Exogenous auxin improves root morphology and restores growth of grafted cucumber seedlings

https://doi.org/10.17221/53/2016-HORTSCICitation:Balliu A.B., G.S. (2017): Exogenous auxin improves root morphology and restores growth of grafted cucumber seedlings. Hort. Sci. (Prague), 44: 82-90.
download PDF

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenously applied auxin over the rootstock cuttings on root morphology parameters and stand establishment rate of salt-stressed cutting grafted cucumber seedlings. For that purpose, before grafting, the cut ends of the rootstocks were soaked for few seconds into auxin solution (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3- butyric acid (IBA))at different concentrations and afterwards were grafted by the root pruned splice grafting (RPSG) method. Ten days after grafting, the grafted seedlings were transplanted into individual pots where two different levels of salt-stress (0 and 50 mM) were established. Root morphology parameters, as well as dry matter of the root system and the whole plants were successively analysed to randomly selected plants. Exogenous auxins improved root morphology parameters and restored root growth under salinity conditions. The best results were obtained through the application of IBA, which promoted a better rootstock – scion relationship, presumably due to faster development of phloem and xylem tubes, and the promotion of a vigorous root system which increases plant’s absorbing capabilities for water and nutrients under adverse soil conditions.

References:
Aloni Roni (2013): Role of hormones in controlling vascular differentiation and the mechanism of lateral root initiation. Planta, 238, 819-830  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-013-1927-8
 
Aloni Roni (2015): Ecophysiological implications of vascular differentiation and plant evolution. Trees, 29, 1-16  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-014-1070-6
 
ALONI R. (2006): Role of Cytokinin and Auxin in Shaping Root Architecture: Regulating Vascular Differentiation, Lateral Root Initiation, Root Apical Dominance and Root Gravitropism. Annals of Botany, 97, 883-893  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcl027
 
Aloni B., Karni L., Deventurero G., Levin Z., Cohen R., Katzir N., Lotan-Pompan M., Edelstein M., Aktas H., Turhan E., Joel D. M., Horev C., Kapulnik Y. (2015): Physiological and biochemical changes at the rootstock-scion interface in graft combinations between Cucurbita rootstocks and a melon scion. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 83, 777-783  https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2008.11512460
 
Aloni B., Cohen R., Karni L., Aktas H., Edelstein M. (2010): Hormonal signaling in rootstock–scion interactions. Scientia Horticulturae, 127, 119-126  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.09.003
 
Aloni B., Karni L., Deventurero G., Cohen R., Katzir N., Edelstein M., Aktas H. (2011): THE USE OF PLANT GRAFTING AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS FOR ENHANCING ABIOTIC STRESS TOLERANCE IN VEGETABLE TRANSPLANTS. Acta Horticulturae, , 255-264  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.898.31
 
Babaj I., Sallaku G., Balliu A. (2014): Splice grafting versus root pruning splice grafting: Stand establishment and productivity issues in Cucurbitacea vegetables. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 12: 165–168.
 
Balliu A., Sallaku G., Islami E. (2014): ROOT PRUNING EFFECTS ON SEEDLINGS' GROWTH AND PLANT STAND ESTABLISHMENT RATE OF WATERMELON GRAFTED SEEDLINGS. Acta Horticulturae, , 19-24  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1033.2
 
Boyer C. R., Blythe E. K. (2013): Use of root-promoting products for vegetative propagation of nursery crops. Kansas State University, MF3105: 1–4.
 
Colla Giuseppe, Rouphael Youssef, Leonardi Cherubino, Bie Zhilong (2010): Role of grafting in vegetable crops grown under saline conditions. Scientia Horticulturae, 127, 147-155  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.08.004
 
Copeman R.H., Martin C.A., Stutz J.C. (1996): Tomato growth in response to salinity and mycorrhizal fungi from saline or nonsaline soils. HortScience, 31: 341–344.
 
Cuartero J. (2006): Increasing salt tolerance in the tomato. Journal of Experimental Botany, 57, 1045-1058  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erj102
 
da Costa Cibele T., de Almeida Márcia R., Ruedell Carolina M., Schwambach Joseli, Maraschin Felipe S., Fett-Neto Arthur G. (2013): When stress and development go hand in hand: main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings. Frontiers in Plant Science, 4, -  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2013.00133
 
Davis Angela R., Perkins-Veazie Penelope, Sakata Yoshiteru, López-Galarza Salvador, Maroto Jose Vicente, Lee Sang-Gyu, Huh Yun-Chan, Sun Zhanyong, Miguel Alfredo, King Stephen R., Cohen Roni, Lee Jung-Myung (2008): Cucurbit Grafting. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 27, 50-74  https://doi.org/10.1080/07352680802053940
 
Diaz-Sala C. (2014): Direct reprogramming of adult somatic cells toward adventitious root formation in forest tree species: the effect of the juvenile–adult transition. Plant Genetics and Genomics, 5: 1–8.
 
Edelstein Menahem, Ben-Hur Meni, Leib Lea, Plaut Zvi (2011): Mechanism responsible for restricted boron concentration in plant shoots grafted on pumpkin rootstocks. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 59, 207-215  https://doi.org/10.1560/IJPS.59.2-4.207
 
Edelstein M., Plaut Z., Ben-Hur M. (2011): Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 177-184  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq255
 
Estan M. T. (2005): Grafting raises the salt tolerance of tomato through limiting the transport of sodium and chloride to the shoot. Journal of Experimental Botany, 56, 703-712  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eri027
 
Evelin Heikham, Kapoor Rupam, Giri Bhoopander (2009): Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review. Annals of Botany, 104, 1263-1280  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcp251
 
FERNANDEZ-GARCIA N. (2004): Graft Union Formation in Tomato Plants: Peroxidase and Catalase Involvement. Annals of Botany, 93, 53-60  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mch014
 
Fusconi A. (2014): Regulation of root morphogenesis in arbuscular mycorrhizae: What role do fungal exudates, phosphate, sugars and hormones play in lateral root formation? Annals of Botany, 113: 19–33.
 
Goldschmidt Eliezer E. (2014): Plant grafting: new mechanisms, evolutionary implications. Frontiers in Plant Science, 5, -  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00727
 
Guan W., Zhao X. (2015): Effects of grafting methods and root excision on growth characteristics of grafted muskmelon plants. HortTechnology, 25: 706–713.
 
Hassell R.L., Memmott F., Liere D.G. (2008): Grafting methods for watermelon production. HortScience, 43: 1677–1679.
 
Himmelbauer M.L., Loiskandl ¡AFF1¿W., Kastanek ¡AFF1¿F. (2004): Estimating length, average diameter and surface area of roots using two different Image analyses systems. Plant and Soil, 260, 111-120  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:PLSO.0000030171.28821.55
 
HOFFMANN WILLIAM A., POORTER HENDRIK (2002): Avoiding Bias in Calculations of Relative Growth Rate. Annals of Botany, 90, 37-42  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcf140
 
Huang Y., Zhu J., Zhen A., Chen L., Bie Z. (2009): Organic and inorganic solutes accumulation in the leaves and roots of grafted and ungrafted cucumber plants in response to NaCl stress. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 7: 703–708.
 
Hunt R. (2003): Growth analysis/Individual Plants. Growth and devlopment. Academic Press. London, 579–588.
 
HUNT R. (): A Modern Tool for Classical Plant Growth Analysis. Annals of Botany, 90, 485-488  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcf214
 
Kazan Kemal (2013): Auxin and the integration of environmental signals into plant root development. Annals of Botany, 112, 1655-1665  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mct229
 
Lee S.G. (2007): PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY VEGETABLE SEEDLING GRAFTS. Acta Horticulturae, , 169-174  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.759.12
 
Lee Jung-Myung, Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Echevarria P. Hoyos, Morra L., Oda M. (2010): Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae, 127, 93-105  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.08.003
 
Martínez-Ballesta M. Carmen, Alcaraz-López Carlos, Muries Beatriz, Mota-Cadenas César, Carvajal Micaela (2010): Physiological aspects of rootstock–scion interactions. Scientia Horticulturae, 127, 112-118  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.08.002
 
Overvoorde P., Fukaki H., Beeckman T. (2010): Auxin control of root development. Cold spring harbor. Perspectives in Biology, 2: 1–16.
 
Pina Ana, Errea Pilar (2005): A review of new advances in mechanism of graft compatibility–incompatibility. Scientia Horticulturae, 106, 1-11  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2005.04.003
 
Porcel Rosa, Aroca Ricardo, Ruiz-Lozano Juan Manuel (2012): Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 32, 181-200  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-011-0029-x
 
Rivero R., Ruiz J., Romero L. (2003): Role of grafting in horticultural plants under stress conditions. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 1: 70–74.
 
Shibuya Toshio, Nakashima Haruka, Shimizu-Maruo Kaori, Kawara Tomoko (2007): Improvement of Graft Development in Tomato and Eggplant Grafted Cuttings by Supplying Warmed Water to Graft Union during Low-air-temperature Storage. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 76, 217-223  https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs.76.217
 
Štefančič M., Štampar F., Osterc G. (2005): Influence of IAA and IBA on root development and quality of Prunus ‘GiSelA  5’ leafy cuttings. HortScience, 40: 2052–2055.
 
Tanimoto Eiichi (2005): Regulation of Root Growth by Plant Hormones—Roles for Auxin and Gibberellin. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 24, 249-265  https://doi.org/10.1080/07352680500196108
 
WOODWARD A. W. (2005): Auxin: Regulation, Action, and Interaction. Annals of Botany, 95, 707-735  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mci083
 
Yassin H., Hussen S. (2015): Reiview on role of grafting on yield and quality of selected fruit vegetables. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research, 15: 1–12.
 
Ye Zheng-Hua (2002): V ASCULAR T ISSUE D IFFERENTIATION AND P ATTERN F ORMATION IN P LANTS. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 53, 183-202  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.53.100301.135245
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences