Flowering profile and ethylene production of a new carnation subspecies ‘Mini-tiara’ 

https://doi.org/10.17221/38/2017-HORTSCICitation:Satoh S., Nomura Y., Takeuchi S., Seo R. (2018): Flowering profile and ethylene production of a new carnation subspecies ‘Mini-tiara’ . Hort. Sci. (Prague), 45: 187-192.
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Ethylene is involved in the senescence of carnation flowers. It is synthesized abundantly after full opening of the flowers and accelerates wilting of petals, which results in withering of the flowers. We investigated the possible involvement of ethylene production in the loss of display value of cut flowers of ‘Mini-tiara’ carnation, a new subspecies derived from Dianthus caryophyllus L. by interspecific cross with wild-type Dianthus species (wild pinks). Flowers of ‘Mini-tiara’ carnation have a unique morphology with pointed-shaped petals, some of which in the middle part of the flowers stand straight and build a dome throughout the display time, and lose their display value when the dome collapses by bending all petals outside (full opening of flowers). Ethylene evolution from ‘Mini-tiara’ carnation was not detected from flowers with upstanding petals, but occurred several days after the collapse of the dome (after full opening of the flowers), the time they already lost their display value. These findings indicated that ethylene production is not engaged in the loss of display value of ‘Mini-tiara’ carnation. 

References:
Abeles F.B., Morgan P.W., Saltveit M.E. Jr. (1992): Ethylene in Plant Biology, 2nd Ed. Academic Press, San Diego.
 
Borochov A., Woodson W.R. (1989): Physiology and biochemistry of flower petal senescence. Horticultural Review, 11: 15–43.
 
Harada Taro, Torii Yuka, Morita Shigeto, Masumura Takehiro, Satoh Shigeru (2010): Differential expression of genes identified by suppression subtractive hybridization in petals of opening carnation flowers. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61, 2345-2354 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq064
 
Kagawa Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station (2016): Carnation ‘Mini-tiara’ series. Available at https://www.pref.kagawa.lg.jp/seiryu/kakit-oriatsukai/file/minitiara.pdf (in Japanese)
 
Manning K. (1985): The ethylene forming enzyme system in carnation flowers (pp. 83–92). In: Roberts J.A., Tucker G.A. (eds): Ethylene and Plant Development. Butterworths, Boston.
 
Maxie E.C., Farnham D.S., Mitchell F.G., Sommer N.F., Parsons R.A., Snyder R.G., Rae H.L. (1973): Temperature and ethylene effects on cut flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 98: 568–572.
 
Peiser G. (1986): LEVELS OF 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID (ACC) SYNTHASE ACTIVITY, ACC AND ACC-CONJUGATE IN CUT CARNATION FLOWERS DURING SENESCENCE. Acta Horticulturae, , 99-104 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1986.181.11
 
Reid Michael S., Wu Men-Jen (1992): Ethylene and flower senescence. Plant Growth Regulation, 11, 37-43 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00024431
 
Satoh Shigeru (2011): Ethylene Production and Petal Wilting during Senescence of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers and Prolonging Their Vase Life by Genetic Transformation. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 80, 127-135 https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs1.80.127
 
Shibuya Kenichi, Yoshioka Toshihito, Hashiba Teruyoshi, Satoh Shigeru (2000): Role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51, 2067-2073 https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.353.2067
 
ten Have A., Woltering E.J. (1997): Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence. Plant Molecular Biology, 34: 89–97.https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005894703444
 
Woodson W.R., Park K.Y., Drory A., Larsen P.B., Wang, H. (1992): Expression of ethylene biosynthetic pathway transcripts in senescing carnation flowers. Plant Physiology
 
Abeles F.B., Morgan P.W., Saltveit M.E. Jr. (1992): Ethylene in Plant Biology, 2nd Ed. Academic Press, San Diego.
 
Borochov A., Woodson W.R. (1989): Physiology and biochemistry of flower petal senescence. Horticultural Review, 11: 15–43.
 
Harada Taro, Torii Yuka, Morita Shigeto, Masumura Takehiro, Satoh Shigeru (2010): Differential expression of genes identified by suppression subtractive hybridization in petals of opening carnation flowers. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61, 2345-2354 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq064
 
Kagawa Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station (2016): Carnation ‘Mini-tiara’ series. Available at https://www.pref.kagawa.lg.jp/seiryu/kakit-oriatsukai/file/minitiara.pdf (in Japanese)
 
Manning K. (1985): The ethylene forming enzyme system in carnation flowers (pp. 83–92). In: Roberts J.A., Tucker G.A. (eds): Ethylene and Plant Development. Butterworths, Boston.
 
Maxie E.C., Farnham D.S., Mitchell F.G., Sommer N.F., Parsons R.A., Snyder R.G., Rae H.L. (1973): Temperature and ethylene effects on cut flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 98: 568–572.
 
Peiser G. (1986): LEVELS OF 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID (ACC) SYNTHASE ACTIVITY, ACC AND ACC-CONJUGATE IN CUT CARNATION FLOWERS DURING SENESCENCE. Acta Horticulturae, , 99-104 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1986.181.11
 
Reid Michael S., Wu Men-Jen (1992): Ethylene and flower senescence. Plant Growth Regulation, 11, 37-43 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00024431
 
Satoh Shigeru (2011): Ethylene Production and Petal Wilting during Senescence of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers and Prolonging Their Vase Life by Genetic Transformation. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 80, 127-135 https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs1.80.127
 
Shibuya Kenichi, Yoshioka Toshihito, Hashiba Teruyoshi, Satoh Shigeru (2000): Role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51, 2067-2073 https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.353.2067
 
ten Have A., Woltering E.J. (1997): Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence. Plant Molecular Biology, 34: 89–97.https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005894703444
 
Woodson W.R., Park K.Y., Drory A., Larsen P.B., Wang, H. (1992): Expression of ethylene biosynthetic pathway transcripts in senescing carnation flowers. Plant Physiology
 
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