Early performance of cv. Jonagold apple on M.9 in five tree training systems

https://doi.org/10.17221/35/2012-HORTSCICitation:Ozkan Y., Yıldız K., Küçüker E., Çekiç Ç., Özgen M., Akça Y. (2012):  Early performance of cv. Jonagold apple on M.9 in five tree training systems. Hort. Sci. (Prague), 39: 158-163.
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The effects of five training systems on tree growth, fruit yield and some fruit characteristics were assessed in Jonagold apple cv. grafted on M.9 rootstock. The trees were trained in one of five ways: slender spindle (SS; 4,761 trees/ha), vertical axis (VA; 2,857 trees/ha), hytec (HT; 1,904 tree/ha) and two different tree densities of super spindle (L-Super S with 5,000 trees/ha; H-Super S with 10,000 trees/ha). Trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) was higher in HT and VA than SS, L-Super S and H-Super S in the 4th year. While HT had the highest cumulative yield/tree, the lowest cumulative yield was observed in H-Super S. Although HT had the highest yield/ tree, it ranked the last in cumulative yield efficiency (CYE) due to high TCA. The highest (CYE) was measured in trees trained as L-Super S. When cumulative yields (CY)/ha were evaluated, the yield advantage of high density planting was clearly evident for the first three cropping years. H-Super S systems (10,000 trees/ha) had the highest CY/ha and achieved a yield of 91.24 t/ha in year 4. HT (1,904 trees/ha) had the lowest CY/ha (33.46 t). Training systems had no consistent effect on average fruit diameter, weight, firmness, soluble solid and titratable acidity.  
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