Crown development of beech crop trees under different thinning regimesŠtefančík I. (2017): Crown development of beech crop trees under different thinning regimes. J. For. Sci., 63: 173-181.
download PDF
Crop trees are the main bearers of qualitative and value production of the stands. Although the number and production of the mentioned trees are affected by various factors, crown development by means of the thinning regime can be considered as very significant. The paper aims at the comparison of crop trees in homogeneous beech (Fagus sylvatica Linnaeus) stands, which were managed by three different management or thinning regimes for a long period (ca. 50 years): (i) heavy thinning from below (C grade according to the German forest research institutes released in 1902), (ii) Štefančík’s free crown thinning, (iii) without interventions (control). Selection of crop trees was carried out at the beginning of research using the best stem quality, diameter and height dimension and regular spacing). In this paper only the last assessment of crop trees aged from 83 to 105 years including 23 subplots established across the Slovakian territory was analysed. The highest number of crop trees has been reached in forests where Štefančík’s free crown thinning was applied. The proportion of these trees on subplots with the mentioned type of crown thinning was 61% out of the basal area at stand age of 100 years. A much lower proportion was found on subplots managed by thinning from below (32%) and on control ones (20%). Crown parameters (crown width, crown ratio, crown projection area, crown surface area and volume) showed the most appropriate values on subplots where Štefančík’s free crown thinning was used. It was: 8.36 m (crown width), 0.50 (crown ratio), 56.84 m2 (crown projection area), 289.56 m2 (crown surface area), and 481.75 m3 (volume). Based on the results obtained after almost 50 years of systematic investigations, the mentioned thinning method was recommended for beech forests.
Assmann E. (1968): Náuka o výnose lesa. Bratislava, Príroda: 488.
Barbeito Ignacio, Collet Catherine, Ningre François (2014): Crown responses to neighbor density and species identity in a young mixed deciduous stand. Trees, 28, 1751-1765
Bartelink HH (1997): Allometric relationships for biomass and leaf area of beech (Fagus sylvatica L). Annales des Sciences Forestières, 54, 39-50
Bosela Michal, Štefančík Igor, Petráš Rudolf, Vacek Stanislav (2016): The effects of climate warming on the growth of European beech forests depend critically on thinning strategy and site productivity. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 222, 21-31
Burger H. (1940): Holz, Blattmenge und Zuwachs. IV Mitteilung: Ein 80 jahriger Buchenbestand. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Anstalt für das Forstliche Versuchswesen, 21: 307–348.
Chroust L. (1972): Pěstebně výnosový význam velikosti a tvaru korun v mladých dubových porostech. Práce VÚLHM, 41: 79–102.
Dassot Mathieu, Constant Thiéry, Ningre François, Fournier Meriem (2015): Impact of stand density on tree morphology and growth stresses in young beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands. Trees, 29, 583-591
DHÔTE (Jean-François) (): Effet des éclaircies sur le diamètre dominant dans des futaies régulière de Hêtre ou de Chêne sessile.. Revue Forestière Française, , 557-
Dieler Jochen, Pretzsch Hans (2013): Morphological plasticity of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in pure and mixed-species stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 295, 97-108
Dudzinska T.R., Tomusiak R. (2000): Comparison of slenderness in beech and oak stands. Sylwan, 144: 45–52.
Fichtner A., Sturm K., Rickert C., von Oheimb G., Härdtle W. (2013): Crown size-growth relationships of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are driven by the interplay of disturbance intensity and inter-specific competition. Forest Ecology and Management, 302, 178-184
Gömöry Dušan, Hynek Vladimír, Paule Ladislav (1998): Delineation of seed zones for European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in the Czech Republic based on isozyme gene markers. Annales des Sciences Forestières, 55, 425-436
Grossmann H. (1963): Untersuchungen über die Zuwachslei-stung von Kiefer und Buche, getrennt nach Standortsformen und Durchmesserstufen unter Berücksichtigung der Kronengüte. Archiv für Forstwessen, 12: 249–278.
Guericke M. (2002): Studies of growth dynamics of beech. Forst und Holz, 57: 331–337.
Hasenauer Hubert, Monserud Robert A. (1996): A crown ratio model for Austrian forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 84, 49-60
Hemery G.E., Savill P.S., Pryor S.N. (2005): Applications of the crown diameter–stem diameter relationship for different species of broadleaved trees. Forest Ecology and Management, 215, 285-294
Korhonen Lauri, Korhonen Kari, Rautiainen Miina, Stenberg Pauline (2006): Estimation of forest canopy cover: a comparison of field measurement techniques. Silva Fennica, 40, -
Kraft G. (1884): Beiträge zur Lehre von Durchforstungen, Schlagstellungen und Lichtungshieben. Hannover, Klindsworth’s Verlag: 147.
Kramer H. (1988): Waldwachstumslehre: Ökologische und anthropogene Einflüsse auf das Wachstum des Waldes, seine Massen- und Wertleistung und die Bestandessicherheit. Hamburg, Berlin, Verlag Paul Parey: 374.
Kupka K. (2008): QC.Expert, ADSTAT. User’s Manual. Pardubice, TryloByte, Ltd.: 168.
Kuuluvainen T. (1988): Crown architecture and stemwood production in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Tree Physiology, 4, 337-346
Lang Anne C., Härdtle Werner, Bruelheide Helge, Geißler Christian, Nadrowski Karin, Schuldt Andreas, Yu Mingjian, von Oheimb Goddert (2010): Tree morphology responds to neighbourhood competition and slope in species-rich forests of subtropical China. Forest Ecology and Management, 260, 1708-1715
Longuetaud Fleur, Piboule Alexandre, Wernsdörfer Holger, Collet Catherine (2013): Crown plasticity reduces inter-tree competition in a mixed broadleaved forest. European Journal of Forest Research, 132, 621-634
Magin R. (1959): Kronengrösse und Zuwachs in mehrschichtigen Mischbeständen. Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, 14: 186–189.
Monserud Robert A., Sterba Hubert (1999): Modeling individual tree mortality for Austrian forest species. Forest Ecology and Management, 113, 109-123
Oliver C.D., Larson B.C. (1996): Forest Stand Dynamics. New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 520.
Peltola Heli, Gardiner Barry, Kellomäki Seppo, Kolström Taneli, Lässig Reinhard, Moore John, Quine Christopher, Ruel Jean-Claude (2000): Wind and other abiotic risks to forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 135, 1-2
Podlaski Rafał (2006): Suitability of the selected statistical distributions for fitting diameter data in distinguished development stages and phases of near-natural mixed forests in the Świętokrzyski National Park (Poland). Forest Ecology and Management, 236, 393-402
Poleno Z. (1984): Vztah přírůstu k velikosti koruny. Práce VÚLHM, 64: 117–165.
Pouderoux St�phanie, Deleuze Christine, Dh�te Jean-Fran�ois (2001): Analyse du rendement des houppiers dans un essai d'�claircie de h�tre gr�ce � un mod�le � base �cophysiologique. Annals of Forest Science, 58, 261-275
Pretzsch H. (2009): Forest Dynamics, Growth and Yield: From Measurement to Model. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag: 617.
Pretzsch Hans (2014): Canopy space filling and tree crown morphology in mixed-species stands compared with monocultures. Forest Ecology and Management, 327, 251-264
Pretzsch H., Schütze G. (2005): Crown Allometry and Growing Space Efficiency of Norway Spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Pure and Mixed Stands. Plant Biology, 7, 628-639
Pretzsch Hans, Schütze Gerhard (2009): Transgressive overyielding in mixed compared with pure stands of Norway spruce and European beech in Central Europe: evidence on stand level and explanation on individual tree level. European Journal of Forest Research, 128, 183-204
Račko V., Čunderlík I. (2011): Vplyv veku stromu na frekvenciu výskytu a veľkosť nepravého jadra buka (Fagus sylvatica L.). Acta Facultatis Xylologiae Zvolen, 53: 5–14.
Schröter Matthias, Härdtle Werner, Oheimb Goddert (2012): Crown plasticity and neighborhood interactions of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an old-growth forest. European Journal of Forest Research, 131, 787-798
Sharma Ram P., Vacek Zdeněk, Vacek Stanislav (2016): Individual tree crown width models for Norway spruce and European beech in Czech Republic. Forest Ecology and Management, 366, 208-220
Slodicak Marian, Novak Jiri (2006): Silvicultural measures to increase the mechanical stability of pure secondary Norway spruce stands before conversion. Forest Ecology and Management, 224, 252-257
Štefančík L. (1984): Freie Hochdurchforstung in ungepflegten Buchenstangenhölzern. Allgemeine Forstzeitung, 95: 106–110.
Štefančík I. (2015): Rast, štruktúra a produkcia bukových porastov s rozdielnym režimom výchovy. Zvolen, Národné lesnícke centrum: 148.
Sterba H. (1999): 20 Jahre Zielstärkennutzung in der „Hirschlacke“, Stift Schlägl. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung, 170: 170–175.
Suri S.K. (1975): Correlation studies between bole diameter and crown projection area as an aid to thinning. Indian Forester, 101: 539–554.
Thorpe H.C., Astrup R., Trowbridge A., Coates K.D. (2010): Competition and tree crowns: A neighborhood analysis of three boreal tree species. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 1586-1596
Utschig Heinz (2002): Analyse der Standraumokonomie von Einzelbaumen auf langfristig beobachteten Versuchsflachen - Methoden, Programmentwicklung und erste Ergebnisse -. Analysis of Single Tree Productivity and Growing Space on Long Term Trial Plots - Methods, Program Development and Initial Results -. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 121, 335-348
Utschig H., K�sters Elke (2003): Wachstumsreaktionen der Buche (Fagus sylvatica (L.)) auf Durchforstungen?130-j�hrige Beobachtung des Durchforstungsversuches Elmstein 20. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 122, 389-409
Vacek S. (1987): Morfologická proměnlivost buku lesního v Krkonoších. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 32: 1–6.
Vacek Zdeněk, Vacek Stanislav, Remeš Jiří, Štefančík Igor, Bulušek Dan, Bílek Lukáš (2013): Struktura a modelový vývoj lesních porostů v NPR Trčkov – CHKO Orlické Hory, Česká republika. Forestry Journal, 59, -
Vincent G., Harja D. (2007): Exploring Ecological Significance of Tree Crown Plasticity through Three-dimensional Modelling. Annals of Botany, 101, 1221-1231
Vospernik S., Monserud R.A., Sterba H. (2010): Do individual-tree growth models correctly represent height:diameter ratios of Norway spruce and Scots pine? Forest Ecology and Management, 260: 1735–1753.
Woodcock Hilary, Vollenweider Pierre, Dubs Rolf, Hofer Rose-Marie (1995): Crown alterations induced by decline: a study of relationships between growth rate and crown morphology in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Trees, 9, -
Zlatník A. (1976): Lesnická fytocenologie. Prague, SZN: 495.
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences