Effect of aboveground plant conditioner treatment on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of tomato and pepper 

https://doi.org/10.17221/4/2019-HORTSCICitation:Lukács A.F., Kovács G.M. (2019): Effect of aboveground plant conditioner treatment on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of tomato and pepper . Hort. Sci. (Prague), 46: 208-214.
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We aimed to test the hypothesis that treatment with an aboveground plant conditioner has an effect on important vegetable crops inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and on their colonization by AMF. Potting experiments were set with pepper and tomato plants inoculated with commercial AMF inoculum and plants were treated with an aboveground plant conditioner. After harvesting, the dry weight of shoots and roots were measured, and the AMF colonization of the roots was quantified. We found a significant effect of the treatment on fungal colonization: the AMF colonization, the hyphal colonization rate and the frequency of the arbuscules in the roots of both vegetables were lower when aboveground plant conditioner was applied. Although the two species differed, no significant effect of the treatment on the growth of the plants was detected. Based on our findings we assumed that the lower AMF colonization more greatly influenced the growth of the pepper cultivar studied. We demonstrated that treatment with a commercial aboveground plant conditioner had an antagonistic effect on AMF colonization, which, in addition to many other effects, might influence the growth vegetable crops. The interaction of different practices applied simultaneously should be tested to effectively help the development suitable agriculture systems.

References:
Alston J.M., Pardey P.G. (2014): Agriculture in the global economy. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28: 121–146. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.28.1.121
 
Aziz A., Poinssot B., Daire X., Adrian M., Bézier A., Lambert B., Joubert JM., Pugin A. (2003): Laminarin elicits defense responses in grapevine and induces protection against Botrytis cinerea and Plasmopara viticola. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 16: 1118–1128. https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI.2003.16.12.1118
 
Basak A. (2008): Effect of preharvest treatment with seaweed products, Kelpak® and Goëmar BM 86®, on fruit quality in apple. International Journal of Fruit Science, 8: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538360802365251
 
Boček S., Salaš P., Sasková H., Mokričková J. 2013. Effect of Alginure® (seaweed extract), Myco-Sin® VIN (sulfuric clay) and Polyversum® (Pythium oligandrum Drechs.) on yield and disease control in organic strawberries. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 60: 19–28. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201260080019
 
Brundrett M. (2004): Diversity and classification of mycorrhizal associations. Biological Reviews, 79: 473–495. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1464793103006316
 
Cheng Y., Ishimoto K., Kuriyama Y., Osaki M., Ezawa T. (2013): Ninety-year-, but not single, application of phosphorus fertilizer has a major impact on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities. Plant and Soil, 365: 397–407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1398-x
 
Chouliaras V., Gerascapoulos D., Lionakis S. (1995): Effect of seaweed extract on fruit growth, weight and maturation of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit. In III International Symposium on Kiwifruit, 444: 485–492.
 
Chouliaras V., Tasioula M., Chatzissavvidis C., Therios I., Tsabolatidou E. (2009): The effects of a seaweed extract in addition to nitrogen and boron fertilization on productivity, fruit maturation, leaf nutritional status and oil quality of the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Koroneiki. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89: 984–988. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3543
 
Colapietra M., Alexander A. (2005): Effect of foliar fertilization on yield and quality of table grapes. In: V International Symposium on Mineral Nutrition of Fruit Plants, 721: 213–218.
 
Dodds P.N., Rathjen J.P. (2010): Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant–pathogen interactions. Nature Reviews Genetics, 11: 539–548. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2812
 
du Jardin P. (2015): Plant biostimulants: definition, concept, main categories and regulation. Scientia Horticulturae, 196: 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.09.021
 
Genre A., Chabaud M., Faccio A., Barker D.G., Bonfante P. (2008): Prepenetration apparatus assembly precedes and predicts the colonization patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the root cortex of both Medicago truncatula and Daucus carota. The Plant Cell, 20: 1407–1420. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.108.059014
 
Gianinazzi S., Gollotte A., Binet M.N., van Tuinen D., Redecker D., Wipf D. (2010): Agroecology: the key role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in ecosystem services. Mycorrhiza, 20: 519–530. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-010-0333-3
 
Herre E.A., Mejía L.C., Kyllo D.A., Rojas E., Maynard Z., Butler A., Van Bael S.A. (2007): Ecological implications of anti-pathogen effects of tropical fungal endophytes and mycorrhizae. Ecology, 88: 550–558. https://doi.org/10.1890/05-1606
 
Khan A.S., Ahmad B., Jaskani M.J., Ahmad R., Malik A.U. (2012): Foliar application of mixture of amino acids and seaweed (Ascophylum nodosum) extract improve growth and physico-chemical properties of grapes. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 14: 383–388.
 
Klironomos J.N. (2002): Feedback with soil biota contributes to plant rarity and invasiveness in communities. Nature, 417: 67–70. https://doi.org/10.1038/417067a
 
Loyola N., Munoz C. (2011): Effect of the biostimulant foliar addition of marine algae on cv O’Neal blueberries production. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B, 1: 1059–1074.
 
Mäder P., Edenhofer S., Boller T., Wiemken A., Niggli U. (2000): Arbuscular mycorrhizae in a long-term field trial comparing low-input (organic, biological) and high-input (conventional) farming systems in a crop rotation. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 31: 150–156. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740050638
 
McGonigle T.P., Miller M.H., Evans D.G., Fairchild G.L., Swan J.A. (1990): A new method which gives an objective measure of colonization of roots by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist, 115: 495–501. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1990.tb00476.x
 
Oehl F., Sieverding E., Mäder P., Dubois D., Ineichen K., Boller T., Wiemken A. (2004): Impact of long-term conventional and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Oecologia, 138: 574–583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-003-1458-2
 
Ortas I., Sari N., Akpinar C. (2003): Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and soil fumigation on the yield and nutrient uptake of some Solanaceas crops (tomato, eggplant and pepper) under field conditions. Agricoltura Mediterranea, 133: 249–258.
 
Parniske M. (2008): Arbuscular mycorrhiza: the mother of plant root endosymbioses. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 6: 763–775. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1987
 
Qin H., Lu K., Strong P.J., Xu Q., Wu Q., Xu Z., Xu J., Wang H. (2015): Long-term fertilizer application effects on the soil, root arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and community composition in rotation agriculture. Applied Soil Ecology, 89: 35–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2015.01.008
 
Regvar M., Vogel-Mikuš K., Ševerkar T. (2003): Effect of AMF inoculum from field isolates on the yield of green pepper, parsley, carrot, and tomato. Folia Geobotanica, 38: 223–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02803154
 
Rinaudo V., Bàrberi P., Giovannetti M., van der Heijden M.G. (2010): Mycorrhizal fungi suppress aggressive agricultural weeds. Plant and Soil, 333: 7–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0202-z
 
Rioux L.E., Turgeon S.L., Beaulieu M. (2007): Characterization of polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweeds. Carbohydrate Polymers, 69: 530–537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.01.009
 
Rouphael Y., Franken P., Schneider C., Schwarz D., Giovannetti M., Agnolucci M., De Pascale S., Bonini P., Colla G. (2015): Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi act as biostimulants in horticultural crops. Scientia Horticulturae, 196: 91–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.09.002
 
Sharma N., Chauhan R.S., Sood H. (2015): Seaweed extract as a novel elicitor and medium for mass propagation and picroside-I production in an endangered medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 122: 57–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-015-0749-8
 
Smith S.E., Read D.J. (2010): Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, NewYork: 117–144.
 
Spinelli F., Fiori G., Noferini M., Sprocatti M., Costa G. (2010): A novel type of seaweed extract as a natural alternative to the use of iron chelates in strawberry production. Scientia Horticulturae, 125: 263–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.03.011
 
Uppal A.K., El Hadrami A., Adam L.R., Tenuta M., Daayf F. (2008): Biological control of potato Verticillium wilt under controlled and field conditions using selected bacterial antagonists and plant extracts. Biological Control, 44: 90–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2007.10.020
 
Vera J., Castro J., Gonzalez A., Moenne A. (2011): Seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants. Marine Drugs, 9: 2514–2525. https://doi.org/10.3390/md9122514
 
Vierheilig H., Coughlan A.P., Wyss U., Piché Y. (1998): Ink and vinegar, a simple staining technique for arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64: 5004–5007. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.64.12.5004-5007.1998
 
Vos C.M., Tesfahun A.N., Panis B., De Waele D., Elsen A. (2012): Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induce systemic resistance in tomato against the sedentary nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the migratory nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Applied Soil Ecology, 61: 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2012.04.007
 
Vos C., Schouteden N., van Tuinen D., Chatagnier O., Elsen A., De Waele D., Panis B., Gianinazzi-Pearson V. (2013): Mycorrhiza-induced resistance against the root–knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita involves priming of defense gene responses in tomato. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 60: 45–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.01.013
 
Alston J.M., Pardey P.G. (2014): Agriculture in the global economy. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28: 121–146. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.28.1.121
 
Aziz A., Poinssot B., Daire X., Adrian M., Bézier A., Lambert B., Joubert JM., Pugin A. (2003): Laminarin elicits defense responses in grapevine and induces protection against Botrytis cinerea and Plasmopara viticola. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 16: 1118–1128. https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI.2003.16.12.1118
 
Basak A. (2008): Effect of preharvest treatment with seaweed products, Kelpak® and Goëmar BM 86®, on fruit quality in apple. International Journal of Fruit Science, 8: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538360802365251
 
Boček S., Salaš P., Sasková H., Mokričková J. 2013. Effect of Alginure® (seaweed extract), Myco-Sin® VIN (sulfuric clay) and Polyversum® (Pythium oligandrum Drechs.) on yield and disease control in organic strawberries. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 60: 19–28. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201260080019
 
Brundrett M. (2004): Diversity and classification of mycorrhizal associations. Biological Reviews, 79: 473–495. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1464793103006316
 
Cheng Y., Ishimoto K., Kuriyama Y., Osaki M., Ezawa T. (2013): Ninety-year-, but not single, application of phosphorus fertilizer has a major impact on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities. Plant and Soil, 365: 397–407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1398-x
 
Chouliaras V., Gerascapoulos D., Lionakis S. (1995): Effect of seaweed extract on fruit growth, weight and maturation of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit. In III International Symposium on Kiwifruit, 444: 485–492.
 
Chouliaras V., Tasioula M., Chatzissavvidis C., Therios I., Tsabolatidou E. (2009): The effects of a seaweed extract in addition to nitrogen and boron fertilization on productivity, fruit maturation, leaf nutritional status and oil quality of the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Koroneiki. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89: 984–988. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3543
 
Colapietra M., Alexander A. (2005): Effect of foliar fertilization on yield and quality of table grapes. In: V International Symposium on Mineral Nutrition of Fruit Plants, 721: 213–218.
 
Dodds P.N., Rathjen J.P. (2010): Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant–pathogen interactions. Nature Reviews Genetics, 11: 539–548. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2812
 
du Jardin P. (2015): Plant biostimulants: definition, concept, main categories and regulation. Scientia Horticulturae, 196: 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.09.021
 
Genre A., Chabaud M., Faccio A., Barker D.G., Bonfante P. (2008): Prepenetration apparatus assembly precedes and predicts the colonization patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the root cortex of both Medicago truncatula and Daucus carota. The Plant Cell, 20: 1407–1420. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.108.059014
 
Gianinazzi S., Gollotte A., Binet M.N., van Tuinen D., Redecker D., Wipf D. (2010): Agroecology: the key role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in ecosystem services. Mycorrhiza, 20: 519–530. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-010-0333-3
 
Herre E.A., Mejía L.C., Kyllo D.A., Rojas E., Maynard Z., Butler A., Van Bael S.A. (2007): Ecological implications of anti-pathogen effects of tropical fungal endophytes and mycorrhizae. Ecology, 88: 550–558. https://doi.org/10.1890/05-1606
 
Khan A.S., Ahmad B., Jaskani M.J., Ahmad R., Malik A.U. (2012): Foliar application of mixture of amino acids and seaweed (Ascophylum nodosum) extract improve growth and physico-chemical properties of grapes. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 14: 383–388.
 
Klironomos J.N. (2002): Feedback with soil biota contributes to plant rarity and invasiveness in communities. Nature, 417: 67–70. https://doi.org/10.1038/417067a
 
Loyola N., Munoz C. (2011): Effect of the biostimulant foliar addition of marine algae on cv O’Neal blueberries production. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B, 1: 1059–1074.
 
Mäder P., Edenhofer S., Boller T., Wiemken A., Niggli U. (2000): Arbuscular mycorrhizae in a long-term field trial comparing low-input (organic, biological) and high-input (conventional) farming systems in a crop rotation. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 31: 150–156. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740050638
 
McGonigle T.P., Miller M.H., Evans D.G., Fairchild G.L., Swan J.A. (1990): A new method which gives an objective measure of colonization of roots by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist, 115: 495–501. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1990.tb00476.x
 
Oehl F., Sieverding E., Mäder P., Dubois D., Ineichen K., Boller T., Wiemken A. (2004): Impact of long-term conventional and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Oecologia, 138: 574–583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-003-1458-2
 
Ortas I., Sari N., Akpinar C. (2003): Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and soil fumigation on the yield and nutrient uptake of some Solanaceas crops (tomato, eggplant and pepper) under field conditions. Agricoltura Mediterranea, 133: 249–258.
 
Parniske M. (2008): Arbuscular mycorrhiza: the mother of plant root endosymbioses. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 6: 763–775. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1987
 
Qin H., Lu K., Strong P.J., Xu Q., Wu Q., Xu Z., Xu J., Wang H. (2015): Long-term fertilizer application effects on the soil, root arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and community composition in rotation agriculture. Applied Soil Ecology, 89: 35–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2015.01.008
 
Regvar M., Vogel-Mikuš K., Ševerkar T. (2003): Effect of AMF inoculum from field isolates on the yield of green pepper, parsley, carrot, and tomato. Folia Geobotanica, 38: 223–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02803154
 
Rinaudo V., Bàrberi P., Giovannetti M., van der Heijden M.G. (2010): Mycorrhizal fungi suppress aggressive agricultural weeds. Plant and Soil, 333: 7–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0202-z
 
Rioux L.E., Turgeon S.L., Beaulieu M. (2007): Characterization of polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweeds. Carbohydrate Polymers, 69: 530–537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.01.009
 
Rouphael Y., Franken P., Schneider C., Schwarz D., Giovannetti M., Agnolucci M., De Pascale S., Bonini P., Colla G. (2015): Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi act as biostimulants in horticultural crops. Scientia Horticulturae, 196: 91–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.09.002
 
Sharma N., Chauhan R.S., Sood H. (2015): Seaweed extract as a novel elicitor and medium for mass propagation and picroside-I production in an endangered medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 122: 57–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-015-0749-8
 
Smith S.E., Read D.J. (2010): Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, NewYork: 117–144.
 
Spinelli F., Fiori G., Noferini M., Sprocatti M., Costa G. (2010): A novel type of seaweed extract as a natural alternative to the use of iron chelates in strawberry production. Scientia Horticulturae, 125: 263–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.03.011
 
Uppal A.K., El Hadrami A., Adam L.R., Tenuta M., Daayf F. (2008): Biological control of potato Verticillium wilt under controlled and field conditions using selected bacterial antagonists and plant extracts. Biological Control, 44: 90–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2007.10.020
 
Vera J., Castro J., Gonzalez A., Moenne A. (2011): Seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants. Marine Drugs, 9: 2514–2525. https://doi.org/10.3390/md9122514
 
Vierheilig H., Coughlan A.P., Wyss U., Piché Y. (1998): Ink and vinegar, a simple staining technique for arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64: 5004–5007. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.64.12.5004-5007.1998
 
Vos C.M., Tesfahun A.N., Panis B., De Waele D., Elsen A. (2012): Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induce systemic resistance in tomato against the sedentary nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the migratory nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Applied Soil Ecology, 61: 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2012.04.007
 
Vos C., Schouteden N., van Tuinen D., Chatagnier O., Elsen A., De Waele D., Panis B., Gianinazzi-Pearson V. (2013): Mycorrhiza-induced resistance against the root–knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita involves priming of defense gene responses in tomato. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 60: 45–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.01.013
 
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