Red anthocyanins contents and the relationships with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, soluble sugar and chlorophyll contents in carmine radish (Raphanus sativus L.) 

https://doi.org/10.17221/202/2017-HORTSCICitation:Zhang Z., Sun C., Yao Y., Mao Z., Sun G., Dai Z. (2019): Red anthocyanins contents and the relationships with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, soluble sugar and chlorophyll contents in carmine radish (Raphanus sativus L.) . Hort. Sci. (Prague), 46: 17-25.
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Red anthocyanins from Carmine radish is rich both in root flesh and peel and it is relatively simple and efficient to extract these compounds. The accumulation, distribution and content of anthocyanins in root are related to phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, soluble sugar and chlorophyll contents. The results showed that anthocyanins were synthesized at the first day of seed germination and were most abundant in the top of hypocotyls. The content of anthocyanins was higher in the root peel than in flesh and root apex, and in aboveground parts compared with underground sections. The anthocyanins contents in cotyledon grown under light and dark and hypocotyls grown in the dark increased initially and then reduced, and in roots grown under light was higher than in those grown in the dark. Chlorophyll content in leaves fluctuated but increased overall, whereas it was almost unchanged in the petioles. The correlations between anthocyanins content and PAL activity, soluble sugar and chlorophyll contents in different treatments showed positive by Day 4 then negative. These results are helpful to understand the mechanism of anthocyanins biosynthesis in carmine radish.

 

References:
Broun Pierre (2005): Transcriptional control of flavonoid biosynthesis: a complex network of conserved regulators involved in multiple aspects of differentiation in Arabidopsis. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 8, 272-279 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2005.03.006
 
Bureau S., Renard C., Reich M., Ginies C. Audergon J.M. (2009): Change in anthocyanin concentrations in red apricot fruits during ripening. LWT-Food Sci. Technology, 42: 372–377.
 
Cheng Guiwen W., Breen Patrick J. (1991): Activity of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (PAL) and Concentrations of Anthocyanins and Phenolics in Developing Strawberry Fruit. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 116, 865-869 https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.116.5.865
 
Edwards W. Ray, Hall Judy A., Rowlan Alan R., Schneider-Barfield Tama, Sun Tzeli Julia, Patil Mohini A., Pierce Margaret L., Fulcher R. Gary, Bell Alois A., Essenberg Margaret (2008): Light filtering by epidermal flavonoids during the resistant response of cotton to Xanthomonas protects leaf tissue from light-dependent phytoalexin toxicity. Phytochemistry, 69, 2320-2328 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.05.021
 
Fan XiaoXue, Zang Jie, Xu ZhiGang, Guo ShiRong, Jiao XueLei, Liu XiaoYing, Gao Ying (2013): Effects of different light quality on growth, chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll biosynthesis precursors of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35, 2721-2726 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-013-1304-z
 
FULEKI TIBOR (1969): The Anthocyanins of Strawberry, Rhubarb, Radish and Onion. Journal of Food Science, 34, 365-369 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1969.tb10367.x
 
GIUSTI M. MÓNICA, WROLSTAD RONALD E. (1996): Radish Anthocyanin Extract as a Natural Red Colorant for Maraschino Cherries. Journal of Food Science, 61, 688-694 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1996.tb12182.x
 
Giusti M.M., Ghanadan H. Wrolstad R.E. (1998a): Elucidation of the structure and conformation of red radish (Raphanus sativus) anthocyanins using one- and two-dimentional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 46: 4858–4863.
 
Giusti M.M., Rodriguez-Saona L.E., Baggett J.R., Reed G.L., Durst R.W. Wrolstad R.E. (1998b): Anthocyanin pigment composition of red radish cultivars as potential food colorants. Journal of Food Science, 63: 219–214.
 
Giusti M.M. Wrolstad R.E. (2001): Anthocyanins. Characterization and measurement with UV-visible spectroscopy. In: Wrolstad R.E., Schwartz S.J. (eds): Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry. New York, Wiley.
 
Gould K. S., McKelvie J., Markham K. R. (2002): Do anthocyanins function as antioxidants in leaves? Imaging of H2O2 in red and green leaves after mechanical injury. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25, 1261-1269 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2002.00905.x
 
Harborne J.B. (1963): Plant polyphenols IX. The glycosidic pattern of anthocyanin pigments. Phytochemistry, 2, 85-97 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)88020-6
 
Hirner Axel A., Veit Stefan, Seitz H.Ulrich (2001): Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in UV-A-irradiated cell cultures of carrot and in organs of intact carrot plants.. Plant Science, 161, 315-322 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(01)00408-3
 
Holton T. A. (): Genetics and Biochemistry of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis. THE PLANT CELL ONLINE, 7, 1071-1083 https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.7.7.1071
 
Huang Yung-Fen, Vialet Sandrine, Guiraud Jean-Luc, Torregrosa Laurent, Bertrand Yves, Cheynier Véronique, This Patrice, Terrier Nancy (2014): A negative MYB regulator of proanthocyanidin accumulation, identified through expression quantitative locus mapping in the grape berry. New Phytologist, 201, 795-809 https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12557
 
ISHIKURA Nariyuki, HAYASHI Kozo (1962): Anthocyanins in Red Roots of a Radish. Shokubutsugaku Zasshi, 75, 28-36 https://doi.org/10.15281/jplantres1887.75.28
 
Jeannette E., Reyss A., Gregory N., Gantet P., Prioul J.-L. (2000): Carbohydrate metabolism in a heat-girdled maize source leaf. Plant, Cell and Environment, 23, 61-69 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2000.00519.x
 
Koukol J., Conn E.E. (1961): The metabolism of aromatic compounds in higher plants. IV. Purification and properties of the phenylalanine deaminase of Hordeum vulgare. Journal of Biology Chemistry, 236: 2692–2698.
 
KUBO Yasutaka, TAIRA Satoshi, ISHIO Shinji, SUGIURA Akira, TOMANA Takashi (1988): Color development of 4 Apple Cultivars Grown in the Southwest of Japan, with Special Reference to Fruit Bagging. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 57, 191-199 https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs.57.191
 
Lepiniec Loïc, Debeaujon Isabelle, Routaboul Jean-Marc, Baudry Antoine, Pourcel Lucille, Nesi Nathalie, Caboche Michel (2006): GENETICS AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF SEED FLAVONOIDS. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 57, 405-430 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.57.032905.105252
 
Li H.S. (2000): Principles of plant physiology and biochemistry and technology experiments. Beijing: Higher Education Press: 123–258. (in Chinese)
 
Liu Dandan, Li Hui, Wang Yongzhu, Ying Zhengzheng, Bian Zhiwei, Zhu Wenli, Liu Wei, Yang Lifei, Jiang Dahua (2017): How Exogenous Selenium Affects AnthocyaninAccumulation and Biosynthesis-Related GeneExpression in Purple Lettuce. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 26, 717-722 https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/66707
 
Liu Y.Q., Zeng Z.Q. (1999): A high grade natural edible coloring material-study on the performance of refined radish red pigment. Journal of Chongqing University, 22: 131–136. (in Chinese)
 
Lv X.L., Cao D.X., Zhang Z.S., Liu Z.H. (2001): Study on function of antioxidative activity of red radish pigment. Food Science, 5: 19–21. (in Chinese)
 
Malmir Heidar Ali (2012): The Relations Between Phenylalanine–Ammonia Lyase, Glutathione-s-Transferase Activities and the Concentrations of Total Tannins, Phytochelatins, Glutathione, and Peroxidation in two Cultivars of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Exposed to Aluminum. Agricultural Research, 1, 240-250 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40003-012-0023-9
 
Mark R., Habib K. (1997): Red color development of apple: a literature review. Washington State University, Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center.
 
McDougall Gordon J., Fyffe Stewart, Dobson Pat, Stewart Derek (2007): Anthocyanins from red cabbage – stability to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Phytochemistry, 68, 1285-1294 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.02.004
 
Meng Z.N., He Q.W., Lang F.Q., Shi H.L., Zhao S.Y. (2006): Developmental changes of distribution of chromogen in varieties of garden radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Journal of Shandong University, 35: 224–229. (in Chinese)
 
Mol Joseph, Jenkins Gareth, Schäfer Eberhard, Weiss David, Walbot Virginia (2008): Signal perception, transduction, and gene expression involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 15, 525-557 https://doi.org/10.1080/07352689609382369
 
Salinas Moreno Y., Sanchez G. S., Hernandez D. R., Lobato N. R. (2005): Characterization of Anthocyanin Extracts from Maize Kernels. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 43, 483-487 https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/43.9.483
 
Nagata Toshifumi, Todoriki Setsuko, Masumizu Toshiki, Suda Ikuo, Furuta Shu, Du Zeji, Kikuchi Shoshi (2003): Levels of Active Oxygen Species Are Controlled by Ascorbic Acid and Anthocyanin in Arabidopsis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 2992-2999 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf026179+
 
Nemie-Feyissa Dugassa, Heidari Behzad, Blaise Mickael, Lillo Cathrine (2015): Analysis of interactions between heterologously produced bHLH and MYB proteins that regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis: Quantitative interaction kinetics by Microscale Thermophoresis. Phytochemistry, 111, 21-26 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.01.004
 
Nile S.H., Kim D.H., Keum Y.S. (2015): Determination of anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity of different grape varieties. Journal of Viticulture and Enology, 30: 60–68.
 
Otsuki Takashi, Matsufuji Hiroshi, Takeda Mitsuharu, Toyoda Masatake, Goda Yukihiro (2002): Acylated anthocyanins from red radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Phytochemistry, 60, 79-87 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00063-8
 
Patil Ganapathi, Madhusudhan M.C., Ravindra Babu B., Raghavarao K.S.M.S. (2009): Extraction, dealcoholization and concentration of anthocyanin from red radish. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 48, 364-369 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2008.05.006
 
PANTELIDIS G, VASILAKAKIS M, MANGANARIS G, DIAMANTIDIS G (2007): Antioxidant capacity, phenol, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents in raspberries, blackberries, red currants, gooseberries and Cornelian cherries. Food Chemistry, 102, 777-783 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.021
 
Santos-Buelga Celestino, Mateus Nuno, De Freitas Victor (2014): Anthocyanins. Plant Pigments and Beyond. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62, 6879-6884 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf501950s
 
Schaberg P. G., van den Berg A. K., Murakami P. F., Shane J. B., Donnelly J. R. (2003): Factors influencing red expression in autumn foliage of sugar maple trees. Tree Physiology, 23, 325-333 https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/23.5.325
 
Schaberg Paul G., Murakami Paula F., Butnor John R., Hawley Gary J. (2017): Experimental branch cooling increases foliar sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in sugar maple at the end of the growing season. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 47, 696-701 https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2016-0534
 
Tatsuzawa Fumi, Toki Kenjiro, Saito Norio, Shinoda Koichi, Shigihara Atsushi, Honda Toshio (2008): Anthocyanin occurrence in the root peels, petioles and flowers of red radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Dyes and Pigments, 79, 83-88 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2008.01.009
 
Teng S. (2005): Sucrose-Specific Induction of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Requires the MYB75/PAP1 Gene. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 139, 1840-1852 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.105.066688
 
Weiss David (2000): Regulation of flower pigmentation and growth: Multiple signaling pathways control anthocyanin synthesis in expanding petals. Physiologia Plantarum, 110, 152-157 https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3054.2000.110202.x
 
Winkel-Shirley B. (): Flavonoid Biosynthesis. A Colorful Model for Genetics, Biochemistry, Cell Biology, and Biotechnology. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 126, 485-493 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.126.2.485
 
Wrolstad R.E. (1976): Color and pigment analysis in fruit products. Bulletin 624, Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station: Corvallis, USA.
 
Wu Y.W., Lv X.L., Zhang Z.S., Xu M.L. (2001): Color and pigment stability of red radish anthocyanins. Journal of Tianjin Light Industry University, 1: 24–27. (in Chinese)
 
Zhang Jiao-Lin, Zhu Jun-Jie, Cao Kun-Fang (2007): Seasonal variation in photosynthesis in six woody species with different leaf phenology in a valley savanna in southwestern China. Trees, 21, 631-643 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-007-0156-9
 
Broun Pierre (2005): Transcriptional control of flavonoid biosynthesis: a complex network of conserved regulators involved in multiple aspects of differentiation in Arabidopsis. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 8, 272-279 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2005.03.006
 
Bureau S., Renard C., Reich M., Ginies C. Audergon J.M. (2009): Change in anthocyanin concentrations in red apricot fruits during ripening. LWT-Food Sci. Technology, 42: 372–377.
 
Cheng Guiwen W., Breen Patrick J. (1991): Activity of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (PAL) and Concentrations of Anthocyanins and Phenolics in Developing Strawberry Fruit. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 116, 865-869 https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.116.5.865
 
Edwards W. Ray, Hall Judy A., Rowlan Alan R., Schneider-Barfield Tama, Sun Tzeli Julia, Patil Mohini A., Pierce Margaret L., Fulcher R. Gary, Bell Alois A., Essenberg Margaret (2008): Light filtering by epidermal flavonoids during the resistant response of cotton to Xanthomonas protects leaf tissue from light-dependent phytoalexin toxicity. Phytochemistry, 69, 2320-2328 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.05.021
 
Fan XiaoXue, Zang Jie, Xu ZhiGang, Guo ShiRong, Jiao XueLei, Liu XiaoYing, Gao Ying (2013): Effects of different light quality on growth, chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll biosynthesis precursors of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35, 2721-2726 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-013-1304-z
 
FULEKI TIBOR (1969): The Anthocyanins of Strawberry, Rhubarb, Radish and Onion. Journal of Food Science, 34, 365-369 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1969.tb10367.x
 
GIUSTI M. MÓNICA, WROLSTAD RONALD E. (1996): Radish Anthocyanin Extract as a Natural Red Colorant for Maraschino Cherries. Journal of Food Science, 61, 688-694 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1996.tb12182.x
 
Giusti M.M., Ghanadan H. Wrolstad R.E. (1998a): Elucidation of the structure and conformation of red radish (Raphanus sativus) anthocyanins using one- and two-dimentional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 46: 4858–4863.
 
Giusti M.M., Rodriguez-Saona L.E., Baggett J.R., Reed G.L., Durst R.W. Wrolstad R.E. (1998b): Anthocyanin pigment composition of red radish cultivars as potential food colorants. Journal of Food Science, 63: 219–214.
 
Giusti M.M. Wrolstad R.E. (2001): Anthocyanins. Characterization and measurement with UV-visible spectroscopy. In: Wrolstad R.E., Schwartz S.J. (eds): Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry. New York, Wiley.
 
Gould K. S., McKelvie J., Markham K. R. (2002): Do anthocyanins function as antioxidants in leaves? Imaging of H2O2 in red and green leaves after mechanical injury. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25, 1261-1269 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2002.00905.x
 
Harborne J.B. (1963): Plant polyphenols IX. The glycosidic pattern of anthocyanin pigments. Phytochemistry, 2, 85-97 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)88020-6
 
Hirner Axel A., Veit Stefan, Seitz H.Ulrich (2001): Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in UV-A-irradiated cell cultures of carrot and in organs of intact carrot plants.. Plant Science, 161, 315-322 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(01)00408-3
 
Holton T. A. (): Genetics and Biochemistry of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis. THE PLANT CELL ONLINE, 7, 1071-1083 https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.7.7.1071
 
Huang Yung-Fen, Vialet Sandrine, Guiraud Jean-Luc, Torregrosa Laurent, Bertrand Yves, Cheynier Véronique, This Patrice, Terrier Nancy (2014): A negative MYB regulator of proanthocyanidin accumulation, identified through expression quantitative locus mapping in the grape berry. New Phytologist, 201, 795-809 https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12557
 
ISHIKURA Nariyuki, HAYASHI Kozo (1962): Anthocyanins in Red Roots of a Radish. Shokubutsugaku Zasshi, 75, 28-36 https://doi.org/10.15281/jplantres1887.75.28
 
Jeannette E., Reyss A., Gregory N., Gantet P., Prioul J.-L. (2000): Carbohydrate metabolism in a heat-girdled maize source leaf. Plant, Cell and Environment, 23, 61-69 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2000.00519.x
 
Koukol J., Conn E.E. (1961): The metabolism of aromatic compounds in higher plants. IV. Purification and properties of the phenylalanine deaminase of Hordeum vulgare. Journal of Biology Chemistry, 236: 2692–2698.
 
KUBO Yasutaka, TAIRA Satoshi, ISHIO Shinji, SUGIURA Akira, TOMANA Takashi (1988): Color development of 4 Apple Cultivars Grown in the Southwest of Japan, with Special Reference to Fruit Bagging. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 57, 191-199 https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs.57.191
 
Lepiniec Loïc, Debeaujon Isabelle, Routaboul Jean-Marc, Baudry Antoine, Pourcel Lucille, Nesi Nathalie, Caboche Michel (2006): GENETICS AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF SEED FLAVONOIDS. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 57, 405-430 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.57.032905.105252
 
Li H.S. (2000): Principles of plant physiology and biochemistry and technology experiments. Beijing: Higher Education Press: 123–258. (in Chinese)
 
Liu Dandan, Li Hui, Wang Yongzhu, Ying Zhengzheng, Bian Zhiwei, Zhu Wenli, Liu Wei, Yang Lifei, Jiang Dahua (2017): How Exogenous Selenium Affects AnthocyaninAccumulation and Biosynthesis-Related GeneExpression in Purple Lettuce. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 26, 717-722 https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/66707
 
Liu Y.Q., Zeng Z.Q. (1999): A high grade natural edible coloring material-study on the performance of refined radish red pigment. Journal of Chongqing University, 22: 131–136. (in Chinese)
 
Lv X.L., Cao D.X., Zhang Z.S., Liu Z.H. (2001): Study on function of antioxidative activity of red radish pigment. Food Science, 5: 19–21. (in Chinese)
 
Malmir Heidar Ali (2012): The Relations Between Phenylalanine–Ammonia Lyase, Glutathione-s-Transferase Activities and the Concentrations of Total Tannins, Phytochelatins, Glutathione, and Peroxidation in two Cultivars of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Exposed to Aluminum. Agricultural Research, 1, 240-250 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40003-012-0023-9
 
Mark R., Habib K. (1997): Red color development of apple: a literature review. Washington State University, Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center.
 
McDougall Gordon J., Fyffe Stewart, Dobson Pat, Stewart Derek (2007): Anthocyanins from red cabbage – stability to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Phytochemistry, 68, 1285-1294 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.02.004
 
Meng Z.N., He Q.W., Lang F.Q., Shi H.L., Zhao S.Y. (2006): Developmental changes of distribution of chromogen in varieties of garden radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Journal of Shandong University, 35: 224–229. (in Chinese)
 
Mol Joseph, Jenkins Gareth, Schäfer Eberhard, Weiss David, Walbot Virginia (2008): Signal perception, transduction, and gene expression involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 15, 525-557 https://doi.org/10.1080/07352689609382369
 
Salinas Moreno Y., Sanchez G. S., Hernandez D. R., Lobato N. R. (2005): Characterization of Anthocyanin Extracts from Maize Kernels. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 43, 483-487 https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/43.9.483
 
Nagata Toshifumi, Todoriki Setsuko, Masumizu Toshiki, Suda Ikuo, Furuta Shu, Du Zeji, Kikuchi Shoshi (2003): Levels of Active Oxygen Species Are Controlled by Ascorbic Acid and Anthocyanin in Arabidopsis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 2992-2999 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf026179+
 
Nemie-Feyissa Dugassa, Heidari Behzad, Blaise Mickael, Lillo Cathrine (2015): Analysis of interactions between heterologously produced bHLH and MYB proteins that regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis: Quantitative interaction kinetics by Microscale Thermophoresis. Phytochemistry, 111, 21-26 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.01.004
 
Nile S.H., Kim D.H., Keum Y.S. (2015): Determination of anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity of different grape varieties. Journal of Viticulture and Enology, 30: 60–68.
 
Otsuki Takashi, Matsufuji Hiroshi, Takeda Mitsuharu, Toyoda Masatake, Goda Yukihiro (2002): Acylated anthocyanins from red radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Phytochemistry, 60, 79-87 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00063-8
 
Patil Ganapathi, Madhusudhan M.C., Ravindra Babu B., Raghavarao K.S.M.S. (2009): Extraction, dealcoholization and concentration of anthocyanin from red radish. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 48, 364-369 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2008.05.006
 
PANTELIDIS G, VASILAKAKIS M, MANGANARIS G, DIAMANTIDIS G (2007): Antioxidant capacity, phenol, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents in raspberries, blackberries, red currants, gooseberries and Cornelian cherries. Food Chemistry, 102, 777-783 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.021
 
Santos-Buelga Celestino, Mateus Nuno, De Freitas Victor (2014): Anthocyanins. Plant Pigments and Beyond. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62, 6879-6884 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf501950s
 
Schaberg P. G., van den Berg A. K., Murakami P. F., Shane J. B., Donnelly J. R. (2003): Factors influencing red expression in autumn foliage of sugar maple trees. Tree Physiology, 23, 325-333 https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/23.5.325
 
Schaberg Paul G., Murakami Paula F., Butnor John R., Hawley Gary J. (2017): Experimental branch cooling increases foliar sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in sugar maple at the end of the growing season. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 47, 696-701 https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2016-0534
 
Tatsuzawa Fumi, Toki Kenjiro, Saito Norio, Shinoda Koichi, Shigihara Atsushi, Honda Toshio (2008): Anthocyanin occurrence in the root peels, petioles and flowers of red radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Dyes and Pigments, 79, 83-88 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2008.01.009
 
Teng S. (2005): Sucrose-Specific Induction of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Requires the MYB75/PAP1 Gene. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 139, 1840-1852 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.105.066688
 
Weiss David (2000): Regulation of flower pigmentation and growth: Multiple signaling pathways control anthocyanin synthesis in expanding petals. Physiologia Plantarum, 110, 152-157 https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3054.2000.110202.x
 
Winkel-Shirley B. (): Flavonoid Biosynthesis. A Colorful Model for Genetics, Biochemistry, Cell Biology, and Biotechnology. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 126, 485-493 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.126.2.485
 
Wrolstad R.E. (1976): Color and pigment analysis in fruit products. Bulletin 624, Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station: Corvallis, USA.
 
Wu Y.W., Lv X.L., Zhang Z.S., Xu M.L. (2001): Color and pigment stability of red radish anthocyanins. Journal of Tianjin Light Industry University, 1: 24–27. (in Chinese)
 
Zhang Jiao-Lin, Zhu Jun-Jie, Cao Kun-Fang (2007): Seasonal variation in photosynthesis in six woody species with different leaf phenology in a valley savanna in southwestern China. Trees, 21, 631-643 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-007-0156-9
 
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