Sustainable alternatives to chemicals for weed control in the orchard – a Review
Bajwa A.A., Mahajan G., Chauhan B.S. (2015): Nonconventional weed management strategies for modern agriculture. Weed Science, 63: 723–747. https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-D-15-00064.1
Bakker T., Van Asselt K., Bontsema J., Muller J., Van Straten G. (2010): Systematic design of an autonomous platform for robotic weeding. Journal of Terramechanics, 47: 63–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jterra.2009.06.002
Bond W., Grundy A.C. (2001): Non-chemical weed management in organic farming systems. Weed Research, 41: 383–405. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3180.2001.00246.x
Bradshaw T. (2017): Non-chemical weed management in orchards. Available at http: //www.uvm.edu /~fruit/?Page=treefruit/tf_horticulture.html (accessed Sept 17, 2018).
Camposeo S., Vivaldi G.A. (2001): Short-term effects of de-oiled olive mulching application on a young super high-density olive orchard. Scienta Horticulturae, 129: 613–621. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2011.04.034
Dale A. (2000): Black plastic mulch and between-row cultivation increase blackcurrant yields. HortTechnology, 10: 307–308. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.10.2.307
Deng S.P., Tabatabai M.A. (1997): Effects of tillage and residue management on enzyme activities in soils: 3. Phosphatases and arylsulfatase. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 24: 141–146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740050222
Dick W.A. (1984): Influence of long-term tillage and crop-rotation combinations on soil enzyme activities. Journal of Soil Science Society of America, 48: 569–574. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1984.03615995004800030020x
Duncan R.A., Stapleton J.J., Mckenry M.V. (1992): Establishment of orchards with black polyethylene film mulching: effect on nematode and fungal pathogens, water conservation, and tree growth. Journal of Nematology, 24: 681–687.
Endeshaw S.T., Lodolini E.M., Neri D. (2015a): Effects of olive shoot residues on shoot and root growth of potted olive plantlets. Scientia Horticulturae, 182: 31–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2014.11.008
Endeshaw S.T., Lodolini E.M., Neri D. (2015b): Effects of untreated two-phase olive mill pomace on potted olive plantlets. Annals of Applied Biology, 166: 508–519. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12200
Freyman S. (1989): Living mulch ground covers for weed control between raspberry rows. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 262: 349–356. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1989.262.50
Forge T.A., Hogue E., Neilsen G., Neilsen D. (2008): Organic mulches alter nematode communities root growth and ﬂuxes of phosphorus in the root zone of apple. Applied Soil Ecology, 39: 15–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2007.11.004
Gangatharan R., Neri D. (2012): Can biodiversity improve soil fertility in agroecosytems? New Mediterranean, 4: 11–18.
Garcia-Ruiz R., Ochoa V., Hinojosa M.B., Carreira J.A. (2008): Suitability of enzyme activities for the monitoring of soil quality improvement in organic agricultural systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40: 2137–2145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.03.023
Gaupp-Berghausen M., Hofer M., Rewald B., Zaller J.G. (2015): Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations. Scientific Reports, 5, 12886. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep12886
Giudice V.L. (1981): Present status of citrus weed control in Italy. International Society of Citriculture, 2: 485–487.
Graham H.A.H, Cecoteau D.R., Liniville D.E. (1995): Development of polyethylene mulch system that changes color in the field. HortScience, 30: 265–269. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.30.2.265
Granatstein D., Kupferman E. (2008): Sustainable horticulture in fruit production. International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), 295–308. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.767.31
Granatstein D., Mullinix K. (2008). Mulching options for northwest organic and conventional orchards. HortScience, 43: 45–50. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.1.45
Granatstein D., Andrews P., Groff A. (2014): Productivity, economics, and fruit and soil quality of weed management systems in commercial organic orchards in Washington State, USA. Organic Agriculture, 4: 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13165-014-0068-0
Granatstein D., Sanchez E. (2009): Research knowledge and needs for orchard floor management in organic fruit system. International Journal of Fruit Science, 9: 257–281. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538360903245212
Granatstein D., Wiman M., Kibry E., Mullinix K. (2010): Sustainability trade-offs in organic orchard floor management. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 873: 115–121. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.873.11
Grieshop M.J., Hanson E., Schilder A., Isaacs R., Mutch, D., Garcia-Salazar C., Longstroth M., Sadowsky J. (2012): Status update on organic blueberries in Michigan. International Journal of Fruit Science, 12: 232–245. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2011.619133
Grossbard E., Davies H.A. (1976): Specific microbial responses to herbicides. Weed Research, 16: 163–170. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.1976.tb00397.x
Guerra B., Steenwerth K. (2012): Inﬂuence of ﬂoor management technique on grapevine growth, disease pressure, and juice and wine composition: a review. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 63: 149–164. https://doi.org/10.5344/ajev.2011.10001
Hammermeister A.M. (2016): Organic weed management in perennial fruits. Scientia Horticulturae, 208: 28–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2016.02.004
Hoagland L., Carpenter-Boggs L., Granatstein D., Mazzola M., Smith J., Peryea F., Reganold J.P. (2008): Orchard floor management effects on nitrogen fertility and soil biological activity in a newly established organic apple orchard. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 45: 11–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-008-0304-4
Hogue E.J., Cline J.A., Neilsen G., Neilsen D. (2010): Growth and yield responses to mulches and cover crops under low potassium conditions in drip-irrigated apple orchards on coarse soils. HortScience, 45: 1866–1871. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.45.12.1866
Jordan L.S., Day B.E. (1970): Weed control in citrus. FAO International Conference on Weed Control, University of California, Davis: 128–142.
Ingels C.A., Lanini T., Klonsky K.M., Demoura R. (2013): Effects of weed and nutrient management practices in organic pear orchards. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 1001: 175–183. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2013.1001.19
Kibblewhite M.G., Ritz K., Swift M.J. (2008): Soil health in agricultural systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 363: 685–701. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2178
Kitis Y., Koloren O., Uygur F. (2011): Evaluation of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) as living mulch for ecological weed control in citrus orchards. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6: 1257–1264.
Kruidhof H., Bastiaans L., Kropff M. (2008): Ecological weed management by cover cropping, effects on weed growth in autumn and weed establishment in spring. Weed Research, 48: 492–502. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2008.00665.x
Lacey L., Granatstein D., Arthurs S.P., Headrick H., Fritts Jr R. (2006): Use of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) in conjunction with mulches for control of overwintering codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 41: 107–119. https://doi.org/10.18474/0749-8004-41.2.107
Lamont W.J. (2005): Plastic: modifying the microclimate for the production of vegetable crops. American Society for Horticultural Science, 15: 477–481. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.15.3.0477
Lange A.H. (1970): Weed control methods, losses and costs due to weeds, and benefits of weed control in deciduous fruit and nut crops. FAO International Conference on Weed Control, Davis, California: 143–162.
Larsson L. (1997): Evaluation of mulching in organically grown black currant (Ribes nigrum) in terms of its effects on the crop and the environment. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Suecia Agraria, 28: 1–26.
Liang W., Huang M. (1994): Influence of citrus orchard ground cover plants on arthropod communities in China: a review. Agriculture, Ecosystems and the Environment, 50: 29–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8809(94)90122-8
Lisek J. (2014): Possibilities and limitations of weed management in fruit crops of the temperate climate zone. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 54: 318–326. https://doi.org/10.2478/jppr-2014-0048
Mage F. (1982): Black plastic mulching compared to other orchard soil management methods. Scietia Horticullturae, 2: 131–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(82)90084-X
Melander B., Lattanzi B., Pannacci E. (2015): Intelligent versus nonintelligent mechanical intra-row weed control in transplanted onion and cabbage. Crop Protection, 72: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.02.017
Meng J., Li L., Liu H., Li Y., Li C., Wu G., Yu X., Guo L., Cheng D., Muminov M.A., Liang X., Jiang G. (2016): Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability. PeerJ, doi: 10.7717/peerj.2137. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2137
Merwin I.A., Stiles W.C. (1994): Orchard groundcover management impacts on apple tree growth and yield, and nutrient availability and uptake. Journal of the America Society for Horticultural Science, 119: 209–215. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.119.2.209
Merwin I.W. (2003): Orchard floor management systems. In: Ferree D.C., Warrington I.J. (eds), Apples: botany, production and uses. CABI publ. Cambridge: 303–318.
Meyer J.R., Zeh’r E.I., Meagher R.L., Salvo S.K. (1992): Survival and growth of peach trees and pest populations in orchard plots managed with experimental ground covers. Agriculture, Ecosystem and teh Environment, 41: 353–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8809(92)90121-Q
Neilsen G.H., Hogue E.J. (2000): Comparison of white clover and mixed sodgrass as orchard floor vegetation. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 80: 617–622. https://doi.org/10.4141/P99-126
Neilsen G.H., Neilsen D. (2003): Nutritional requirements of apple. In: Ferree D.C., Warrington I.J. (eds): Apples: botany, production, and uses. CABI Publ. Cambridge: 267–302.
Neilsen G.H., Hogue E.J., Forge T., Neilsen D. (2003): Mulches and biosolids affect vigor, yield and leaf nutrition of fertigated high density apple. HortScience, 38: 41–45. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.38.1.41
Neilsen G., Neilsen D., Ogorman D., Hogue E., Forge T., Angers D., Bissonnette N. (2013): Soil management in organic orchard production systems. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 1001: 295–302. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2013.1001.33
Neri D. (2004): Low input apple production in central Italy: tree and soil management. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 12: 69–76.
Neri D. (2013): Organic soil management to prevent soil sickness during integrated fruit production. Integrated production of fruit crops, 91: 87–99.
Pannacci E., Covarelli G. (2005): Mechanical weed control in sunflower. 13th European Weed Research Society Symposium, June 2005. Bari, Italy.
Pannacci E., Graziani F., Guiducci M., Tei F. (2008): Controllo meccanico delle malerbe in colture da seme di cipolla. In: Proceedings of Research Project “Azioni di innovazione e ricerca a supporto del piano sementiero. PRIS2 Progetto di ricerca interregionale, Programma “Sviluppo Rurale” e Sottoprogramma “Innovazione e Ricerca”:265–275.
Pannacci E., Lattanzi B., Tei F. (2017): Non-chemical weed managements strategies in minor crops: a review. Crop Protection, 96: 44–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2017.01.012
Pannacci E., Tei F. (2014): Effects of mechanical and chemical methods on weed control, weed seed rain and crop yield in maize, sunflower and soyabean. Crop Protection, 64: 51–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2014.06.001
Peruzzi A., Martelloni L., Frasconi C., Fontanelli M., Pirchio M., Raffaelli M. (2017): Machines for non-chemical intra-row weed control: a review. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 48: 57–70. https://doi.org/10.4081/jae.2017.583
Pieterse P.J. (2010): Herbicide resistance in weeds – a threat to effective chemical weed control in South Africa. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 27: 66–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/02571862.2010.10639971
Polverigiani S., Massetani F., Tarragoni A., Neri D. (2013a): Apricot root development and morphology as influenced by mulching and multispecies ground cover. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 1001: 353–359. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2013.1001.41
Polverigiani S., Perilli A., Rainer A., Massetani F., Neri D., Kelderer M. (2013b). Effect of four different soil management techniques on apple root development. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 1001: 361–367 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2013.1001.42
Polverigiani S., Franzina M., Neri D. (2018a): Effect of soil condition on apple root development and plant resilience in intensive orchards. Applied Soil Ecology, 123: 787–792. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.04.009
Polverigiani S., Franzina M., Neri D. (2018b): Effect of manure and digestate amendments on apple seedlings in the presence of homospecific residues. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 1228: 445–450. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1228.66
Robinson R.A., Sutherland W.J. (2002): Post-war changes in arable farming and biodiversity in Great Britain. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39: 157–176. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00695.x
Rovira A.D., Elliot L.F., Cook R.J. (1990): The impact of cropping systems on rhizosphere organisms affecting plant health. J.M. Lynch (ed.). The rhizosphere. Wiley, Chichester: 389–436.
Sanchez J.E., Willson T.C., Kizilkaya K., Parker E., Harwood R.R. (2001): Enhancing the mineralized nitrogen pool through substrate diversity in long term cropping and systems. Journal of Soil Science Society of America, 65: 1442–1447. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2001.6551442x
Schonbeck M. (2012): Synthetic Mulching Materials for Weed Management in Organic production. eOrganic article, Available at http://www.extension.org/pages/65191.
Shorette K. (2012): Outcomes of global environmentalism: longitudinal and cross-national trends in chemical fertilizer and pesticide use. Social Forces, 91: 299–325. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/sos053
Shrestha A., Kurtural S.K., Fidelibus M.W., Dervishian G., Konduru S. (2013): Efficacy and cost of cultivators, steam, or an organic herbicide for weed control in organic vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley of California. HortTechnology, 23: 99–108. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.23.1.99
Shrestha A., Moretti M., Mourad N. (2012): Evaluation of thermal implements and organic herbicides for weed control in a nonbearing almond (Prunus dulcis) orchard. Weed Technology, 25: 110–116. https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-11-00083.1
Slaughter D.C., Giles D.K., Downey D. (2008): Autonomous robotic weed control: a review. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 61: 63–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2007.05.008
Stefanelli D., Zoppolo R.J., Perry R.L., Weibel F. (2009): Organic orchard ﬂoor management systems for apple effect on rootstock performance in the midwestern United States. HortScience, 44: 263–267. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.44.2.263
Suzuki K. (1981): Weeds in citrus orchards and control in Japan. International Society of Citriculture, 2: 489–492.
Tahir I.I., Svensson S.E., Hansson D. (2015): Floor management system in an organic apple orchard affect fruit quality and storage life. HortScience, 50: 434–441. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.50.3.434
Tarara J.M. (2000): Microclimate modification with plastic mulch. HortScience, 35: 169–180. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.35.2.169
Teasdale J., Brandsaeter L., Calegari A., Skora Neto F. (2007): Cover crops and weed management. In: M.K. Upadhyaya and R.E. Blackshaw (eds.): Nonchemical weed management, CAB International, Wallingford, UK: 49–64.
Tedders W.L. (1983): Insect management in deciduous orchard ecosystems: habitat manipulation. Environmental Management, 7: 29–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01867038
Tei F., Pannacci E. (2005): La gestione integrata della flora infestante nelle colture orticole. Italus Hortus, 12: 45–62.
Teravest D., Smith J.L., Carpenter-Boggs L., Hoagland L., Granatstein D., Reganold J.P. (2010): Inﬂuence of orchard ﬂoor management and compost application timing on nitrogen partitioning in apple trees. HortScience, 45: 637–642. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.45.4.637
Treder W., Klamkowski K., Mika A., Wojcik P. (2004): Response of young apple trees to different orchard floor management system. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 12: 113–123.
Turner R.J., Davies G., Moore H., Grundy A.C., Mead A. (2007): Organic weed management: a review of the current UK farmer perspective. Crop Protection, 26: 377–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2006.01.021
Van Huyssteen L., Weber H.W. (1980): The effect of selected minimum and conventional tillage practices in vineyard cultivation on vine performance. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, 1: 77–83.
Vester J., Rasmussen J. (1990): Test of the row brush hoe in horticultural crops. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Non-Chemical Weed Control, Linz, Austria: 127–134.
Wardle D., Yeates G.W., Bonner K.I., Nicholson K.S., Watson R.S. (2001): Impacts on ground vegetation management strategies in a kiwifruit orchard on the composition and functioning of the soil biota. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 33: 893–905. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00235-2
Wei D., Liping C., Zhijun M., Guangwei W., Ruirui Z. (2010): Review of non-chemical weed management for green agriculture. International Journal for Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 3: 52–60.
Weibel F.P., Tamm L., Wyss E., Daniel C., Häseli A., Suter F. (2007): Organic fruit production in Europe: success in production and marketing in the last decade, and perspectives and challenges for the future development. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 737: 163–172. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.737.20
Wooldridge J., Harris R.E. (1989): Effect of ground cover on the performance of young apple trees and on certain topsoil characteristics. Deciduous Fruit Grower, 39: 427–433.
Yao S.R., Merwin I.A., Brown M.G. (2009): Apple root growth, turnover, and distribution under different orchard groundcover management systems. HortScience, 44: 168–175. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.44.1.168
Yu C., Hu X.M., Deng W., Li Y., Xiong C., Ye C.H., Han G.M., Li X. (2015): Changes in soil microbial community structure and functional diversity in the rhizosphere surrounding mulberry subject to long-term fertilization. Applied Soil Ecology, 86: 30–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2014.09.013
Želazny W., Licznar-Malanczuk M. (2018): Soil quality and tree status in a 12-year-old apple orchard under three mulch-based ﬂoor management systems. Soil and Tillage Research, 180: 250–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2018.03.010