In-package moisture supports quality maintenance of white asparagus 

https://doi.org/10.17221/248/2017-HORTSCICitation:Brueckner B. (2019): In-package moisture supports quality maintenance of white asparagus . Hort. Sci. (Prague), 46: 153-161.
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White asparagus is a highly appreciated, high-value crop with a distinguished economic relevance among vegetables. Freshly harvested asparagus is available only during a short part of the year and the demand varies. The produce is perishable and only proper handling can ensure its quality after a reasonable shelf life. In this study, we investigated a new method to reduce one of the most important reasons for quality decline: fresh matter losses. The potential benefits or disadvantages of moist asparagus packaging for unpeeled white asparagus (cv. ‘Gijnlim’) was tested. We used polythene sleeves or bags, lined with cellulose fleece to hold added water for moisturizing. 500 g bunches of spears were filled in the bags. Spears were partly covered by the sleeves or totally covered by the bags. All spears were stored for 3 to 11 days at the temperature of 2°C, 8°C and a combination of 2°C/22°C.The last temperatures were to simulate retail conditions. In wet bags spear fresh weight increased, losses in bags with dry fleece were low. Maintaining of fresh weight in wet bags coincided significantly with higher bending firmness, and lower shear force, which points to less fibrousness. Wet storage also reduced the incidence of dried cut surfaces but promoted the incidence of lengthwise fractures and, in combination with higher temperature, grey-brown discolouration and colour saturation. Wet packaging may be beneficial primarily under low temperature and low air humidity storage conditions.

References:
Behr C. (2014): AMI Marktbilanz Gemüse 2014. (Market Report Vegetables 2014). Bonn, Agrarmarkt Informationsgesellschaft mbH.
 
Belker N., Hoffmann J. (1992): Spargellagerung. Eiswasserkühlung und Kühlung für Spargel. (Storage of asparagus. Ice-water cooling and cooling for asparagus). Vol 34. Münster, Eigenverlag der Landwirtschaftskammer Westfalen-Lippe.
 
Böttcher H. (1996): Frischhaltung und Lagerung von Gemüse. Stuttgart, Ulmer Verlag.
 
Bourne M.C. (2002): Food texture and viscosity. Concept and measurement. 2nd Ed. Oxford, Academic Press, Elsevier Science & Technology.
 
Bovi G.G., Caleb O.J., Linke M., Rauh C., Mahajan P.V. (2016): Transpiration and moisture evolution in packaged fresh horticultural produce and the role of integrated mathematical models: A review. Biosystems Engineering, 150: 24–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.07.013
 
Feng J., Maguire K.M., Mac Kay B.R. (2003): Effects of package and temperature equilibration time on physiochemical attributes of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 599: 149–155.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2003.599.18
 
Garcia. J.M., Medina R.J., Olias J.M. (1998): Quality of strawberries automatically packed in different plastic films. Journal of Food Science, 63: 1037–1041.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1998.tb15849.x
 
Graefe J., Heissner A., Feller C., Paschold P.-J., Fink M., Schreiner M. (2010): A process-oriented and stochastic simulation model for asparagus spear growth and yield. European Journal of Agronomy, 32: 195–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2009.11.004
 
Herppich W.B., Huyskens-Keil S., Kadau R. (2005): Effects of short-term low-temperature storage on mechanical and chemical properties of white Asparagus cell walls. Journal of applied botany and food quality-Angewandte Botanik, 79: 63–71.
 
Herppich W.B., Huyskens-Keil S. (2008): Cell wall biochemistry and biomechanics of harvested white asparagus shoots as affected by temperature. Annals of Applied Biology, 152: 377–388. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2008.00227.x
 
Holcroft D. (2015): Water relations in harvested fresh produce. PEF White Paper No. 15-01. La Pine, The Postharvest Education Foundation.
 
Huyskens-Keil S., Herppich W.B. (2016): High CO2 effects on postharvest biochemical and textural properties of white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 75: 45–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2012.06.017
 
Kader A.A. (2002): Postharvest biology and technology: an overview. Chapter 4 in: Kader A.A.: Postharvest technology of horticultural crops – (3rd Ed.): Publ. 3311, Oakland, California, University of California/Agriculture and Natural Resources.
 
Kader A.A., Rolle R.S. (2004): The role of post-harvest management in assuring the quality and safety of horticultural produce. In: Agricultural Services Bulletin. Vol 152. Rome, Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations: 13–18.
 
Krepker M., Shemesh R., Poleg Y.D., Kashi Y., Vaxman A., Segal E. (2017): Active food packaging films with synergistic antimicrobial activity. Food Control, 76: 117–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.01.014
 
Landahl S., Herppich W.B., Herold B., Geyer M., De Baerdemaeker J. (2004): A comprehensive evaluation of the interactions between produce elasticity and water status. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 69: 250–257.
 
Laurin E., Nunes M.C.N., Emond J.P. (2003): Forced-air cooling after air-shipment delays asparagus deterioration. Journal of Food Quality, 26: 43–44.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2003.tb00225.x
 
Mahr S. (2016): Endlich wieder Spargelzeit. Das Ernährungshandbuch. (Finally, it is asparagus season again). Das Ernährungshandbuch. (The Nutrition Handbook). Available at www.das-ernährungshandbuch.de/201605/02/spargel/ (accessed Nov 19, 2016).
 
Nikaido K., Jishi T., Maeda T. (2014): Quality change of asparagus spears stored with snow cooling. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 83: 327–334.  https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs1.CH-113
 
Nothnagel T., Krämer R., Schreyer L., Rabentstein F. (2013): Investigation of brown asparagus spears with specific consideration of Fusarium and virus infections in asparagus plantations of Saxony-Anhalt. Journal für Kulturpflanzen, 65: 50–59.
 
Rao C.G. (2015): Engineering for storage of fruits and vegetables. Cold storage, controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere storage. London, Academic Press, Elsevier.
 
Rempe-Vespermann N., Grunewaldt-Stoecker G., von Alten H. (2014): Histological characterization of browning and glassiness – quality deficiencies of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis). Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 121: 250–259. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03356520
 
Renquist A.R., Lill R.E., Borst W.M., Bycroft B.L., Corrigan V.K., O’Donoghue E.M. (2005): Postharvest life of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) under warm conditions can be extended by controlled atmosphere or water feeding. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 33: 269–276.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2005.9514359
 
Rodríguez R., Jaramillo S., Heredia A., Guillén R., Jiménez A., Fernández-Bolaños J. (2004): Mechanical properties of white and green asparagus: Changes related to modifications of cell wall components. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84: 1478–1486. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1762
 
Rojas-Graü M.A., Soliva-Fortuny R., Martin-Belloso O. (2009): Edible coatings to incorporate active ingredients to fresh-cut fruits: a review. Trends in Food Science, 20: 438–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2009.05.002
 
Rux G., Mahajan P., Linke M., Pant A., Saengerlaub S., Caleb O.J., Geyer M. (2016): Humidity-regulating trays: moisture absorption kinetics and applications for fresh produce packaging. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 9: 709–716. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-015-1671-0
 
Scheer C. (2002): Spargelqualität im Produktions- und Aufbereitungsprozess. (Asparagus quality during production and processing). [Ph.D. Thesis] Berlin, Technische Universität Berlin.
 
Scheer C., Schonhof, I., Bruckner, B., Schreiner, M., Knorr, D. (2003): Effect of short-term storage on asparagus quality. Journal of Applied Botany-Angewandte Botanik 77: 177–180.
 
Siomos, A. S. (2003): Quality, handling and storage of white asparagus. In: Dris R., Niskanen R., Jain S.M. (eds): Crop management and postharvest handling of horticultural products. Enfield, Science Publishers, Inc.: 65–88.
 
Sothornvit R., Kiatchanapaibul P. (2009): Quality and shelf-life of washed fresh-cut asparagus in modified atmosphere packaging, LWT-Food Science and Technology, 84: 818–824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2009.05.012
 
Srinivasa P.C., Susheelamma N.S., Ravi R., Tharanathan R.N. (2004): Quality of mango fruits during storage: effect of synthetic and eco-friendly films. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84: 818–824.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1760
 
Tapia M.S., Alzamora S.M., Chirife J. (2007): Effects of water activity on microbial stability: as a hurdle in food preservation. In: Barbosa-Canovas G.V., Fontana A.J., Schmidt S.J., Labuza T.P. (eds): Water Activity in Foods – Fundamentals and Applications. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing: 239–271.
 
Techavuthiporn C., Boonyaritthongchai P. (2016): Effect of prestorage short-term anoxia treatment and modified atmosphere packaging on the physical and chemical changes of green asparagus. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 117: 64–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2016.01.016
 
Tiehua L., Zhang M. (2015): Effects of modified atmosphere package (MAP) with a silicon gum film window on the quality of stored green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 60: 1046–1053 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.10.065
 
Tirawat D., Flick D., Merendet V., Derens E., Laguerre O. (2017): Combination of fogging and refrigeration for white asparagus preservation on vegetable stalls. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 124: 8–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2016.09.010
 
Tzoumaki M.V., Biliaderis C.G., Vasilakakis M. (2009): Impact of edible coatings and packaging on quality of white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) during cold storage. Food Chemistry, 117: 55–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.076
 
Waldron K.W., Selvendran, R.R. (1990): Composition of cell walls of different asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) tissues. Physiologia Plantarum, 80: 568–575. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1990.tb05680.x
 
Wills R., McGlasson B., Graham D., Joyce D. (2007): Postharvest, an introduction to the physiology and handling of fruit, vegetables and ornamentals. 4th Ed. New York, Cab International.
 
Behr C. (2014): AMI Marktbilanz Gemüse 2014. (Market Report Vegetables 2014). Bonn, Agrarmarkt Informationsgesellschaft mbH.
 
Belker N., Hoffmann J. (1992): Spargellagerung. Eiswasserkühlung und Kühlung für Spargel. (Storage of asparagus. Ice-water cooling and cooling for asparagus). Vol 34. Münster, Eigenverlag der Landwirtschaftskammer Westfalen-Lippe.
 
Böttcher H. (1996): Frischhaltung und Lagerung von Gemüse. Stuttgart, Ulmer Verlag.
 
Bourne M.C. (2002): Food texture and viscosity. Concept and measurement. 2nd Ed. Oxford, Academic Press, Elsevier Science & Technology.
 
Bovi G.G., Caleb O.J., Linke M., Rauh C., Mahajan P.V. (2016): Transpiration and moisture evolution in packaged fresh horticultural produce and the role of integrated mathematical models: A review. Biosystems Engineering, 150: 24–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.07.013
 
Feng J., Maguire K.M., Mac Kay B.R. (2003): Effects of package and temperature equilibration time on physiochemical attributes of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 599: 149–155.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2003.599.18
 
Garcia. J.M., Medina R.J., Olias J.M. (1998): Quality of strawberries automatically packed in different plastic films. Journal of Food Science, 63: 1037–1041.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1998.tb15849.x
 
Graefe J., Heissner A., Feller C., Paschold P.-J., Fink M., Schreiner M. (2010): A process-oriented and stochastic simulation model for asparagus spear growth and yield. European Journal of Agronomy, 32: 195–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2009.11.004
 
Herppich W.B., Huyskens-Keil S., Kadau R. (2005): Effects of short-term low-temperature storage on mechanical and chemical properties of white Asparagus cell walls. Journal of applied botany and food quality-Angewandte Botanik, 79: 63–71.
 
Herppich W.B., Huyskens-Keil S. (2008): Cell wall biochemistry and biomechanics of harvested white asparagus shoots as affected by temperature. Annals of Applied Biology, 152: 377–388. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2008.00227.x
 
Holcroft D. (2015): Water relations in harvested fresh produce. PEF White Paper No. 15-01. La Pine, The Postharvest Education Foundation.
 
Huyskens-Keil S., Herppich W.B. (2016): High CO2 effects on postharvest biochemical and textural properties of white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 75: 45–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2012.06.017
 
Kader A.A. (2002): Postharvest biology and technology: an overview. Chapter 4 in: Kader A.A.: Postharvest technology of horticultural crops – (3rd Ed.): Publ. 3311, Oakland, California, University of California/Agriculture and Natural Resources.
 
Kader A.A., Rolle R.S. (2004): The role of post-harvest management in assuring the quality and safety of horticultural produce. In: Agricultural Services Bulletin. Vol 152. Rome, Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations: 13–18.
 
Krepker M., Shemesh R., Poleg Y.D., Kashi Y., Vaxman A., Segal E. (2017): Active food packaging films with synergistic antimicrobial activity. Food Control, 76: 117–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.01.014
 
Landahl S., Herppich W.B., Herold B., Geyer M., De Baerdemaeker J. (2004): A comprehensive evaluation of the interactions between produce elasticity and water status. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 69: 250–257.
 
Laurin E., Nunes M.C.N., Emond J.P. (2003): Forced-air cooling after air-shipment delays asparagus deterioration. Journal of Food Quality, 26: 43–44.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2003.tb00225.x
 
Mahr S. (2016): Endlich wieder Spargelzeit. Das Ernährungshandbuch. (Finally, it is asparagus season again). Das Ernährungshandbuch. (The Nutrition Handbook). Available at www.das-ernährungshandbuch.de/201605/02/spargel/ (accessed Nov 19, 2016).
 
Nikaido K., Jishi T., Maeda T. (2014): Quality change of asparagus spears stored with snow cooling. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 83: 327–334.  https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs1.CH-113
 
Nothnagel T., Krämer R., Schreyer L., Rabentstein F. (2013): Investigation of brown asparagus spears with specific consideration of Fusarium and virus infections in asparagus plantations of Saxony-Anhalt. Journal für Kulturpflanzen, 65: 50–59.
 
Rao C.G. (2015): Engineering for storage of fruits and vegetables. Cold storage, controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere storage. London, Academic Press, Elsevier.
 
Rempe-Vespermann N., Grunewaldt-Stoecker G., von Alten H. (2014): Histological characterization of browning and glassiness – quality deficiencies of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis). Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 121: 250–259. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03356520
 
Renquist A.R., Lill R.E., Borst W.M., Bycroft B.L., Corrigan V.K., O’Donoghue E.M. (2005): Postharvest life of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) under warm conditions can be extended by controlled atmosphere or water feeding. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 33: 269–276.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2005.9514359
 
Rodríguez R., Jaramillo S., Heredia A., Guillén R., Jiménez A., Fernández-Bolaños J. (2004): Mechanical properties of white and green asparagus: Changes related to modifications of cell wall components. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84: 1478–1486. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1762
 
Rojas-Graü M.A., Soliva-Fortuny R., Martin-Belloso O. (2009): Edible coatings to incorporate active ingredients to fresh-cut fruits: a review. Trends in Food Science, 20: 438–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2009.05.002
 
Rux G., Mahajan P., Linke M., Pant A., Saengerlaub S., Caleb O.J., Geyer M. (2016): Humidity-regulating trays: moisture absorption kinetics and applications for fresh produce packaging. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 9: 709–716. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-015-1671-0
 
Scheer C. (2002): Spargelqualität im Produktions- und Aufbereitungsprozess. (Asparagus quality during production and processing). [Ph.D. Thesis] Berlin, Technische Universität Berlin.
 
Scheer C., Schonhof, I., Bruckner, B., Schreiner, M., Knorr, D. (2003): Effect of short-term storage on asparagus quality. Journal of Applied Botany-Angewandte Botanik 77: 177–180.
 
Siomos, A. S. (2003): Quality, handling and storage of white asparagus. In: Dris R., Niskanen R., Jain S.M. (eds): Crop management and postharvest handling of horticultural products. Enfield, Science Publishers, Inc.: 65–88.
 
Sothornvit R., Kiatchanapaibul P. (2009): Quality and shelf-life of washed fresh-cut asparagus in modified atmosphere packaging, LWT-Food Science and Technology, 84: 818–824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2009.05.012
 
Srinivasa P.C., Susheelamma N.S., Ravi R., Tharanathan R.N. (2004): Quality of mango fruits during storage: effect of synthetic and eco-friendly films. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84: 818–824.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1760
 
Tapia M.S., Alzamora S.M., Chirife J. (2007): Effects of water activity on microbial stability: as a hurdle in food preservation. In: Barbosa-Canovas G.V., Fontana A.J., Schmidt S.J., Labuza T.P. (eds): Water Activity in Foods – Fundamentals and Applications. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing: 239–271.
 
Techavuthiporn C., Boonyaritthongchai P. (2016): Effect of prestorage short-term anoxia treatment and modified atmosphere packaging on the physical and chemical changes of green asparagus. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 117: 64–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2016.01.016
 
Tiehua L., Zhang M. (2015): Effects of modified atmosphere package (MAP) with a silicon gum film window on the quality of stored green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 60: 1046–1053 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.10.065
 
Tirawat D., Flick D., Merendet V., Derens E., Laguerre O. (2017): Combination of fogging and refrigeration for white asparagus preservation on vegetable stalls. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 124: 8–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2016.09.010
 
Tzoumaki M.V., Biliaderis C.G., Vasilakakis M. (2009): Impact of edible coatings and packaging on quality of white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) during cold storage. Food Chemistry, 117: 55–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.076
 
Waldron K.W., Selvendran, R.R. (1990): Composition of cell walls of different asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) tissues. Physiologia Plantarum, 80: 568–575. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1990.tb05680.x
 
Wills R., McGlasson B., Graham D., Joyce D. (2007): Postharvest, an introduction to the physiology and handling of fruit, vegetables and ornamentals. 4th Ed. New York, Cab International.
 
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