Impacts of Central Tire Inflation Systems application on forest transportation – Review
Central Tire Inflation Systems (CTIS) have been introduced to forestry transportation in the last 30 years to the point the forest industry is one of the biggest users of the technology (Pletts 2006). The benefits of operating with this CTIS technology mentioned in the literature include: (i) reduced road surfacing and/or base course requirements, (ii) reduced road maintenance, (iii) reduced driver fatigue and medical complaints, (iv) lower vehicle operation costs, (v) increased vehicle mobility, (vi) extended haul seasons (Bradley 1995). This paper presents a literature review of previous international studies on the impacts of CTIS. This document can assist the forest industry and research users to gain basic information on this transportation technology.
Ad Hoc Central Tire Inflation Applications Team (1988): “Operation Bigfoot” Technology Application Plan: A Plan for Applying Central Tire Inflation/Variable Tire Pressure (CTI/VTI) Technology. San Dimas, USDA Forest Service, Technology and Development Center (SDTSC): 54.
Adams B.T. (2002): Central tire inflation for agricultural vehicle. [Ph.D. Thesis.] Urbana, University of Illinois at Urba-na-Champaign: 130.
Altunel A.O., De Hoop C.F. (1998): The effect of lowered tire pressure on a log truck driver seat. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 9: 41–47.
Armstrong S. (2008): Let tyres take the pressure. Forestry and Timber News: 18.
Ashmore C., Sirois D.L. (1987): Influence of the Central Tire Inflation System on Log Truck Performance and Road Surfaces. Paper No. 87–1057. St. Josef, Society of Automotive Engineers: 27.
Bergkvist I., Löfgren B., Löfroth C. (2007): Emerging techniques and technologies to keep forestry profitable considering global environmental impact. In: Sessions J., Havill Y. (eds): Proceedings of the International Mountain Logging and 13th Pacific Northwest Skyline Symposium, Corvallis, Apr 1–6, 2007: 2–6.
Bradley A.H. (1993): Testing a Central Tire Inflation System in Western Canada Log-hauling Conditions. Vancouver, Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada: 11.
Bradley A.H. (1995): Lower Tire Pressures Lessen Sedimentation from Forest Roads. Vancouver, Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada: 2.
Bradley A.H. (2001): Evaluation of Forest Access Road Designs for Use with CTI-equipped Logging Trucks I: Green Access Roads. Vancouver, Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada: 16.
Bradley A.H. (2002): Evaluation of Forest Access Road Designs for Use with CTI-equipped Log Haul Trucks Phase II: Seasoned Access Roads. Vancouver, Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada: 20.
Bradley A.H. (2003): Using Optimized Truck Tire Pressures to Minimize Damage to Rural Roads: Summary of Two Trials in Saskatchewan. Vancouver, Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada: 12.
Bradley A.H. (2009): Introduction to Tire Pressure Control Systems (TPCS) and Synthesis of Key Research Findings in Highway and Urban Applications. Report No. CR-4554A-1. Vancouver, FPinnovations: 34.
Brokmeier H., Hittenbeck J. (2010): CTIS for logging trucks in Germany. In: Kanzian C., Cavalli R. (eds): FORMEC 2010: Forest Engineering: Meeting the Needs of the Society and the Environment, Padova, July 11–14, 2010: 1.
Bulley B., Blair C. (2001): Using reduced tire pressure for improved gradeability – a proof of concept trial. In: Schiess P., Krogstad F. (eds): Proceedings of the International Mountain Logging and 11th Pacific Northwest Skyline Symposium, Seattle, Dec 10–12, 2001: 162–167.
Carme R. (2006): Freight Sustainability Demonstration Program Reporting-final Report. Impact of Tire Pressure Control Systems on Fuel Consumption. Contract Report No. CR-0260-1. Pointe-Claire, Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada: 46.
Clark R.B. (1993): Central Inflation from a Truck Tire Perspective. Warradale, Society of Automotive Engineers: 15.
Cline C. (2016): Optimizing Truck Tyre Pressures with Ventral Tyre Inflation. Moe, AIR CTI: 121.
Cummins (2007): Cummins MPG guide. Secrets of better fuel economy. The physics of MPG. Available at https://cumminsengines.com/uploads/docs/cummins_secrets_of_better_fuel_economy.pdf
Foltz R.B. (1994): Sediment reduction from the use of lowered tire pressure. In: Central Tire Inflation Systems: Managing the Vehicle to Surface. Warrendale, Society of Automotive Engineers: 47–52.
Foltz R.B., Burroughs E.R. (1991): A test of normal tire pressure and reduced tire pressure on forest roads: Sedimentation effects. In: Stokes B.J., Rawlins C.L. (eds): Proceedings of the Forestry and Environment Engineering Solutions, St. Joseph, June 5–6, 1991: 103–112.
Goldsack R. (1988): Log Truck Gradeability on Corners and Grades. Rotorua, New Zealand Logging Industry Research Association, Inc.: 38.
Granlund P. (2006): Five Million Km Covered in CTI Project. Uppsala, Skogforsk: 4.
Jokai R., Bradley A.H. (2000): Ownership and Operating Cost Analysis of Log Trucks Equipped with CTI Systems or TPCS. Vancouver, Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada: 16.
Jokai R., Webb D. (2001): Mobility Assessment of a Tractor/Semi-trailer on Sand Roads. Vancouver, Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada: 4.
Jones G., Smith M. (1992): Central Tyre Inflation Truck Performance Testing. Rotorua, New Zealand Logging Industry Research Association, Inc.: 10.
Kaczmarek R.W. (1984): Central tire inflation systems (CTIS) – a means to enhance vehicle mobility. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of the International Society for Terrain-vehicle Systems, Cambridge, June 1, 1984: 1255–1271.
Kreyns K. (1994): Benefits and effects of central tire inflation on USDA Forest Service vehicles. In: Central Tire Inflation Systems: Managing the Vehicle to Surface. Warrendale, Society of Automotive Engineers: 31–36.
Lynch Hummer (2006): CTI system, at the wheel. Available at http://www.lynchhummer.com
Martin A.M., Owende P.M.O., O’Mahony M.J., Ward S.M. (1999): Estimation of the serviceability of forest access roads. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 10: 55–61.
Moore T.L., Sowa R. (1997): Variable tire pressure technology: Reducing transportation costs and protecting forest eco-systems. TR News No. 189: 26–27.
Munro R., MacCulloch F. (2008): Tire Pressure Control on Timber Haulage Vehicles: Some Observations on a Trial in Highland, Scotland. Luleå, The Swedish Road Administration Northern Region: 74.
Nevada Automotive Test Center (1987): Central Tire Inflation: Final Report for the USDA Forest Service. Carson City, Nevada Automotive Test Center: 130.
Owende Philip M. O., Hartman Anton M., Ward Shane M., Gilchrist Michael D., O'Mahony Michael J. (2001): Minimizing Distress on Flexible Pavements Using Variable Tire Pressure. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 127, 254-262 https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X(2001)127:3(254)
Pletts T. (2006): A literature overview of central tyre inflation systems. [MSc Thesis.] Pietermaritzburg, University of KwaZulu-Natal: 25.
Powell B., Brunette B. (1991): Reduced tire inflation pressure – a solution for marginal-quality road construction rock in southern Alaska. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Low-volume Roads, Raleigh, May 19–23, 1991: 329–334.
Rakheja S., Wang Z. (2006): Feasibility Assessment of a Central Tire Inflation System for Urban Buses. Montreal, Concordia Centre for Advanced Vehicle Engineering: 6.
Rummer R.B., Ashmore C., Sirois D.L., Rawlins C.L. (1990): Central Tire Inflation: Demonstration Tests in the South. General Technical Report SO-78. New Orleans, USDA Forest Service: 11.
Sessions J., Stewart R., Anderson P., Tuor B. (1986): Calculating the maximum grade a log truck can climb. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 1: 43–45.
Simonson R. (1993): Tire Deflection Influence on Rear-axle Torque. SAE Technical Paper 933029. Warrendale, Society of Automotive Engineers: 6.
Smith D.M. (1994): Tire Test Program: Dynamic Peak and Slide Skid on Pavement and Gravel Surfaces at Varied Tire Deflections. Final Report for the USDA Forest Service. Carson City, Nevada Automative Test Center.
Stuart E., Gililland E., Della-Moretta L. (1987): The use of central tire inflation on low-volume roads. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Low-volume Roads, Ithaca, Aug 16–20, 1987: 164–168.
Sturos J.A., Brumm D.B., Lehto A. (1995): Performance of a Logging Truck with a Central Tire Inflation System. Research Paper NC-322. St. Paul, USDA Forest Service: 10.
Surcel M.D. (2010): Impact of Tire Pressure Control Systems on Fuel Consumptions. Point-Claire, FPinnovations: 8.
Taylor D.J. (1987): National Central Tire Inflation Program – Boise National Forest Field Operation Tests. San Dimas, USDA Forest Service: 42.
Taylor D.J. (1988): National Central Tire Inflation Program – Olympic National Forest Field Operational Tests. San Dimas, USDA Forest Service: 30.
USDA Forest Service (1993): Central Tire Inflation: What’s in It for Me? San Dimas, USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Center: 3.
Yap P. (1988): A comparative study of the effect of truck tire types on road contact pressures. In: Proceedings of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Truck & Bus Meeting & Exposition, Pittsburgh, Oct 1, 1988: 53–59.