Effect of planting time and supplemental irradiation on growth and flowering of Lachenalia ‘Romaud’ 

https://doi.org/10.17221/203/2017-HORTSCICitation:Kapczyńska A. (2019): Effect of planting time and supplemental irradiation on growth and flowering of Lachenalia ‘Romaud’ . Hort. Sci. (Prague), 46: 72-80.
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Growth and flowering of lachenalia ‘Romaud’ was studied with reference to its commercial potential as pot plant and the need to obtain flowering plants at a specific time. The experiment was carried out in a heated glasshouse. Lachenalia bulbs were planted in November, December, January and February. The plants were exposed to two lighting regimes, natural lighting and natural lighting with supplemental irradiation (HPS lamps). The later the planting date was, the faster the bulbs flowered, and they produced thicker inflorescence stems with greater number of florets. Depending on the bulb planting date and light conditions, the plants flowered from February to May. The leaves obtained from the bulbs planted in November and December were longer than those produced by the bulbs planted in January and February. Compared with control, supplemental irradiation accelerated flowering by 10–13  days and positively affected plant features by promoting the growth of thicker inflorescence stems with more abundant and longer florets. The leaves of irradiated bulbs were shorter (apart from the bulbs planted in February) and were characterised by a higher content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a + b and carotenoids as compared with control. Plants grown under HPS light also had the higher dry weight of bulbs, leaves and stems.

References:
Arnon Daniel I. (1949): COPPER ENZYMES IN ISOLATED CHLOROPLASTS. POLYPHENOLOXIDASE IN BETA VULGARIS. Plant Physiology, 24, 1-15 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.24.1.1
 
Bagdonavičienė A., Brazaitytė A., Viršilė A., Samuolienė G., Jankauskienė J., Sirtautas R., Sakalauskienė S., Miliauskienė J., Maročkienė N., Duchovskis P. (2015): Cultivation of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) transplants under high pressure sodium lamps supplemented by light-emitting diodes of various wavelengths. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 14: 3–14.
 
Baloch J., Munir M., Farzana, B. (2014): Effects of supplementary irradiance on flowering time of obligate day ornamental annuals under non-inductive environment. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 46: 1253–1259.
 
Catley J.L., Brooking I.R., Davies L.J., Halligan E.A. (2002): TEMPERATURE AND LIGHT REQUIREMENTS FOR SANDERSONIA AURANTIACA FLOWERING. Acta Horticulturae, , 105-112 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.570.10
 
Duncan, G.D. (2012): The genus Lachenalia. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
 
Ehrich Luise, Ulrichs Christian, Grüneberg Heiner (2009): Factors Influencing Flowering of Different South African Iridaceae. HortScience, 44, 1792-1795 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.44.6.1792
 
Gude H., Dijkema M. (1992): THE ROLE OF LIGHT QUALITY IN THE FORCING OF TULIPS AND HYACINTHS AND IN THE PROPAGATION OF HYACINTH BULBS. Acta Horticulturae, , 111-112 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1992.305.16
 
Han Susan S., Halevy Abraham H., Sachs Roy M., Reid Michael S. (1991): Flowering and Corm Yield of Brodiaea in Response to Temperature, Photoperiod, Corm Size, and Planting Depth. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 116, 19-22 https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.116.1.19
 
Islam M. Ashraful, Kuwar Goutam, Clarke Jihong Liu, Blystad Dag-Ragnar, Gislerød Hans Ragnar, Olsen Jorunn E., Torre Sissel (2012): Artificial light from light emitting diodes (LEDs) with a high portion of blue light results in shorter poinsettias compared to high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. Scientia Horticulturae, 147, 136-143 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.08.034
 
Jansen van Vuuren P.J., Coertse A., Coetzee J. (1993): SOUTH AFRICAN FLOWERING PLANTS WITH A POTENTIAL AS FUTURE FLORICULTURE CROPS. Acta Horticulturae, , 65-72 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1993.337.8
 
Kamenetsky R. (2005): PRODUCTION OF FLOWER BULBS IN REGIONS WITH WARM CLIMATES. Acta Horticulturae, , 59-66 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.673.4
 
Kapczyńska Anna (2014): Effect of Planting Term on Growth and Flowering of Two Cultivars of Lachenalia Produced in A Greenhouse as Potting Plants During Winter Months. Journal of Horticultural Research, 22, 29-34 https://doi.org/10.2478/johr-2014-0003
 
Kapczyńska Anna, Kidawska Agnieszka (2016): ‘Namakwa’ lachenalia’s response to flurprimidol and different planting dates. Folia Horticulturae, 28, 173-179 https://doi.org/10.1515/fhort-2016-0020
 
Kapczyńska A., Malik M. (2016): Planting time and flurprimidol treatment influence the growth and flowering of lachenalia. HortTechnology, 26: 293–298.
 
Kim Sun-Ja, Hahn Eun-Joo, Heo Jeong-Wook, Paek Kee-Yoeup (2004): Effects of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthemum plantlets in vitro. Scientia Horticulturae, 101, 143-151 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2003.10.003
 
Kleynhans R. (2002): From Namaqualand viooltjies to posh pot plant. Veld & Flora, 88: 111–113.
 
Kleynhans R. (2006): Lachenalia, spp. In: Anderson N.O. (ed.): Flower Breeding and Genetics: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century. Dordrecht, Springer: 491–516.
 
Kleynhans R. (2013): The development of lachenalia cultivars. [Ph.D. Thesis.] Bloemfontein, the University of the Free State, South.
 
Kleynhans R., Niederwieser J.G., Hancke F.L. (2002): LACHENALIA: DEVELOPMENT AND COMMERCIALIZATION OF A NEW FLOWER BULB CROP. Acta Horticulturae, , 81-85 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.570.7
 
Lee J.J., Hwang J.H. (2014): Effect of day-length extension treatment using LED on growth and flowering of Freesia hybrid ‘Yvonne’. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science & Technology, 32: 794–802.
 
Letchamo W., Xu H.L., Gosselin A. (1995): Photosynthetic potential of Thymus vulgaris selections under two light regimes and three soil water levels. Scientia Horticulturae, 62, 89-101 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(94)00752-2
 
Lopéz J., Gonzalez A., Fernandez J.A., Franco J.A., Banon S. (2006): EFFECT OF DAY LENGTH AND CORM STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON FLOWERING GLADIOLUS TRISTIS SBSP. CONCOLOR. Acta Horticulturae, , 241-246 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.711.31
 
Randall Wesley C., Lopez Roberto G. (2015): Comparison of Bedding Plant Seedlings Grown Under Sole-source Light-emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Greenhouse Supplemental Lighting from LEDs and High-pressure Sodium Lamps. HortScience, 50, 705-713 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.50.5.705
 
Roh Mark S. (2005): Flowering and inflorescence development of Lachenalia aloides ‘Pearsonii’ as influenced by bulb storage and forcing temperature. Scientia Horticulturae, 104, 305-323 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2004.10.004
 
Sirtautas Ramunas, Virsile Akvile, Samuoliene Giedre, Brazaityte Ausra, Miliauskiene Jurga, Sakalauskiene Sandra, Duchovskis Pavelas (2014): Growing of leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under high-pressure sodium lamps with supplemental blue, cyan and green LEDs. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, 101, 75-78 https://doi.org/10.13080/z-a.2014.101.010
 
Śmigielska Małgorzata, Krzymińska Agnieszka, Jerzy Marek (2014): The growth and flowering of Hyacinthus orientalis L. Forced in pots under fluorescent light of different colours. Acta Agrobotanica, 67, 75-82 https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.2014.034
 
Thompson Dave I., Mtshali Ntombizamatshali P., Ascough Glendon D., Erwin John E., Van Staden Johannes (2011): Flowering control in Watsonia: Effects of corm size, temperature, photoperiod and irradiance. Scientia Horticulturae, 129, 493-502 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2011.04.004
 
Arnon Daniel I. (1949): COPPER ENZYMES IN ISOLATED CHLOROPLASTS. POLYPHENOLOXIDASE IN BETA VULGARIS. Plant Physiology, 24, 1-15 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.24.1.1
 
Bagdonavičienė A., Brazaitytė A., Viršilė A., Samuolienė G., Jankauskienė J., Sirtautas R., Sakalauskienė S., Miliauskienė J., Maročkienė N., Duchovskis P. (2015): Cultivation of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) transplants under high pressure sodium lamps supplemented by light-emitting diodes of various wavelengths. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 14: 3–14.
 
Baloch J., Munir M., Farzana, B. (2014): Effects of supplementary irradiance on flowering time of obligate day ornamental annuals under non-inductive environment. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 46: 1253–1259.
 
Catley J.L., Brooking I.R., Davies L.J., Halligan E.A. (2002): TEMPERATURE AND LIGHT REQUIREMENTS FOR SANDERSONIA AURANTIACA FLOWERING. Acta Horticulturae, , 105-112 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.570.10
 
Duncan, G.D. (2012): The genus Lachenalia. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
 
Ehrich Luise, Ulrichs Christian, Grüneberg Heiner (2009): Factors Influencing Flowering of Different South African Iridaceae. HortScience, 44, 1792-1795 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.44.6.1792
 
Gude H., Dijkema M. (1992): THE ROLE OF LIGHT QUALITY IN THE FORCING OF TULIPS AND HYACINTHS AND IN THE PROPAGATION OF HYACINTH BULBS. Acta Horticulturae, , 111-112 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1992.305.16
 
Han Susan S., Halevy Abraham H., Sachs Roy M., Reid Michael S. (1991): Flowering and Corm Yield of Brodiaea in Response to Temperature, Photoperiod, Corm Size, and Planting Depth. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 116, 19-22 https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.116.1.19
 
Islam M. Ashraful, Kuwar Goutam, Clarke Jihong Liu, Blystad Dag-Ragnar, Gislerød Hans Ragnar, Olsen Jorunn E., Torre Sissel (2012): Artificial light from light emitting diodes (LEDs) with a high portion of blue light results in shorter poinsettias compared to high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. Scientia Horticulturae, 147, 136-143 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.08.034
 
Jansen van Vuuren P.J., Coertse A., Coetzee J. (1993): SOUTH AFRICAN FLOWERING PLANTS WITH A POTENTIAL AS FUTURE FLORICULTURE CROPS. Acta Horticulturae, , 65-72 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1993.337.8
 
Kamenetsky R. (2005): PRODUCTION OF FLOWER BULBS IN REGIONS WITH WARM CLIMATES. Acta Horticulturae, , 59-66 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.673.4
 
Kapczyńska Anna (2014): Effect of Planting Term on Growth and Flowering of Two Cultivars of Lachenalia Produced in A Greenhouse as Potting Plants During Winter Months. Journal of Horticultural Research, 22, 29-34 https://doi.org/10.2478/johr-2014-0003
 
Kapczyńska Anna, Kidawska Agnieszka (2016): ‘Namakwa’ lachenalia’s response to flurprimidol and different planting dates. Folia Horticulturae, 28, 173-179 https://doi.org/10.1515/fhort-2016-0020
 
Kapczyńska A., Malik M. (2016): Planting time and flurprimidol treatment influence the growth and flowering of lachenalia. HortTechnology, 26: 293–298.
 
Kim Sun-Ja, Hahn Eun-Joo, Heo Jeong-Wook, Paek Kee-Yoeup (2004): Effects of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthemum plantlets in vitro. Scientia Horticulturae, 101, 143-151 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2003.10.003
 
Kleynhans R. (2002): From Namaqualand viooltjies to posh pot plant. Veld & Flora, 88: 111–113.
 
Kleynhans R. (2006): Lachenalia, spp. In: Anderson N.O. (ed.): Flower Breeding and Genetics: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century. Dordrecht, Springer: 491–516.
 
Kleynhans R. (2013): The development of lachenalia cultivars. [Ph.D. Thesis.] Bloemfontein, the University of the Free State, South.
 
Kleynhans R., Niederwieser J.G., Hancke F.L. (2002): LACHENALIA: DEVELOPMENT AND COMMERCIALIZATION OF A NEW FLOWER BULB CROP. Acta Horticulturae, , 81-85 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.570.7
 
Lee J.J., Hwang J.H. (2014): Effect of day-length extension treatment using LED on growth and flowering of Freesia hybrid ‘Yvonne’. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science & Technology, 32: 794–802.
 
Letchamo W., Xu H.L., Gosselin A. (1995): Photosynthetic potential of Thymus vulgaris selections under two light regimes and three soil water levels. Scientia Horticulturae, 62, 89-101 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(94)00752-2
 
Lopéz J., Gonzalez A., Fernandez J.A., Franco J.A., Banon S. (2006): EFFECT OF DAY LENGTH AND CORM STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON FLOWERING GLADIOLUS TRISTIS SBSP. CONCOLOR. Acta Horticulturae, , 241-246 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.711.31
 
Randall Wesley C., Lopez Roberto G. (2015): Comparison of Bedding Plant Seedlings Grown Under Sole-source Light-emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Greenhouse Supplemental Lighting from LEDs and High-pressure Sodium Lamps. HortScience, 50, 705-713 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.50.5.705
 
Roh Mark S. (2005): Flowering and inflorescence development of Lachenalia aloides ‘Pearsonii’ as influenced by bulb storage and forcing temperature. Scientia Horticulturae, 104, 305-323 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2004.10.004
 
Sirtautas Ramunas, Virsile Akvile, Samuoliene Giedre, Brazaityte Ausra, Miliauskiene Jurga, Sakalauskiene Sandra, Duchovskis Pavelas (2014): Growing of leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under high-pressure sodium lamps with supplemental blue, cyan and green LEDs. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, 101, 75-78 https://doi.org/10.13080/z-a.2014.101.010
 
Śmigielska Małgorzata, Krzymińska Agnieszka, Jerzy Marek (2014): The growth and flowering of Hyacinthus orientalis L. Forced in pots under fluorescent light of different colours. Acta Agrobotanica, 67, 75-82 https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.2014.034
 
Thompson Dave I., Mtshali Ntombizamatshali P., Ascough Glendon D., Erwin John E., Van Staden Johannes (2011): Flowering control in Watsonia: Effects of corm size, temperature, photoperiod and irradiance. Scientia Horticulturae, 129, 493-502 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2011.04.004
 
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