Precocity and a long-term cropping in apple progenies grown on M 9 rootstock

https://doi.org/10.17221/268/2015-HORTSCICitation:Blažek J., Zelený L., Křelinová J. (2016): Precocity and a long-term cropping in apple progenies grown on M 9 rootstock. Hort. Sci. (Prague), 43: 167-174.
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The fruiting of 23 apple progenies, in total 756 genotypes grafted on M 9 rootstock, was evaluated for 11 years (2005–2015). The most precocious was the progeny obtained by the crossing of genotype HL1737 and Pink Lady cultivar, seedlings of which achieved fruiting stage just between the first and second year after planting. The least precocious was the progeny Freedom × Antonovka o.p., in which seedlings started fruiting on average just in the 5th and  6th year after planting. The most productive in the study was the progeny HL782 × Topaz, having a mean rating of  5.33 points on a 1–9 scale. Behind this leader, in decreasing order, were the progenies HL782 × HL665, Resista × Pink Lady, Resista × HL2219 and HL665 × HL782. The progenies Resista × Benet and Idleless × HL665 were distinguished with the highest level of biennial bearing (above 81%). The most valuable for utilisation in breeding is the progeny HL665 × HL782. Other noteworthy donors to be considered for distinctly more regular cropping are the cultivars Pink Lady, Discovery and HL2219.
References:
Alston F.H., Bates J.W. (1979): Selection of yield in apple progenies. In: Proceedings of Eucarpia Fruit Section Symposium. Tree Fruit Breeding. September 3–7, 1979, Angers: 15–27.
 
Bangerth K.F. (2009): Floral induction in mature, perennial angiosperm fruit trees: Similarities and discrepancies with annual/biennial plants and the involvement of plant hormones. Scientia Horticulturae, 122, 153-163  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2009.06.014
 
Blazek J. (2013): Comparative Study of Apple Cultivars Bred in Holovousy, Czech Republic. Journal of Plant Studies, 2, -  https://doi.org/10.5539/jps.v2n2p113
 
Blažek J., Křelinová J. (2013): Tree vigour and productivity within a set of progenies evaluated during an apple breeding program. Scientific Papers of Pomology, 23: 165–178.
 
Blažek Jan, Paprštein F., Křelinová J. (): Heritability of flowering time within apple progeny. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 51, 23-28  https://doi.org/10.17221/221/2014-CJGPB
 
Brown S.K., Maloney K.E. (2009): Making sense of new apple varieties, trademarks and clubs: Current Status. New York Fruit Quarterly, 17: 9–12.
 
Brown S.K., Maloney K.E. (2013): An update on apple cultivars, brands and club-marketing. New York Fruit Quarterly, 21: 3–10.
 
Celton Jean-Marc, Kelner Jean-Jacques, Martinez Sébastien, Bechti Abdel, Khelifi Touhami Amina, James Marie José, Durel Charles-Eric, Laurens François, Costes Evelyne, Niedz Randall P. (2014): Fruit Self-Thinning: A Trait to Consider for Genetic Improvement of Apple Tree. PLoS ONE, 9, e91016-  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091016
 
Durand J.-B., Guitton B., Peyhardi J., Holtz Y., Guedon Y., Trottier C., Costes E. (): New insights for estimating the genetic value of segregating apple progenies for irregular bearing during the first years of tree production. Journal of Experimental Botany, 64, 5099-5113  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ert297
 
FOSTER T. (2003): A Morphological and Quantitative Characterization of Early Floral Development in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Annals of Botany, 92, 199-206  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcg120
 
González-Talice J., Yuri J.A., Lepe V., Hirzel J., del Pozo A. (2012): Water use in three apple cultivars from the second season to sixth season in a drainage lysimeter. Scientia Horticulturae, 146, 131-136  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.07.034
 
Guitton B., Kelner J.-J., Velasco R., Gardiner S. E., Chagne D., Costes E. (): Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 131-149  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err261
 
Hanke M.V., Flachowski H., Peil A., Hatlasch C. (2007): No flower no fruit – genetic potential to higher flowering in fruit trees. Genes, 1: 1–20.
 
Hattasch C., Flachowsky H., Kapturska D., Hanke M.-V. (2008): Isolation of flowering genes and seasonal changes in their transcript levels related to flower induction and initiation in apple (Malus domestica). Tree Physiology, 28, 1459-1466  https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/28.10.1459
 
Kellerhals M., Meyer M. (1994): Aims of the apple breeding programme at Wädenswil. Progress in temperate fruit breeding. Developments in Plant, 1: 117–121.
 
Kazlouskaya Z.A., Yakimovich V., Hashenka T., Vaseha V. (2014): Target character’s collections of apple-tree and pear-tree in Belarus. Fruit Growing Research, 30: 31–34.
 
Kumar Satish, Volz Richard K., Alspach Peter A., Bus Vincent G. M. (2010): Development of a recurrent apple breeding programme in New Zealand: a synthesis of results, and a proposed revised breeding strategy. Euphytica, 173, 207-222  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-009-0090-6
 
Monselise S.P., Goldschmidt E.E. (1982): Alternate bearing in fruit trees. Horticultural Reviews, 4: 128–173.
 
Ryugo K. (1988): Fruit Culture. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
 
Sansavini S., Belfanti E., Costa F., Donati F. (2005): European apple breeding programs turn to biotechnology. Chronica Horticulturae, 45: 16–19.
 
Sedov E.N. (2013): Results and prospects in apple breeding. Universal Journal of Plant Science, 1: 55–65.
 
Sosna Ireneusz (2014): Estimation Of Productive Value Of Czech Origin Scab-Resistant Apple Cultivars On Different Rootstocks. Journal of Horticultural Research, 22, -  https://doi.org/10.2478/johr-2014-0028
 
Tóth M., Ficzek G., Király I., Kovács S., Hevesi M., Halász J., Szani S. (2012): ‘Artemisz’, ‘Cordelia’, ‘Hesztia’, and ‘Rosmerta’: New Hungarian multi-resistant apple cultivars. HortScience, 47: 1795–1800.
 
Visser T. (1964): Juvenile phase and growth of apple and pear seedlings. Euphytica, 13: 119–129.
 
Visser T. (1967): Juvenile period and precocity of apple and pear seedlings. Euphytica, 16, 319-320  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00028936
 
Alston F.H., Bates J.W. (1979): Selection of yield in apple progenies. In: Proceedings of Eucarpia Fruit Section Symposium. Tree Fruit Breeding. September 3–7, 1979, Angers: 15–27.
 
Bangerth K.F. (2009): Floral induction in mature, perennial angiosperm fruit trees: Similarities and discrepancies with annual/biennial plants and the involvement of plant hormones. Scientia Horticulturae, 122, 153-163  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2009.06.014
 
Blazek J. (2013): Comparative Study of Apple Cultivars Bred in Holovousy, Czech Republic. Journal of Plant Studies, 2, -  https://doi.org/10.5539/jps.v2n2p113
 
Blažek J., Křelinová J. (2013): Tree vigour and productivity within a set of progenies evaluated during an apple breeding program. Scientific Papers of Pomology, 23: 165–178.
 
Blažek Jan, Paprštein F., Křelinová J. (): Heritability of flowering time within apple progeny. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 51, 23-28  https://doi.org/10.17221/221/2014-CJGPB
 
Brown S.K., Maloney K.E. (2009): Making sense of new apple varieties, trademarks and clubs: Current Status. New York Fruit Quarterly, 17: 9–12.
 
Brown S.K., Maloney K.E. (2013): An update on apple cultivars, brands and club-marketing. New York Fruit Quarterly, 21: 3–10.
 
Celton Jean-Marc, Kelner Jean-Jacques, Martinez Sébastien, Bechti Abdel, Khelifi Touhami Amina, James Marie José, Durel Charles-Eric, Laurens François, Costes Evelyne, Niedz Randall P. (2014): Fruit Self-Thinning: A Trait to Consider for Genetic Improvement of Apple Tree. PLoS ONE, 9, e91016-  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091016
 
Durand J.-B., Guitton B., Peyhardi J., Holtz Y., Guedon Y., Trottier C., Costes E. (): New insights for estimating the genetic value of segregating apple progenies for irregular bearing during the first years of tree production. Journal of Experimental Botany, 64, 5099-5113  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ert297
 
FOSTER T. (2003): A Morphological and Quantitative Characterization of Early Floral Development in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Annals of Botany, 92, 199-206  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcg120
 
González-Talice J., Yuri J.A., Lepe V., Hirzel J., del Pozo A. (2012): Water use in three apple cultivars from the second season to sixth season in a drainage lysimeter. Scientia Horticulturae, 146, 131-136  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.07.034
 
Guitton B., Kelner J.-J., Velasco R., Gardiner S. E., Chagne D., Costes E. (): Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 131-149  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err261
 
Hanke M.V., Flachowski H., Peil A., Hatlasch C. (2007): No flower no fruit – genetic potential to higher flowering in fruit trees. Genes, 1: 1–20.
 
Hattasch C., Flachowsky H., Kapturska D., Hanke M.-V. (2008): Isolation of flowering genes and seasonal changes in their transcript levels related to flower induction and initiation in apple (Malus domestica). Tree Physiology, 28, 1459-1466  https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/28.10.1459
 
Kellerhals M., Meyer M. (1994): Aims of the apple breeding programme at Wädenswil. Progress in temperate fruit breeding. Developments in Plant, 1: 117–121.
 
Kazlouskaya Z.A., Yakimovich V., Hashenka T., Vaseha V. (2014): Target character’s collections of apple-tree and pear-tree in Belarus. Fruit Growing Research, 30: 31–34.
 
Kumar Satish, Volz Richard K., Alspach Peter A., Bus Vincent G. M. (2010): Development of a recurrent apple breeding programme in New Zealand: a synthesis of results, and a proposed revised breeding strategy. Euphytica, 173, 207-222  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-009-0090-6
 
Monselise S.P., Goldschmidt E.E. (1982): Alternate bearing in fruit trees. Horticultural Reviews, 4: 128–173.
 
Ryugo K. (1988): Fruit Culture. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
 
Sansavini S., Belfanti E., Costa F., Donati F. (2005): European apple breeding programs turn to biotechnology. Chronica Horticulturae, 45: 16–19.
 
Sedov E.N. (2013): Results and prospects in apple breeding. Universal Journal of Plant Science, 1: 55–65.
 
Sosna Ireneusz (2014): Estimation Of Productive Value Of Czech Origin Scab-Resistant Apple Cultivars On Different Rootstocks. Journal of Horticultural Research, 22, -  https://doi.org/10.2478/johr-2014-0028
 
Tóth M., Ficzek G., Király I., Kovács S., Hevesi M., Halász J., Szani S. (2012): ‘Artemisz’, ‘Cordelia’, ‘Hesztia’, and ‘Rosmerta’: New Hungarian multi-resistant apple cultivars. HortScience, 47: 1795–1800.
 
Visser T. (1964): Juvenile phase and growth of apple and pear seedlings. Euphytica, 13: 119–129.
 
Visser T. (1967): Juvenile period and precocity of apple and pear seedlings. Euphytica, 16, 319-320  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00028936
 
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