vegetables: scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants in the food chain. The EFSA Journal, 689: 1–79.
Bethke P. C., Drew M. C. (1992): Stomatal and Nonstomatal Components to Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Leaves of Capsicum annuum during Progressive Exposure to NaCl Salinity. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 99, 219-226  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.99.1.219
Butcher J.D., Crosby K.M., Yoo K.S., Patil B.S., Ibrahim A.M.H., Leskovar D.I., Jifon J.L. (2012): Environmental and genotypic variation of capsaicinoid and flavonoid concentrations in Habanero (Capsicum chinense) peppers. HortScience, 47: 574–579.
Caruso Gianluca, Conti Stefano, Villari Gerardo, Borrelli Carlo, Melchionna Giuseppe, Minutolo Maria, Russo Giuseppe, Amalfitano Carmine (2014): Effects of transplanting time and plant density on yield, quality and antioxidant content of onion (Allium cepa L.) in southern Italy. Scientia Horticulturae, 166, 111-120  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.12.019
Chartzoulakis K, Klapaki G (2000): Response of two greenhouse pepper hybrids to NaCl salinity during different growth stages. Scientia Horticulturae, 86, 247-260  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(00)00151-5
Conti Stefano, Villari Gerardo, Faugno Salvatore, Melchionna Giuseppe, Somma Silvano, Caruso Gianluca (2014): Effects of organic vs. conventional farming system on yield and quality of strawberry grown as an annual or biennial crop in southern Italy. Scientia Horticulturae, 180, 63-71  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2014.10.015
Flores P., Hellín P., Lacasa A., Lόpez A., Fenoll J. (2009a): Pepper antioxidant composition as affected by organic, low-input and soilless cultivation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89: 2367–2374.
Flores P., Hellín P., Lacasa A., Lόpez A., Fenoll J. (2009b): Pepper mineral composition and sensory attributes as affected by agricultural management. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89: 2364–2371.
Kläring H.-P., Cierpinski W. (1998): CONTROL OF NUTRIENT SOLUTION CONCENTRATION DEPENDING ON GREENHOUSE CLIMATE IN A SWEET PEPPER CROP. Acta Horticulturae, , 141-146  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.458.15
Lee Jinsuk J., Crosby Kevin M., Pike Leonard M., Yoo Kil Sun, Leskovar Daniel I. (2005): Impact of genetic and environmental variation on development of flavonoids and carotenoids in pepper (Capsicum spp.). Scientia Horticulturae, 106, 341-352  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2005.04.008
Lee Seung K., Kader Adel A. (2000): Preharvest and postharvest factors influencing vitamin C content of horticultural crops. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 20, 207-220  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(00)00133-2
López Alicia, Fenoll Jose, Hellín Pilar, Flores Pilar (2013): Physical characteristics and mineral composition of two pepper cultivars under organic, conventional and soilless cultivation. Scientia Horticulturae, 150, 259-266  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.11.020
Luning Pieternel A., van der Vuurst de Vries Ria, Yuksel Dogan, Ebbenhorst-Seller Truke, Wichers Harry J., Roozen Jacques P. (1994): Combined Instrumental and Sensory Evaluation of Flavor of Fresh Bell Peppers (Capsicum annuum) Harvested at Three Maturation Stages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 42, 2855-2861  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00048a038
Lycoskoufis I.H., Savvas D., Mavrogianopoulos G. (2005): Growth, gas exchange, and nutrient status in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in recirculating nutrient solution as affected by salinity imposed to half of the root system. Scientia Horticulturae, 106, 147-161  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2005.02.022
Munns R. (2002): Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25, 239-250  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0016-8025.2001.00808.x
NAVARRO J, FLORES P, GARRIDO C, MARTINEZ V (2006): Changes in the contents of antioxidant compounds in pepper fruits at different ripening stages, as affected by salinity. Food Chemistry, 96, 66-73  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.01.057
NILWIK H. J. M. (1981): Growth Analysis of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Annals of Botany, 48, 129-136  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a086106
Osuna-García Jorge A., Wall Marisa M., Waddell Cynthia A. (1998): Endogenous Levels of Tocopherols and Ascorbic Acid during Fruit Ripening of New Mexican-Type Chile ( Capsicum annuum L.) Cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46, 5093-5096  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980588h
Peel M. C., Finlayson B. L., McMahon T. A. (2007): Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 11, 1633-1644  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007
Savvas D., Stamati E., Tsirogiannis I.L., Mantzos N., Barouchas P.E., Katsoulas N., Kittas C. (2007): Interactions between salinity and irrigation frequency in greenhouse pepper grown in closed-cycle hydroponic systems. Agricultural Water Management, 91, 102-111  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2007.05.001
Sonneveld C. (2002): Composition of nutrient solutions. In: Savvas, D., Passam, H.C. (Eds.): Hydroponic Production of Vegetables and Ornamentals. Embryo Publications, Athens, Greece: 179–210.
Sonneveld C., Vanderburg A.M.M. (1991): Sodium-chloride salinity in fruit vegetable crops in soilless culture. Netherland Journal of Agricultural Science, 39: 115–122.
Tadesse Teshome, Nichols Michael A., Fisher Keith J. (1999): Nutrient conductivity effects on sweet pepper plants grown using a nutrient film technique. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 27, 229-237  https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.1999.9514101
Thanopoulos C., Akoumianakis K.A., Passam H.C. (2013): The effect of season on the growth and maturation of bell peppers. International. Journal of Plant Production, 7: 279–294.
Urrea-López R., Díaz de la Garza R.I., Valiente-Banuet J.I. (2014): Effects of substrate salinity and nutrient levels on physiological response, yield, and fruit quality of habanero pepper. HortScience, 49: 812–818.
VANOS E (1999): Closed soilless growing systems: A sustainable solution for Dutch greenhouse horticulture. Water Science and Technology, 39, 105-112  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0273-1223(99)00091-8
ZHU Juan-juan, PENG Qiang, LIANG Yin-li, WU Xing, HAO Wang-lin (2012): Leaf Gas Exchange, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Fruit Yield in Hot Pepper (Capsicum anmuum L.) Grown Under Different Shade and Soil Moisture During the Fruit Growth Stage. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 11, 927-937  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(12)60083-5
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences