Effect of polyploidization on morphology in two apple (Malus × domestica) genotypes 

https://doi.org/10.17221/7/2016-HORTSCICitation:Hïas N., Leus L., Davey M.W., Vanderzande S., van Huylenbroeck J., Keulemans J. (2017): Effect of polyploidization on morphology in two apple (Malus × domestica) genotypes . Hort. Sci. (Prague), 44: 55-63.
download PDF

Because polyploidy often results in enhancement of desirable properties, artificial genome doubling is commonly used in agri- and horticultural crop breeding programs. In this study genome doubling was induced in two apple genotypes. The effect on vegetative morphological and physiological traits of the plants was then comprehensively determined by comparing the obtained tetraploid apple plants with their diploid counterparts. Out of 17 different physio- and morphological characteristics, 15 were significantly affected in one or both genotypes. The response of these 15 characteristics also appeared to have been caused by two effects; 10 of the 15 characteristics exhibited a common response to ploidy change over both genotypes while five traits showed a genotype-specific response to polyploidization. Tetraploid leaves also exhibited a darker leaf colour, which could be correlated to a higher pigment concentration. Furthermore, the results also show a decreased elongation rate and leaf size in tetraploids, which is suggested to be due to the observed lower cell density in the polyploid apple plants.

References:
chromosome doubling; diploid; growth; leaf parameters; tetraploid
 
Achten W.M.J., Maes W.H., Reubens B., Mathijs E., Singh V.P., Verchot L., Muys B. (2010): Biomass production and allocation in Jatropha curcas L. seedlings under different levels of drought stress. Biomass and Bioenergy, 34, 667-676  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.01.010
 
Allario T., Brumos J., Colmenero-Flores J.M., Iglesias D.J., Pina J.A., Navarro L., Talon M., Ollitrault P., Morillon R. (2013): Tetraploid Rangpur lime rootstock increases drought tolerance via enhanced constitutive root abscisic acid production. Plant, Cell & Environment, 36: 856–868.
 
Allario T., Brumos J., Colmenero-Flores J. M., Tadeo F., Froelicher Y., Talon M., Navarro L., Ollitrault P., Morillon R. (): Large changes in anatomy and physiology between diploid Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) and its autotetraploid are not associated with large changes in leaf gene expression. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 2507-2519  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq467
 
Beaulieu Jeremy M., Leitch Ilia J., Patel Sunil, Pendharkar Arjun, Knight Charles A. (2008): Genome size is a strong predictor of cell size and stomatal density in angiosperms. New Phytologist, 179, 975-986  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02528.x
 
Blanke M (): Stomata and Structure of Tetraploid Apple Leaves cultured in Vitro. Annals of Botany, 73, 651-654  https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1994.1082
 
Cohen David, Bogeat-Triboulot Marie-Beatrice, Tisserant Emilie, Balzergue Sandrine, Martin-Magniette Marie-Laure, Lelandais Gaelle, Ningre Nathalie, Renou Jean-Pierre, Tamby Jean-Philippe, Le Thiec Didier, Hummel Irene (2010): Comparative transcriptomics of drought responses in Populus: a meta-analysis of genome-wide expression profiling in mature leaves and root apices across two genotypes. BMC Genomics, 11, 630-  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-11-630
 
Comai Luca (): The advantages and disadvantages of being polyploid. Nature Reviews Genetics, 6, 836-846  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg1711
 
Defra. (2010): Fingerprinting the National Apple & Pear Collections. Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs – Final Project Report: 1–18. Available at http://randd.defra.gov.uk
 
Del Pozo J.C., Ramirez-Parra E. (2014): Deciphering the molecular bases for drought tolerance in Arabidopsis autotetraploids. Plant, Cell & Environment, 37: 2722–2737.
 
Dhooghe Emmy, Grunewald Wim, Leus Leen, Van Labeke Marie-Christine (2009): In vitro polyploidisation of Helleborus species. Euphytica, 165, 89-95  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-008-9763-9
 
Dobránszki J., Abdul-Kader A., Magyar-Tábori K., Jámbor-Benczúr E., Bubán T., Szalai J., Lazányi J. (2000): Single and dual effects of different cytokinins on shoot multiplication of different apple scions. International Journal of Horticultural Science, 6: 76–78.
 
Eeckhaut T., Van Huylenbroeck J., De Schepper S., Van Labeke M.C. (2006): BREEDING FOR POLYPLOIDY IN BELGIAN AZALEA (RHODODENDRON SIMSII HYBRIDS). Acta Horticulturae, , 113-118  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.714.13
 
French C. S., Smith J. H. C., Virgin H. I., Airth R. L. (1956): Fluorescence-Spectrum Curves of Chlorophylls, Pheophytins, Phycoerythrins, Phycocyanins and Hypericin.. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 31, 369-374  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.31.5.369
 
Guerra Divanilde, Wittmann Maria Teresa Schifino, Schwarz Sergio Francisco, Souza Paulo Vitor Dutra de, Gonzatto Mateus Pereira, Weiler Roberto Luis (2014): Comparison between diploid and tetraploid citrus rootstocks: morphological characterization and growth evaluation. Bragantia, 73, 1-7  https://doi.org/10.1590/brag.2014.007
 
Guo M., Rupe M. A., Dieter J. A., Zou J., Spielbauer D., Duncan K. E., Howard R. J., Hou Z., Simmons C. R. (): Cell Number Regulator1 Affects Plant and Organ Size in Maize: Implications for Crop Yield Enhancement and Heterosis. The Plant Cell, 22, 1057-1073  https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.109.073676
 
Hao Guang-You, Lucero Mary E., Sanderson Stewart C., Zacharias Elizabeth H., Holbrook N. Michele (2013): Polyploidy enhances the occupation of heterogeneous environments through hydraulic related trade-offs in Atriplex canescens (Chenopodiaceae). New Phytologist, 197, 970-978  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12051
 
Jones H.G. (2013): Plants and Microclimate: a Quantitative Approach to Environmental Plant Physiology. 3rd Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University press: 129–130.
 
Kermani M. J., Sarasan V., Roberts A. V., Yokoya K., Wentworth J., Sieber V. K. (2003): Oryzalin-induced chromosome doubling in Rosa and its effect on plant morphology and pollen viability. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 107, 1195-1200  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-003-1374-1
 
LESPINASSE Yves, NOITON Dominique (1986): Contribution à l'étude d'une plante haploïde de pommier (Malus pumila Mill.). Etude descriptive et comparaison avec des clones de ploïdie différente. I. — Caractères végétatifs : entre- noeuds, feuilles et stomates. Agronomie, 6, 659-664  https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:19860708
 
Li Wei-Dong, Biswas Dilip K., Xu Hong, Xu Chang-Qing, Wang Xian-Zhong, Liu Jia-Kun, Jiang Gao-Ming (2009): Photosynthetic responses to chromosome doubling in relation to leaf anatomy in Lonicera japonica subjected to water stress. Functional Plant Biology, 36, 783-  https://doi.org/10.1071/FP09022
 
Liu Guofeng, Li Zhineng, Bao Manzhu (2007): Colchicine-induced chromosome doubling in Platanus acerifolia and its effect on plant morphology. Euphytica, 157, 145-154  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-007-9406-6
 
Mizukami Yukiko (2001): A matter of size: developmental control of organ size in plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 4, 533-539  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-5266(00)00212-0
 
Pereira-Lorenzo Santiago, Ramos-Cabrer Ana María, Díaz-Hernández María Belén (2007): Evaluation of genetic identity and variation of local apple cultivars (Malus × domestica Borkh.) from Spain using microsatellite markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 54, 405-420  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-006-0003-7
 
Powell Anahid E., Lenhard Michael (2012): Control of Organ Size in Plants. Current Biology, 22, R360-R367  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.02.010
 
Riddle Nicole C., Kato Akio, Birchler James A. (2006): Genetic variation for the response to ploidy change in Zea mays L.. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 114, 101-111  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-006-0414-z
 
Sedov E. N., Sedysheva G. A., Serova Z. M., Gorbacheva N. G. (2014): Autogamy of polyploid apple varieties and forms. Russian Agricultural Sciences, 40, 253-256  https://doi.org/10.3103/S1068367414040132
 
Sedysheva G.A., Gorbacheva N.G. (2013): Estimation of new tetraploid apple forms as donors of diploid gametes for selection on a polyploidy level. Universal Journal of Plant Science, 1: 49–54.
 
Stupar R. M., Bhaskar P. B., Yandell B. S., Rensink W. A., Hart A. L., Ouyang S., Veilleux R. E., Busse J. S., Erhardt R. J., Buell C. R., Jiang J. (2007): Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Changes Associated With Potato Autopolyploidization. Genetics, 176, 2055-2067  https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.107.074286
 
SUGIYAMA S.-I. (2005): Polyploidy and Cellular Mechanisms Changing Leaf Size: Comparison of Diploid and Autotetraploid Populations in Two Species of Lolium. Annals of Botany, 96, 931-938  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mci245
 
Sun Q., Sun H., Li L., Bell R.L. (2009): In vitro colchicine-induced polyploid plantlet production and regeneration from leaf explants of the diploid pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar, ‘Fertility’. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 84: 548–552.
 
Tan Feng-Quan, Tu Hong, Liang Wu-Jun, Long Jian-Mei, Wu Xiao-Meng, Zhang Hong-Yan, Guo Wen-Wu (2015): Comparative metabolic and transcriptional analysis of a doubled diploid and its diploid citrus rootstock (C. junos cv. Ziyang xiangcheng) suggests its potential value for stress resistance improvement. BMC Plant Biology, 15, -  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-015-0450-4
 
Trojak-Goluch Anna, Skomra Urszula (2013): Artificially induced polyploidization in Humulus lupulus L. and its effect on morphological and chemical traits. Breeding Science, 63, 393-399  https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.63.393
 
VAARAMA ANTERO (1948): MEIOSIS AND POLYPLOID CHARACTERS IN THE TETRAPLOID APPLE VARIETY HIBERNAL. Hereditas, 34, 147-160  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5223.1948.tb02832.x
 
Van Laere K., Van Huylenbroeck J., Van BockStaele E. (2006): BREEDING STRATEGIES TO INCREASE GENETIC VARIABILITY WITHIN HIBISCUS SYRIACUS. Acta Horticulturae, , 75-82  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.714.9
 
Van Laere Katrijn, França Soraya C., Vansteenkiste Hein, Van Huylenbroeck Johan, Steppe Kathy, Van Labeke Marie-Christine (2011): Influence of ploidy level on morphology, growth and drought susceptibility in Spathiphyllum wallisii. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 33, 1149-1156  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-010-0643-2
 
Wellburn Alan R. (1994): The Spectral Determination of Chlorophylls a and b, as well as Total Carotenoids, Using Various Solvents with Spectrophotometers of Different Resolution. Journal of Plant Physiology, 144, 307-313  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(11)81192-2
 
Xue Hao, Zhang Feng, Zhang Zhi-Hong, Fu Jun-Fan, Wang Feng, Zhang Bing, Ma Yue (2015): Differences in salt tolerance between diploid and autotetraploid apple seedlings exposed to salt stress. Scientia Horticulturae, 190, 24-30  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.04.009
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences