Salt-tolerant trees usable for Central European cities – Review

https://doi.org/10.17221/201/2015-HORTSCICitation:Šerá B. (2017): Salt-tolerant trees usable for Central European cities – Review. Hort. Sci. (Prague), 44: 43-48.
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The present text is focused on an actual problem of planting of inappropriate tree taxa in many cities. It explains the causes of contaminated soils by winter salt management and principles of the toxic effect on plants. The paper summarizes the problem and brings solution. Town places with salt-contaminated soil should not be fitted with: spruce (Picea), pine (Pinus), linden (Tilia) and maples (Acer). On the other hand, resistant species are: ash (Fraxinus), poplar (Populus), willow (Salix), silverberry (Eleagnus), black locust (Robinia). Both lists of sensitive and salt-tolerant tree species have been presented. Salt-tolerant tree should be preferred before all the others species.
References:
Amrhein Christopher, Strong James E. (1990): The Effect of Deicing Salts on Trace Metal Mobility in Roadside Soils. Journal of Environment Quality, 19, 765-  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1990.00472425001900040022x
 
Brod H.G., Preuse H.U. (1975): Einflus von Auftausalzen auf Boden, Wasser und Vegetation. III. Einfluss auf die Vegetation. Rasen Turf Gazon: 51–54.
 
Bryson Gretchen M., Barker Allen V. (2002): Sodium accumulation in soils and plants along Massachusetts roadsides. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 33, 67-78  https://doi.org/10.1081/CSS-120002378
 
Cekstere Gunta, Osvalde Anita (2013): A study of chemical characteristics of soil in relation to street trees status in Riga (Latvia). Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12, 69-78  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2012.09.004
 
Croucher K., Myers L., Bretherton J. (2007): The links between greenspace and health: a critical literature review. Greenspace Scotland. Research Report.
 
Czerniawska-Kusza Izabela, Kusza Grzegorz, Du?y?ski Mariusz (2004): Effect of deicing salts on urban soils and health status of roadside trees in the Opole region. Environmental Toxicology, 19, 296-301  https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20037
 
Do-Gyun K. (2010): Soil salinity and salt spray drift tolerance of native trees on the coastal windbreaks in the South-sea. Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology, 24: 14–25.
 
Dmuchowski W., Brogowski Z., Baczewska A.H. (2011): Evaluation of vigour and health of “street’ trees using foliar ionic status”. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 20: 489–496.
 
EEA (2010): European environment – state and outlook 2010 (SOER 2010). Kopenhagen, European Environmental Agency.
 
El-Siddig K., Ludders P. (1996): Effects of nitrogen supply on fruit carbohydrate composition of apple trees under salt stress. Gartenbauwissenschaft, 61: 84–90.
 
Forman R.T.T. et al. (2002): Road ecology: science and solutions. Washington, Island Press.
 
Franěk M. et al. (1993): Hodnocení vlivu chemického oše-třování komunikací na přírodní prostředí. Závěrečná zpráva. Praha, Český ústav ochrany přírody.
 
Goodrich Betsy A., Jacobi William R. (2012): Foliar Damage, Ion Content, and Mortality Rate of Five Common Roadside Tree Species Treated with Soil Applications of Magnesium Chloride. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223, 847-862  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-011-0907-5
 
Goodrich Betsy A., Koski Ronda D., Jacobi William R. (2009): Condition of Soils and Vegetation Along Roads Treated with Magnesium Chloride for Dust Suppression. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 198, 165-188  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-008-9835-4
 
Grattan S.R, Grieve C.M (1998): Salinity–mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops. Scientia Horticulturae, 78, 127-157  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00192-7
 
Hanslin Hans Martin (2011): Short-term effects of alternative de-icing chemicals on tree sapling performance. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 10, 53-59  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2010.08.001
 
Hernández-Almeida I., Grosjean M., Przybylak R., Tylmann W. (2015): A chrysophyte-based quantitative reconstruction of winter severity from varved lake sediments in NE Poland during the past millennium and its relationship to natural climate variability. Quaternary Science Reviews, 122, 74-88  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.05.029
 
Jebavý M. (2007): A relationship between the verdure system and land use planning of a small town. Horticultural Science (Prague), 34: 152–158.
 
Kayama M, Quoreshi A.M, Kitaoka S, Kitahashi Y, Sakamoto Y, Maruyama Y, Kitao M, Koike T (2003): Effects of deicing salt on the vitality and health of two spruce species, Picea abies Karst., and Picea glehnii Masters planted along roadsides in northern Japan. Environmental Pollution, 124, 127-137  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00415-3
 
Kennedy S.A., Ganf G.G., Walker K.F. (2003): Does salinity influence the distribution of exotic willows (Salix spp.) along the Lower River Murray? Marine and Freshwater Research, 54: 825–831. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF03035
 
Leukertová J. (1986): Vývoj vegetačních úprav a jejich ověření. Závěrečná zpráva. Brno, Silniční vývoj.
 
Maas J., Verheij R.A., Croenewegen P.P., de Vries S., Spreeuwenberg P. (2006): Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60: 587–592.
 
Mareček J. (2007): Folk landscape architecture as a significant value of Czech landscape. Horticultural Science (Prague), 34: 42–46.
 
Marosz A. (2009): Effect of fulvic and humic organic acids and calcium on growth and chlorophyll content of tree species grown under salt stress. Dendrobiology, 62: 47–53.
 
Marosz A. (2011): Soil pH, electrical conductivity values and roadside leaf sodium concentration at three sites in central Poland. Dendrobiology, 66: 49–54.
 
Meyer F.H. (1982): Bäume in der Stadt. Stuttgart, Verlag Ulmer.
 
Meyer S.H., Höster H.R. (1980): Streusalzschäden an Bäumen in Hannover als Folge des Winter 1978/79. Das Gartenamt, 29: 165–175.
 
Oleksyn J., Kloeppel B.D., Lukasiewicz S., Karolewski P., Reich P.B. (2007): Ecophysiology of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in degraded and restored urban sites. Polish Journal of Ecology, 55: 245–260.
 
Paludan-Muller Georg, Saxe Henrik, Pedersen Lars Bo, Randrup Thomas Barfoed (2002): Differences in salt sensitivity of four deciduous tree species to soil or airborne salt. Physiologia Plantarum, 114, 223-230  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3054.2002.1140208.x
 
Pejchal M. (2001): Výběr stromů pro ulice a zpevněné plochy městských sídel. In: Strom pro život – život pro strom III., Sborník přednášek, Mělník: 38–44.
 
Soldini M. et al. (1974): Influence des fondants chimiques sur les plantations. Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes, 10: 75–90.
 
SPELLERBERG IAN (1998): Ecological effects of roads and traffic: a literature review. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 7, 317-333  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1466-822x.1998.00308.x
 
Spellerberg I.F. (2002): Ecological effects of roads. Science Publisher, Inc. USA.
 
Su X.H., Chu Y.G., Li H., Hou Y.J., Zhang B.Y., Huang Q.J., Hu Z.M., Huang R.F., Tian Y.C. (2011): Expression of multiple resistance genes enhances tolerance to environmental Stressors in transgenic poplar (Populus × euramericana ‘Guariento’)“. Plos One, 6: e24614.
 
Suchara I. (1982): Obsah vyluhovatelného Cl–, Na+, K+ a Ca2+ v listech uličních stromů ovlivněných zimním solením vozovek. Zahradnictví, 9: 289–300.
 
Suchara I. (1986): Účinky používání posypových solí na půdy a rostliny v okolí dálnic. Závěrečná zpráva. Průhonice, VŠÚOZ.
 
Šerá Božena (2008): Road vegetation in Central Europe — an example from the Czech Republic. Biologia, 63, 1085-1088  https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-008-0152-6
 
Sera Bozena (2013): Green areas for sustainable city development. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 24, S73-  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2013.05.205
 
Šerá Božena, Hrušková Iveta, Nováková Markéta (2011): Response of the Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. to the soil salinity – a greenhouse experiment. Ecological Questions, 14, 39-  https://doi.org/10.12775/v10090-011-0010-y
 
Tsopa E. (1939): La Végétation des halophytes du nord de la Roumanie en connexion avec celle du reste du pays. Montpellier, S.I.G.M.A., 70: 1–22.
 
Van den Berk B.V. (2002): Van den Berk on trees. Boomkwekerij Gebr. Van den Berk, Sint-Oedenrode.
 
Waisel Y. (1972): Biology of Halophytes. Tel-Aviv, Academic Press.
 
Wei Wang (2011): Effects of salt and water stress on plant biomass and photosynthetic characteristics of Tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) seedlings. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY, 10, -  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.1864
 
Amrhein Christopher, Strong James E. (1990): The Effect of Deicing Salts on Trace Metal Mobility in Roadside Soils. Journal of Environment Quality, 19, 765-  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1990.00472425001900040022x
 
Brod H.G., Preuse H.U. (1975): Einflus von Auftausalzen auf Boden, Wasser und Vegetation. III. Einfluss auf die Vegetation. Rasen Turf Gazon: 51–54.
 
Bryson Gretchen M., Barker Allen V. (2002): Sodium accumulation in soils and plants along Massachusetts roadsides. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 33, 67-78  https://doi.org/10.1081/CSS-120002378
 
Cekstere Gunta, Osvalde Anita (2013): A study of chemical characteristics of soil in relation to street trees status in Riga (Latvia). Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12, 69-78  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2012.09.004
 
Croucher K., Myers L., Bretherton J. (2007): The links between greenspace and health: a critical literature review. Greenspace Scotland. Research Report.
 
Czerniawska-Kusza Izabela, Kusza Grzegorz, Du?y?ski Mariusz (2004): Effect of deicing salts on urban soils and health status of roadside trees in the Opole region. Environmental Toxicology, 19, 296-301  https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20037
 
Do-Gyun K. (2010): Soil salinity and salt spray drift tolerance of native trees on the coastal windbreaks in the South-sea. Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology, 24: 14–25.
 
Dmuchowski W., Brogowski Z., Baczewska A.H. (2011): Evaluation of vigour and health of “street’ trees using foliar ionic status”. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 20: 489–496.
 
EEA (2010): European environment – state and outlook 2010 (SOER 2010). Kopenhagen, European Environmental Agency.
 
El-Siddig K., Ludders P. (1996): Effects of nitrogen supply on fruit carbohydrate composition of apple trees under salt stress. Gartenbauwissenschaft, 61: 84–90.
 
Forman R.T.T. et al. (2002): Road ecology: science and solutions. Washington, Island Press.
 
Franěk M. et al. (1993): Hodnocení vlivu chemického oše-třování komunikací na přírodní prostředí. Závěrečná zpráva. Praha, Český ústav ochrany přírody.
 
Goodrich Betsy A., Jacobi William R. (2012): Foliar Damage, Ion Content, and Mortality Rate of Five Common Roadside Tree Species Treated with Soil Applications of Magnesium Chloride. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223, 847-862  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-011-0907-5
 
Goodrich Betsy A., Koski Ronda D., Jacobi William R. (2009): Condition of Soils and Vegetation Along Roads Treated with Magnesium Chloride for Dust Suppression. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 198, 165-188  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-008-9835-4
 
Grattan S.R, Grieve C.M (1998): Salinity–mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops. Scientia Horticulturae, 78, 127-157  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00192-7
 
Hanslin Hans Martin (2011): Short-term effects of alternative de-icing chemicals on tree sapling performance. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 10, 53-59  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2010.08.001
 
Hernández-Almeida I., Grosjean M., Przybylak R., Tylmann W. (2015): A chrysophyte-based quantitative reconstruction of winter severity from varved lake sediments in NE Poland during the past millennium and its relationship to natural climate variability. Quaternary Science Reviews, 122, 74-88  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.05.029
 
Jebavý M. (2007): A relationship between the verdure system and land use planning of a small town. Horticultural Science (Prague), 34: 152–158.
 
Kayama M, Quoreshi A.M, Kitaoka S, Kitahashi Y, Sakamoto Y, Maruyama Y, Kitao M, Koike T (2003): Effects of deicing salt on the vitality and health of two spruce species, Picea abies Karst., and Picea glehnii Masters planted along roadsides in northern Japan. Environmental Pollution, 124, 127-137  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00415-3
 
Kennedy S.A., Ganf G.G., Walker K.F. (2003): Does salinity influence the distribution of exotic willows (Salix spp.) along the Lower River Murray? Marine and Freshwater Research, 54: 825–831. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF03035
 
Leukertová J. (1986): Vývoj vegetačních úprav a jejich ověření. Závěrečná zpráva. Brno, Silniční vývoj.
 
Maas J., Verheij R.A., Croenewegen P.P., de Vries S., Spreeuwenberg P. (2006): Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60: 587–592.
 
Mareček J. (2007): Folk landscape architecture as a significant value of Czech landscape. Horticultural Science (Prague), 34: 42–46.
 
Marosz A. (2009): Effect of fulvic and humic organic acids and calcium on growth and chlorophyll content of tree species grown under salt stress. Dendrobiology, 62: 47–53.
 
Marosz A. (2011): Soil pH, electrical conductivity values and roadside leaf sodium concentration at three sites in central Poland. Dendrobiology, 66: 49–54.
 
Meyer F.H. (1982): Bäume in der Stadt. Stuttgart, Verlag Ulmer.
 
Meyer S.H., Höster H.R. (1980): Streusalzschäden an Bäumen in Hannover als Folge des Winter 1978/79. Das Gartenamt, 29: 165–175.
 
Oleksyn J., Kloeppel B.D., Lukasiewicz S., Karolewski P., Reich P.B. (2007): Ecophysiology of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in degraded and restored urban sites. Polish Journal of Ecology, 55: 245–260.
 
Paludan-Muller Georg, Saxe Henrik, Pedersen Lars Bo, Randrup Thomas Barfoed (2002): Differences in salt sensitivity of four deciduous tree species to soil or airborne salt. Physiologia Plantarum, 114, 223-230  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3054.2002.1140208.x
 
Pejchal M. (2001): Výběr stromů pro ulice a zpevněné plochy městských sídel. In: Strom pro život – život pro strom III., Sborník přednášek, Mělník: 38–44.
 
Soldini M. et al. (1974): Influence des fondants chimiques sur les plantations. Revue Générale des Routes et des Aérodromes, 10: 75–90.
 
SPELLERBERG IAN (1998): Ecological effects of roads and traffic: a literature review. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 7, 317-333  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1466-822x.1998.00308.x
 
Spellerberg I.F. (2002): Ecological effects of roads. Science Publisher, Inc. USA.
 
Su X.H., Chu Y.G., Li H., Hou Y.J., Zhang B.Y., Huang Q.J., Hu Z.M., Huang R.F., Tian Y.C. (2011): Expression of multiple resistance genes enhances tolerance to environmental Stressors in transgenic poplar (Populus × euramericana ‘Guariento’)“. Plos One, 6: e24614.
 
Suchara I. (1982): Obsah vyluhovatelného Cl–, Na+, K+ a Ca2+ v listech uličních stromů ovlivněných zimním solením vozovek. Zahradnictví, 9: 289–300.
 
Suchara I. (1986): Účinky používání posypových solí na půdy a rostliny v okolí dálnic. Závěrečná zpráva. Průhonice, VŠÚOZ.
 
Šerá Božena (2008): Road vegetation in Central Europe — an example from the Czech Republic. Biologia, 63, 1085-1088  https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-008-0152-6
 
Sera Bozena (2013): Green areas for sustainable city development. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 24, S73-  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2013.05.205
 
Šerá Božena, Hrušková Iveta, Nováková Markéta (2011): Response of the Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. to the soil salinity – a greenhouse experiment. Ecological Questions, 14, 39-  https://doi.org/10.12775/v10090-011-0010-y
 
Tsopa E. (1939): La Végétation des halophytes du nord de la Roumanie en connexion avec celle du reste du pays. Montpellier, S.I.G.M.A., 70: 1–22.
 
Van den Berk B.V. (2002): Van den Berk on trees. Boomkwekerij Gebr. Van den Berk, Sint-Oedenrode.
 
Waisel Y. (1972): Biology of Halophytes. Tel-Aviv, Academic Press.
 
Wei Wang (2011): Effects of salt and water stress on plant biomass and photosynthetic characteristics of Tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) seedlings. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY, 10, -  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.1864
 
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