The evolution of some nutritional parameters of the tomato fruit during the harvesting stages 

https://doi.org/10.17221/222/2017-HORTSCICitation:Rodica S., Maria D., Alexandru-Ioan A., Marin S. (2019): The evolution of some nutritional parameters of the tomato fruit during the harvesting stages . Hort. Sci. (Prague), 46: 132-137.
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The main purpose of this study was to highlight the nutraceutical value of the tomato fruit for five hybrids recently introduced in culture, during the harvesting phases: mature green, half ripen and full ripen: ‘Antalya’, ‘Cemil’, ‘Lorely’, ‘Tiger’ and ‘Sacher’. They differentiate because of their size and fruit colour. The parameters to be followed for each harvest phase were: the chlorophyll a and b content, the total carotenes, the soluble substance, vitamin C, the titratable acidity, and also a maturity index was established. The results obtained showed significant differences between the hybrids, but also during the maturation phases. It singularised Tiger F1 with a total carotene content of 7.1 (green) to 12.5 (half ripen) and 18.6 mg/100g f.w. (in full ripen) and Sacher F1 with vitamin C from 6.2 (green) to 17.2 (half ripen) and 20.7 mg/100g f.w. (in full ripen). This variability can be attributed to these harvesting phases, but also to the genetic factors, such as cultivar type, fruit size and colour.

References:
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Bhandari S.R., Lee J.G. (2016): Ripening-dependent changes in antioxidants. Color attributes and antioxidant activity of seven tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars. Journal Analytical Methods Chemistry. PMC 5498618. doi: 10.1155/2016/5498618.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5498618
 
Dere S., T. Gunes and Sivaci R. (1998): Spectrophotometric determination of chlorophyll A, B and total carotenoid contents of some algae species using different solvents. Turkish Journal Botany, 22: 13–17.
 
Dinu M., Hoza G., Becherescu A.D. (2017): Antioxidant capacity and mineral content of some tomatoes cultivars grown in Oltenia (Romania). SGEM Conference Proceedings, Book 1: 93–100. doi: 10.5593/sgem2017/51/S20.013.
 
Dinu M., Soare R., Gruia M. (2016): Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in commercial cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.). SGEM2016 Conference Pro-
 
ceedings, Book 5: 149–156.
 
Duma M., Alsin I., Dubova L., Erdberga I. (2015): Chemical composition of tomatoes depending on the stage of ripening. Cheminė Technologija, 1: 24–28. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.ct.66.1.12053
 
Ilahy R., Hdider C., Lenucci M.S., Tlili I., Dalessandro G. (2011): Antioxidant activity and bioactive compound changes during fruit ripening of high-lycopene tomato cultivars. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 24: 588–595.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2010.11.003
 
Kader A.A., Rolle R.S. (2004): The role of post-harvest management in assuring the quality and safety horticultural crop”. Food and Agriculture Organization. Agricultural Services Bulletin 152: 52.
 
Kotíková Z., Lachman J., Hejtmánková A., Hejtmánková K. (2011): Determination of antioxidant activity and antioxidant contentin tomato varieties and evaluation of mutual interactions between antioxidants.” LWT—Food Science and Technology, 44: 1703–1711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.03.015
 
Leonardi C., Ambrosino P., Esposito F., Fogliano V. (2000): Antioxidative activity and carotenoid and tomatine contents in different typologies of fresh consumption tomatoes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48: 4723–4727. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000225t
 
Luna-Guevara M. L., Jiménez-González O., Luna-Guevara J.J., Hernández-Carranza P., Ochoa-Velasco C.E. (2014): Quality parameters and bioactive compounds of red tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Roma VF at different postharvest conditions. Journal of Food Research, 3: 8–11. https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v3n5p8
 
Moneruzzaman K.M. Hossain A.B.M.S., Sain W., Saifuddin N. (2008). Effect of stages of maturity and ripening conditions on the biochemical characteristics of tomato. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 4: 329–335. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajbbsp.2008.329.335
 
Navez B., Letard M., Graselly D., Jost J. (1999): Les critéres de qualité de la tomate Infos Ctifl, 155: 41–47.
 
Nielsen S. (2003): Food analysis. 3rd Ed. New York: Kluwer Academic: 557.
 
Oliveira A.B., Moura C.F.H., Gomes-Filho E., Marco C.A., Urban L, Miranda M.R.A. (2013): The Impact of organic farming on quality of tomatoes is associated to increased oxidative stress during fruit development. PLoS ONE8: e56354. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056354. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056354
 
Okiror P., Lejju J.B., Bahati J., Rugunda G.K., Sebuuwufu I.C. (2017): Maturity indices for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), cv. Ghalia 281 in Central Uganda. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 12: 1196–1203.
 
Patanè C., Cosentino SL. (2010): Effects of soil water deficit on yield and quality of processing tomato under a Mediterranean climate. Agricultural Water Management, 97: 131–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.08.021
 
Pinela J., Barros L., Carvalho A.M., Ferreira I.C.F.R. (2012): Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer’ varieties in North-Eastern Portugal home gardens. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50: 829–834.
 
Radzevičius A., Viškelis P., Karklelienė R., Viškelis J., Bobinas Č., Dambrauskienė E. and Sakalauskienė S. (2012): Tomato ripeness influence on fruit quality. International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, 6: 146–149.
 
Ray R.C., El Sheikha A.F., Panda S.H., Montet D. (2011): Antioxidant properties and other functional attributes of tomato: An overview. International Journal of Food and Fermentation Technology, 1: 139–148.
 
Sima R., Maniutiu D., Apahidean A.S., Apahidean M., Lazar L., Muresan C. (2009): The influence of fertilization on greenhouse tomatoes cultivated in peat bags system. Bulletin UASVM Horticulture, 66: 455–460.
 
Tigist M., Workneh T.S., Woldetsadik K. (2013): Effects of variety on the quality of tomato stored under ambient conditions. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 50: 477–486.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0378-0
 
Weingerl V., Unuk T. (2015): Chemical and fruit skin colour markers for simple quality control of tomato fruits Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 7: 76–85. https://doi.org/10.17508/CJFST.2015.7.2.03
 
AOAC (1990): Official Method of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. No. 934.06, AOAC, Arlington.
 
Bhandari S.R., Lee J.G. (2016): Ripening-dependent changes in antioxidants. Color attributes and antioxidant activity of seven tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars. Journal Analytical Methods Chemistry. PMC 5498618. doi: 10.1155/2016/5498618.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5498618
 
Dere S., T. Gunes and Sivaci R. (1998): Spectrophotometric determination of chlorophyll A, B and total carotenoid contents of some algae species using different solvents. Turkish Journal Botany, 22: 13–17.
 
Dinu M., Hoza G., Becherescu A.D. (2017): Antioxidant capacity and mineral content of some tomatoes cultivars grown in Oltenia (Romania). SGEM Conference Proceedings, Book 1: 93–100. doi: 10.5593/sgem2017/51/S20.013.
 
Dinu M., Soare R., Gruia M. (2016): Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in commercial cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.). SGEM2016 Conference Pro-
 
ceedings, Book 5: 149–156.
 
Duma M., Alsin I., Dubova L., Erdberga I. (2015): Chemical composition of tomatoes depending on the stage of ripening. Cheminė Technologija, 1: 24–28. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.ct.66.1.12053
 
Ilahy R., Hdider C., Lenucci M.S., Tlili I., Dalessandro G. (2011): Antioxidant activity and bioactive compound changes during fruit ripening of high-lycopene tomato cultivars. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 24: 588–595.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2010.11.003
 
Kader A.A., Rolle R.S. (2004): The role of post-harvest management in assuring the quality and safety horticultural crop”. Food and Agriculture Organization Agricultural Services Bulletin, Vol. 152. FAO, Rome.
 
Kotíková Z., Lachman J., Hejtmánková A., Hejtmánková K. (2011): Determination of antioxidant activity and antioxidant contentin tomato varieties and evaluation of mutual interactions between antioxidants.” LWT—Food Science and Technology, 44: 1703–1711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.03.015
 
Leonardi C., Ambrosino P., Esposito F., Fogliano V. (2000): Antioxidative activity and carotenoid and tomatine contents in different typologies of fresh consumption tomatoes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48: 4723–4727. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000225t
 
Luna-Guevara M. L., Jiménez-González O., Luna-Guevara J.J., Hernández-Carranza P., Ochoa-Velasco C.E. (2014): Quality parameters and bioactive compounds of red tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Roma VF at different postharvest conditions. Journal of Food Research, 3: 8–11. https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v3n5p8
 
Moneruzzaman K.M. Hossain A.B.M.S., Sain W., Saifuddin N. (2008). Effect of stages of maturity and ripening conditions on the biochemical characteristics of tomato. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 4: 329–335. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajbbsp.2008.329.335
 
Navez B., Letard M., Graselly D., Jost J. (1999): Les critéres de qualité de la tomate Infos Ctifl, 155: 41–47.
 
Nielsen S. (2003): Food analysis. 3rd Ed. New York: Kluwer Academic: 557.
 
Oliveira A.B., Moura C.F.H., Gomes-Filho E., Marco C.A., Urban L, Miranda M.R.A. (2013): The Impact of organic farming on quality of tomatoes is associated to increased oxidative stress during fruit development. PLoS ONE8: e56354. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056354. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056354
 
Okiror P., Lejju J.B., Bahati J., Rugunda G.K., Sebuuwufu I.C. (2017): Maturity indices for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), cv. Ghalia 281 in Central Uganda. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 12: 1196–1203.
 
Patanè C., Cosentino SL. (2010): Effects of soil water deficit on yield and quality of processing tomato under a Mediterranean climate. Agricultural Water Management, 97: 131–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.08.021
 
Pinela J., Barros L., Carvalho A.M., Ferreira I.C.F.R. (2012): Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer’ varieties in North-Eastern Portugal home gardens. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50: 829–834.
 
Radzevičius A., Viškelis P., Karklelienė R., Viškelis J., Bobinas Č., Dambrauskienė E. and Sakalauskienė S. (2012): Tomato ripeness influence on fruit quality. International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, 6: 146–149.
 
Ray R.C., El Sheikha A.F., Panda S.H., Montet D. (2011): Antioxidant properties and other functional attributes of tomato: An overview. International Journal of Food and Fermentation Technology, 1: 139–148.
 
Sima R., Maniutiu D., Apahidean A.S., Apahidean M., Lazar L., Muresan C. (2009): The influence of fertilization on greenhouse tomatoes cultivated in peat bags system. Bulletin UASVM Horticulture, 66: 455–460.
 
Tigist M., Workneh T.S., Woldetsadik K. (2013): Effects of variety on the quality of tomato stored under ambient conditions. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 50: 477–486.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0378-0
 
Weingerl V., Unuk T. (2015): Chemical and fruit skin colour markers for simple quality control of tomato fruits Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 7: 76–85. https://doi.org/10.17508/CJFST.2015.7.2.03
 
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