Impact of logging intensity on stem density, basal area and biodiversity indices five years after logging in a Caspian hardwood forest
The aim of the present study was to analyse the impacts of different logging intensities after five years from logging including non-logged, low (3.4 felled stems per hectare), medium (5.2 felled stems per hectare) and high (7.1 felled stems per hectare) treatments on stem density, basal area, canopy cover, and forest biodiversity indices. The study area was located in northern Iran. Data was collected on a set of 120 circular plots with 5 m radius from both non-logged and logging areas. Stem density, basal area, and percentage of canopy cover were measured. Biodiversity study was done by measuring two diversity indices including Simpson’s and Shannon-Wiener’s, two richness indices including Margalef’s and Menhinick’s and two evenness indices including Pielou’s and Hill’s indices. The results indicated that the treatment with the medium logging intensity was found to cause the highest amount of positive effects on stem density, basal area, and biodiversity indices. It is concluded that harvesting intensity should be limited to a medium level (approximately 5 felled trees per hectare) during each logging operation to improve forest biodiversity indices.
Bawa Kamaljit S., Seidler Reinmar (1998): Natural Forest Management and Conservation of Biodiversity in Tropical Forests. Conservation Biology, 12, 46-55 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1998.96480.x
Behjou F.K., Mollabashi O.G. (2013): A practical sampling strategy for assessing woody debris in Fandoghlou forest, Iran. Journal of Environmental Science, 8: 83–87.
Cakir M., Makineci E., Kumbasli A. (2010): Comparative study on soil properties in a picnic and undisturbed area of Belgrad forest, Istanbul. Journal of Environmental Biology, 31: 125–128.
de Wasseige Carlos, Defourny Pierre (2004): Remote sensing of selective logging impact for tropical forest management. Forest Ecology and Management, 188, 161-173 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2003.07.035
Dekker M., de Graaf N.R. (2003): Pioneer and climax tree regeneration following selective logging with silviculture in Suriname. Forest Ecology and Management, 172, 183-190 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00801-5
Drigo R., Lasserre B., Marchetti M. (2009): Patterns and trends in tropical forest cover. Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology, 143, 311-327 https://doi.org/10.1080/11263500902722618
Eriksson Louise, Nordlund Annika M., Olsson Olof, Westin Kerstin (2012): Recreation in Different Forest Settings: A Scene Preference Study. Forests, 3, 923-943 https://doi.org/10.3390/f3040923
Farris Michael A (1998): The effects of rock climbing on the vegetation of three Minnesota cliff systems. Canadian Journal of Botany, 76, 1981-1990 https://doi.org/10.1139/b98-178
Gardner Toby A., Barlow Jos, Chazdon Robin, Ewers Robert M., Harvey Celia A., Peres Carlos A., Sodhi Navjot S. (2009): Prospects for tropical forest biodiversity in a human-modified world. Ecology Letters, 12, 561-582 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01294.x
Gascon C. (): Logging On in the Rain Forests. Science, 281, 1453b-1453 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.281.5382.1453b
Green P., Peterken G.F. (1997): Variation in the amount of dead wood in the woodlands of the Lower Wye Valley, UK in relation to the intensity of management. Forest Ecology and Management, 98, 229-238 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00106-0
Halpern Charles B., Spies Thomas A. (1995): Plant Species Diversity in Natural and Managed Forests of the Pacific Northwest. Ecological Applications, 5, 913- https://doi.org/10.2307/2269343
Hansen A. J., Spies T. A., Swanson F. J., Ohmann J. L. (1991): Conserving Biodiversity in Managed Forests. BioScience, 41, 382-392 https://doi.org/10.2307/1311745
Hegetschweiler K. Tessa, van Loon Nicole, Ryser Annette, Rusterholz Hans-Peter, Baur Bruno (2009): Effects of Fireplace Use on Forest Vegetation and Amount of Woody Debris in Suburban Forests in Northwestern Switzerland. Environmental Management, 43, 299-310 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-008-9194-3
Lindenmayer David B., Margules Chris R., Botkin Daniel B. (2000): Indicators of Biodiversity for Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management. Conservation Biology, 14, 941-950 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.98533.x
McMillan Michele A., Larson Douglas W. (2002): Effects of Rock Climbing on the Vegetation of the Niagara Escarpment in Southern Ontario, Canada. Conservation Biology, 16, 389-398 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00377.x
Niemela J. (1999): Ecology and urban planning. Biodiversity Conservation, 8: 119–131. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008817325994
Nuzzo Victoria A. (1995): Effects of Rock Climbing on Cliff Goldenrod (Solidago sciaphila Steele) in Northwest Illinois. American Midland Naturalist, 133, 229- https://doi.org/10.2307/2426387
Pimentel David, Stachow Ulrich, Takacs David A., Brubaker Hans W., Dumas Amy R., Meaney John J., Onsi Douglas E., Corzilius David B. (1992): Conserving Biological Diversity in Agricultural/Forestry Systems. BioScience, 42, 354-362 https://doi.org/10.2307/1311782
Putz Francis E., Zuidema Pieter A., Synnott Timothy, Peña-Claros Marielos, Pinard Michelle A., Sheil Douglas, Vanclay Jerome K., Sist Plinio, Gourlet-Fleury Sylvie, Griscom Bronson, Palmer John, Zagt Roderick (2012): Sustaining conservation values in selectively logged tropical forests: the attained and the attainable. Conservation Letters, 5, 296-303 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00242.x
Rametsteiner Ewald, Simula Markku (2003): Forest certification—an instrument to promote sustainable forest management?. Journal of Environmental Management, 67, 87-98 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4797(02)00191-3
Rowland E.L., White A.S., William H.L. (2005): MP754: A Literature Review of the Effects of Intensive Forestry on Forest Structure and Plant Community Composition at the Stand and Landscape Levels. Orono, Miscellaneous Publications: 28.
Rusterholz Hans-Peter, Miiller Stefan W., Baur Bruno (2004): Effects of rock climbing on plant communities on exposed limestone cliffs in the Swiss Jura mountains. Applied Vegetation Science, 7, 35-40 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2004.tb00593.x
Saha H.K., Sarkar A., Haldar P. (2011): Effects of anthropogenic disturbances on the diversity and composition of the acridid fauna of sites in the dry deciduous forest of West Bengal, India. Journal of Biodiversity and Ecological Sciences, 1: 131–320.
Sarah Pariente, Zhevelev Helena M. (2007): Effect of visitors’ pressure on soil and vegetation in several different micro-environments in urban parks in Tel Aviv. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83, 284-293 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.05.001
Spies T.A., Turner M.G. (1999): Dynamic forest mosaics. In: Hunter M.L. (ed.): Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Eco-systems. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 335–361.
Tynsong H., Tiwari B. K. (2010): Diversity of plant species in arecanut agroforests of south Meghalaya, north-east India. Journal of Forestry Research, 21, 281-286 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-010-0072-5