A modification in an open centre training system for increasing the crotch angles of peach scaffold branches

https://doi.org/10.17221/64/2020-HORTSCICitation:

Mohamed A.M.A., Sayed H.F., Sas Paszt L., Mika A. (2021): A modification in open centre training system for increasing crotch angles of peach scaffold branches. Hort. Sci. (Prague), 48: 117–125.

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One-year-old ‘Florida Prince’ cultivar peach trees grafted on a ‘Nemaguard’ rootstock were planted in the early spring of 2018 at the Centre of Agricultural Research and Experiments, Minia University, located in southwest Egypt. The trees were planted 5 × 5 m in a randomised complete block design with four replicates, with ten trees in each replicate. In the late spring, two different pruning systems were applied; traditional open centre (OC) and de-branched top trees (DBT). The OC trees were headed at 80 cm above the ground. DBT is a modification of the OC, but no heading was undertaken and the new shoot growth arising from the 20 cm at the top of the plant were removed. Before the winter pruning took place, measurements were taken on the upper two opposite branches. The average length and diameter values of the upper two opposite branches at the top of the trees trained to the OC were higher than those trained with the DBT. In contrast, the distance between the upper two branches (25 cm) at the top of the DBT trees was significantly higher. Likewise, the values of the crotch angles (48°) and the number of branches (81 of 100 branches) that showed desired crotch angles (more than 40°) were remarkably higher in the trees trained with the DBT. After the winter pruning took place, the DBT trees were higher than the OC trees. Additionally, the trees trained with the DBT had low pruning costs and took less time. Moreover, the pruning wood weight of the DBT trees was about half of the pruning wood weight of the OC trees. In conclusion, the DBT training system showed the desired impact on the crotch angles and the tested pruning characteristics.

References:
Barden J.A. (1977): Apple tree growth, net photosynthesis, dark respiration, and specific leaf weight as affected by continuous and intermittent shade. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 103: 391–391.
 
Barden J.A., Delvalle T.B.G., Myers S.C. (1989): Growth and fruiting of ‘Delicious’ apple trees as affected by severity and season pruning. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 114: 184–186.
 
Brown C.L., McAlpine R.G., Kormanik P.P. (1967): Apical dominance and form in woody plants: A reappraisal. American Journal of Botany, 54: 153–162. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1967.tb06904.x
 
Bukovaĉ M.J. (2015): Method of widening crotch angles of fruit trees. Brentwood Avenue, East Lansing, Michigan. 48823. Available at https://patents.google.com/patent/US2978838A/en
 
Campbell C.W., Phillips R.L. (1980): The atemoya. Factsheet FC-64. University of Florida, IFAS, Cooperation, Extension Service Fruit Crops, Gainsvill.
 
Casanova-Gascón J., Figueras-Panillo M., Iglesias-Castellarnau I, Martín-Romas P. (2019): Comparisn of SHD and open-center training system in almond tree orchards cv. ‘Soleta’. Agronomy 9: 874.  https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9120874
 
Champagant P. (1954): Recherches sur les rameaux anticipés des végétaux ligneux. [Research on the anticipated branches of woody plants.] Revue de Cytologie et de Cytophysiologie Vegetales, 15: 1–51.
 
Cline M.G. (1997): Concepts and terminology of apical dominance. American Journal of Botany, 84: 1064–1069. https://doi.org/10.2307/2446149
 
Cook C.N., Robe E., Jacobs G. (1999): Early expression of apical control regulates length and crotch angle of sylleptic shoots in peach and nectarine. HortScience, 34: 604–606. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.34.4.604
 
Crabbé J. (1987): Aspects particulier de la morphogeneś caulinaire des végétaux ligneux et introduction á leur etude quantitative. [Particular aspects of the stem morphogenesis of woody plants and introduction to their quantitative study.] Centre d’ Etude de la Reproduction Végétale, Brussels.
 
De Jong T.M., Day K.R., Doyle J.F., Johnson R.S. (1994): The Kearney Agricultural Center Perpendicular “V” (KAC-V) orchard system for peaches and nectarines. HortTechnology, 4: 362–367. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.4.4.362
 
Eisner N.J., Gilman E.F., Grabosky J.C. (2002): Branch morphology impacts compartmentalization of pruning wounds. Journal Arboriculture, 28: 99–105.
 
Elfving D.C., Forshey C.G. (1977): Effects of naphthaleneacetic acid on shoot growth of apple trees. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 102: 418–424.
 
Fallahi E. (1992): Influence of various training systems on yield and fruit quality of low-chill peaches. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 322: 283–290. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1992.322.33
 
Ferree D.C., Clayton Greene K.A., Bishop B. (1993): Influence of orchard management system on canopy composition, light distribution, net photosynthesis and transpiration of apple trees. Journal of Horticultural Science, 68: 377–392. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221589.1993.11516365
 
Filipovich S.D. (1976): Increasing the crotch angles of young apple trees by using growth hormones or plastic discs. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 16: 286–288. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA9760286
 
Fisher K.H. (1990): Winter injury in fruit trees. Ontario, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Factsheet, 90–059.
 
Forshey C.G. (1986): Training and pruning apple trees. A Cornell Cooperative Extension Publication, Cornell University, Information Bulletin, 112.
 
Fumey D., Lauri P., Guedon Y., Godin C. (2011): How young trees cope with removal of whole or parts of shoots: An analysis of local and distant responses to pruning in 1-year-old apple (Malus × domestica; Rosaceae) trees. American Journal of Botany, 98: 1737–1751. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1000231
 
Grossman Y.L., De Jong T.M. (1998): Training and pruning systems effects on vegetative growth potential, light interception, and cropping efficiency in peach trees. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 123: 1058–1064. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.123.6.1058
 
Hampson C.R., Quamme H.A., Kappel F., Brownlee R.T. (2002): Canopy growth, yield, and fruit quality of ‘Royal Gala’ apple tree grown for eight years in fine tree training systems. HortScience, 37: 627–631 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.37.4.627
 
Hampson C.R., Quamme H.A., Kappel F., Brownlee R.T. (2004a): Varying density with constant rectangularity: I. Effects on apple tree growth and light interception in three training systems over ten years. HortScience, 39: 501–506. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.39.3.501
 
Hampson C.R., Quamme H.A., Kappel F., Brownlee R.T. (2004b): Varying density with constant rectangularity: II. Effect on apple tree yield, fruit size, and fruit color development in three training systems over ten years. HortScience, 39: 507–511. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.39.3.507
 
Hrotkó K. (2013): Development in fruit trees production systems. AgroLife Scientific Journal, 2: 18–35.
 
Jackson J.E. (1980): Light interception and utilization by orchard systems. Horticulture Reviews, 2: 208–267.
 
Jung S., Choi H. (2010): Light penetration, growth, and fruit productivity in ‘Fuji’ apple trees trained to four growing systems. Scientia Horticulturae, 125: 672–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.05.027
 
Marini R.P. (1990): Pruning peach trees. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia State University, Bulletin, 422–020.
 
Marini R.P., Sower D.S., Marini M.C. (1995): Tree form and heading height at planting affect peach tree yield and crop value. HortScience, 30: 1196–1201. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.30.6.1196
 
Marler T.E., Crane J.H. (1994): Increasing Scaffold branch angle of atemoya by manipulating of the primary bud complex. HortScience, 29: 818–820. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.29.7.818
 
Mika A. (1986): Physiological responses of fruit trees to pruning. Horticultural Review, 8: 337–378.
 
Mika A., Buler Z. (2015): Modifying apple spindle trees to improve fruit quality. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 14: 13–24.
 
Miller A.N., Walsh C.S. (1988): Growth and seasonal partitioning of dry matter in eight-year-old ‘Loring’ peach trees Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 113: 309–314.
 
Miller S., Scorza R. (2010): Response of two novel peach tree growth habits to in-row trees spacing, training system, and pruning: Effect on growth and pruning. Journal of the American Pomological Society, 64: 199–217.
 
Negueroles P.J. (2005): Cherry cultivation in Spain. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 667: 293–301. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.667.43
 
Olien W.C. (1987): Effect of initial heading height on branch development of four apple cultivars. Fruit Varieties Journal, 41: 99–104.
 
Pavanello A.P., Zoth M., Ayub R.A. (2018): Manage of crop load to improve fruit quality in plums. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 40: (e-721).
 
Preston A.P. (1968): Pruning and rootstock as factors in the production of primary branches on apple trees. Journal of Horticultural Science, 43: 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221589.1968.11514228
 
Robinson T.L., Hoying S.A. (2003): Description of orchard planting systems. Compact Fruit Trees, 36: 50–64.
 
Sanewski G.M. (1988): Growing custard apples. Qeensland Department of Primary Industries, Information Series Q187014.
 
Savage E.F., Cowart F.F. (1942): The effect of pruning upon the root distribution of peach trees. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 41: 67–70.
 
Teskey B.J.E., Shoemaker J.S. (1972): Tree fruit production. 2nd Ed. AVI, Westport, Corm.
 
Tustin D.S., Hirst P.M., Warrington I.J. (1988): Influence of orientation and position of fruiting laterals on canopy light penetration, yield, and fruit quality of ‘Granny Smith’ apple. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 113: 639.
 
Uberti A., Giacobbo C.L., Lovatto M., Lugaresi A., do Prado J., Girardi G.C., Luz A.R. (2019): Performance of ‘Eragil’ peach trees grown on different training systems. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 31: 61–21.
 
Verner L. (1939): The effect of plant growth substances on crotch angles in young apple trees. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 36: 415–422.
 
Walsh C.S. (1992): An overview of peach training systems and the application of pruning techniques. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 322: 93–98. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1992.322.10
 
Warner J. (1991): Rootstock affects primary scaffold branch crotch angle of apple trees. HortScience, 26: 1266–1267. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.26.10.1266
 
Weaver G.M. (1968): Crotch angle development in peach trees as influenced by scion and rootstock cultivars. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 48: 419-421. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps68-080
 
Wertheim S.J. (1978): Manual and chemical induction of side-shoot formation in apple trees in the nursery. Scientia Horticulturae, 9: 337–345. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(78)90043-2
 
Whiting M.D., Lang, G., Ophardt D. (2005): Rootstock and training system affect sweet cherry growth, yield, and fruit quality. HortScience, 40: 582–586. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.40.3.582
 
Williams M.W., Billingsley H.D. (1970): Increasing the number and crotch angles of primary branches of apple trees with cytokinins and gibberellic acid. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 95: 649–651.
 
Barden J.A. (1977): Apple tree growth, net photosynthesis, dark respiration, and specific leaf weight as affected by continuous and intermittent shade. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 103: 391–391.
 
Barden J.A., Delvalle T.B.G., Myers S.C. (1989): Growth and fruiting of ‘Delicious’ apple trees as affected by severity and season pruning. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 114: 184–186.
 
Brown C.L., McAlpine R.G., Kormanik P.P. (1967): Apical dominance and form in woody plants: A reappraisal. American Journal of Botany, 54: 153–162. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1967.tb06904.x
 
Bukovaĉ M.J. (2015): Method of widening crotch angles of fruit trees. Brentwood Avenue, East Lansing, Michigan. 48823. Available at https://patents.google.com/patent/US2978838A/en
 
Campbell C.W., Phillips R.L. (1980): The atemoya. Factsheet FC-64. University of Florida, IFAS, Cooperation, Extension Service Fruit Crops, Gainsvill.
 
Casanova-Gascón J., Figueras-Panillo M., Iglesias-Castellarnau I, Martín-Romas P. (2019): Comparisn of SHD and open-center training system in almond tree orchards cv. ‘Soleta’. Agronomy 9: 874.  https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9120874
 
Champagant P. (1954): Recherches sur les rameaux anticipés des végétaux ligneux. [Research on the anticipated branches of woody plants.] Revue de Cytologie et de Cytophysiologie Vegetales, 15: 1–51.
 
Cline M.G. (1997): Concepts and terminology of apical dominance. American Journal of Botany, 84: 1064–1069. https://doi.org/10.2307/2446149
 
Cook C.N., Robe E., Jacobs G. (1999): Early expression of apical control regulates length and crotch angle of sylleptic shoots in peach and nectarine. HortScience, 34: 604–606. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.34.4.604
 
Crabbé J. (1987): Aspects particulier de la morphogeneś caulinaire des végétaux ligneux et introduction á leur etude quantitative. [Particular aspects of the stem morphogenesis of woody plants and introduction to their quantitative study.] Centre d’ Etude de la Reproduction Végétale, Brussels.
 
De Jong T.M., Day K.R., Doyle J.F., Johnson R.S. (1994): The Kearney Agricultural Center Perpendicular “V” (KAC-V) orchard system for peaches and nectarines. HortTechnology, 4: 362–367. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.4.4.362
 
Eisner N.J., Gilman E.F., Grabosky J.C. (2002): Branch morphology impacts compartmentalization of pruning wounds. Journal Arboriculture, 28: 99–105.
 
Elfving D.C., Forshey C.G. (1977): Effects of naphthaleneacetic acid on shoot growth of apple trees. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 102: 418–424.
 
Fallahi E. (1992): Influence of various training systems on yield and fruit quality of low-chill peaches. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 322: 283–290. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1992.322.33
 
Ferree D.C., Clayton Greene K.A., Bishop B. (1993): Influence of orchard management system on canopy composition, light distribution, net photosynthesis and transpiration of apple trees. Journal of Horticultural Science, 68: 377–392. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221589.1993.11516365
 
Filipovich S.D. (1976): Increasing the crotch angles of young apple trees by using growth hormones or plastic discs. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 16: 286–288. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA9760286
 
Fisher K.H. (1990): Winter injury in fruit trees. Ontario, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Factsheet, 90–059.
 
Forshey C.G. (1986): Training and pruning apple trees. A Cornell Cooperative Extension Publication, Cornell University, Information Bulletin, 112.
 
Fumey D., Lauri P., Guedon Y., Godin C. (2011): How young trees cope with removal of whole or parts of shoots: An analysis of local and distant responses to pruning in 1-year-old apple (Malus × domestica; Rosaceae) trees. American Journal of Botany, 98: 1737–1751. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1000231
 
Grossman Y.L., De Jong T.M. (1998): Training and pruning systems effects on vegetative growth potential, light interception, and cropping efficiency in peach trees. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 123: 1058–1064. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.123.6.1058
 
Hampson C.R., Quamme H.A., Kappel F., Brownlee R.T. (2002): Canopy growth, yield, and fruit quality of ‘Royal Gala’ apple tree grown for eight years in fine tree training systems. HortScience, 37: 627–631 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.37.4.627
 
Hampson C.R., Quamme H.A., Kappel F., Brownlee R.T. (2004a): Varying density with constant rectangularity: I. Effects on apple tree growth and light interception in three training systems over ten years. HortScience, 39: 501–506. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.39.3.501
 
Hampson C.R., Quamme H.A., Kappel F., Brownlee R.T. (2004b): Varying density with constant rectangularity: II. Effect on apple tree yield, fruit size, and fruit color development in three training systems over ten years. HortScience, 39: 507–511. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.39.3.507
 
Hrotkó K. (2013): Development in fruit trees production systems. AgroLife Scientific Journal, 2: 18–35.
 
Jackson J.E. (1980): Light interception and utilization by orchard systems. Horticulture Reviews, 2: 208–267.
 
Jung S., Choi H. (2010): Light penetration, growth, and fruit productivity in ‘Fuji’ apple trees trained to four growing systems. Scientia Horticulturae, 125: 672–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.05.027
 
Marini R.P. (1990): Pruning peach trees. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia State University, Bulletin, 422–020.
 
Marini R.P., Sower D.S., Marini M.C. (1995): Tree form and heading height at planting affect peach tree yield and crop value. HortScience, 30: 1196–1201. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.30.6.1196
 
Marler T.E., Crane J.H. (1994): Increasing Scaffold branch angle of atemoya by manipulating of the primary bud complex. HortScience, 29: 818–820. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.29.7.818
 
Mika A. (1986): Physiological responses of fruit trees to pruning. Horticultural Review, 8: 337–378.
 
Mika A., Buler Z. (2015): Modifying apple spindle trees to improve fruit quality. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 14: 13–24.
 
Miller A.N., Walsh C.S. (1988): Growth and seasonal partitioning of dry matter in eight-year-old ‘Loring’ peach trees Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 113: 309–314.
 
Miller S., Scorza R. (2010): Response of two novel peach tree growth habits to in-row trees spacing, training system, and pruning: Effect on growth and pruning. Journal of the American Pomological Society, 64: 199–217.
 
Negueroles P.J. (2005): Cherry cultivation in Spain. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 667: 293–301. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.667.43
 
Olien W.C. (1987): Effect of initial heading height on branch development of four apple cultivars. Fruit Varieties Journal, 41: 99–104.
 
Pavanello A.P., Zoth M., Ayub R.A. (2018): Manage of crop load to improve fruit quality in plums. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 40: (e-721). https://doi.org/10.1590/0100-29452018721
 
Preston A.P. (1968): Pruning and rootstock as factors in the production of primary branches on apple trees. Journal of Horticultural Science, 43: 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221589.1968.11514228
 
Robinson T.L., Hoying S.A. (2003): Description of orchard planting systems. Compact Fruit Trees, 36: 50–64.
 
Sanewski G.M. (1988): Growing custard apples. Qeensland Department of Primary Industries, Information Series Q187014.
 
Savage E.F., Cowart F.F. (1942): The effect of pruning upon the root distribution of peach trees. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 41: 67–70.
 
Teskey B.J.E., Shoemaker J.S. (1972): Tree fruit production. 2nd Ed. AVI, Westport, Corm.
 
Tustin D.S., Hirst P.M., Warrington I.J. (1988): Influence of orientation and position of fruiting laterals on canopy light penetration, yield, and fruit quality of ‘Granny Smith’ apple. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 113: 639.
 
Uberti A., Giacobbo C.L., Lovatto M., Lugaresi A., do Prado J., Girardi G.C., Luz A.R. (2019): Performance of ‘Eragil’ peach trees grown on different training systems. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 31: 61–21.
 
Verner L. (1939): The effect of plant growth substances on crotch angles in young apple trees. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 36: 415–422.
 
Walsh C.S. (1992): An overview of peach training systems and the application of pruning techniques. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 322: 93–98. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1992.322.10
 
Warner J. (1991): Rootstock affects primary scaffold branch crotch angle of apple trees. HortScience, 26: 1266–1267. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.26.10.1266
 
Weaver G.M. (1968): Crotch angle development in peach trees as influenced by scion and rootstock cultivars. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 48: 419-421. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps68-080
 
Wertheim S.J. (1978): Manual and chemical induction of side-shoot formation in apple trees in the nursery. Scientia Horticulturae, 9: 337–345. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(78)90043-2
 
Whiting M.D., Lang, G., Ophardt D. (2005): Rootstock and training system affect sweet cherry growth, yield, and fruit quality. HortScience, 40: 582–586. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.40.3.582
 
Williams M.W., Billingsley H.D. (1970): Increasing the number and crotch angles of primary branches of apple trees with cytokinins and gibberellic acid. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 95: 649–651.
 
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