Crowns of “forgotten” standards in hardwood floodplain forestsŠálek L., Machar I., Sivacioğlu A., Zahradník D., Simon J., Jeřábková L. (2017): Crowns of “forgotten” standards in hardwood floodplain forests. J. For. Sci., 63: 538-548.
download PDF
Floodplain forests have traditionally been managed using the coppice-with-standards silvicultural system for centuries. After abandoning this silvicultural system approximately in the 1950s the crown of standards (mature-aged trees) developed gradually under the growing influence of their tree competitors. This study examines the crowns of remnant oak and ash standards in a hardwood floodplain forest along the Morava River in the Czech Republic. 100 oak (Quercus robur Linnaeus) standards and 100 ash (Fraxinus excelsior Linnaeus) standards were randomly selected and the basic mensuration data as well as some ecological data, such as number of large dead branches, cavities, and height of the lowest large dead and green branches, were measured. The four nearest neighbour competitors were identified for each standard, and their height, distance and azimuth were measured. The DBH of the analysed oak standards ranged between 71 and 148 cm, and the projected oak crown area ranged between 125 and 533 m2. The ash DBH ranged between 71 and 127 cm, and projected ash crowns between 194 and 620 m2. To assess competitive pressure, we calculated an index as a ratio of the tangents of angles of regular and compressed crowns. Distance of competing trees was more important than their height in the ash data set, but not in the oak data set.
Assmann E. (1961): Waldertragskunde. Organische Produktion, Structur, Zuwachs und Ertrag von Waldbeständen. 1st Ed. München, Bonn, Wien, BLV Verlagsgesellschaft: 490.
Biging G.S., Dobbertin M. (1992): A comparison of distance-dependent competition measures for height and basal area growth of individual conifer trees. Forest Science, 38: 695–720.
Bouget C., Brin A., Brustel H. (2011): Exploring the “last biotic frontier”: Are temperate forest canopies special for saproxylic beetles? Forest Ecology and Management, 261: 211–220.
Bouget C., Larrieu L., Brin A. (2014): Key features for saproxylic beetle diversity derived from rapid habitat assessment in temperate forests. Ecological Indicators, 36, 656-664
Carey A.B. (1983): Cavities in trees in hardwood forests. In: Proceedings of the Snag Habitat Management Symposium, Flagstaff, June 7–9, 1983: 167–184.
Carlson A., Sandström U., Olsson K. (1998): Availability and use of natural tree holes by cavity nesting birds in a Swedish deciduous forest. Ardea, 86: 109–119.
Eermak J. (1998): Leaf distribution in large trees and stands of the floodplain forest in southern Moravia. Tree Physiology, 18, 727-737
Coppini Matteo, Hermanin Luigi (2007): Restoration of selective beech coppices: A case study in the Apennines (Italy). Forest Ecology and Management, 249, 18-27
Cotta H. (1865): Anweisung zum Waldbau. 2nd Ed. Leipzig, Arnold: 274.
Dobrovolný L., Tesař V. (2010): Growth and characteristics of old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees individually dispersed in spruce monocultures. Journal of Forest Science, 56: 406–416.
Fabrika M., Pretzsch H. (2013): Analýza a modelovanie lesných ekosystémov. 1st Ed. Zvolen, Technická univerzita vo Zvolene: 620.
FAO (1998): World Reference Base for Soil Resources. 1st Ed. Rome, FAO: 192.
Forest Management Institute (1999): Oblastní plán rozvoje lesů: Přírodní lesní oblast 34: Hornomoravský úval. Brandýs nad Labem, Forest Management Institute: 201.
Franc Niklas, Götmark Frank (2008): Openness in management: Hands-off vs partial cutting in conservation forests, and the response of beetles. Biological Conservation, 141, 2310-2321
Fritz Örjan, Heilmann-Clausen Jacob (2010): Rot holes create key microhabitats for epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on beech (Fagus sylvatica). Biological Conservation, 143, 1008-1016
Getzin Stephan, Wiegand Kerstin (2007): Asymmetric tree growth at the stand level: Random crown patterns and the response to slope. Forest Ecology and Management, 242, 165-174
Getzin Stephan, Wiegand Kerstin, Schumacher Jens, Gougeon François A. (2008): Scale-dependent competition at the stand level assessed from crown areas. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 2478-2485
Groß P., Konold W. (2009): Mittlewald als Agroforstsystem zwischen geordneter Nachhaltigkeit und Gestaltungsvielfalt – eine historische Studie. Allegemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung, 181: 64–71.
Harper George J. (2008): Quantifying branch, crown and bole development in Populus tremuloides Michx. from north-eastern British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 2286-2296
Hasenauer Hubert (1997): Dimensional relationships of open-grown trees in Austria. Forest Ecology and Management, 96, 197-206
Hein Sebastian, Spiecker Heinrich (2008): Crown and tree allometry of open-grown ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). Agroforestry Systems, 73, 205-218
Hemery G.E., Savill P.S., Pryor S.N. (2005): Applications of the crown diameter–stem diameter relationship for different species of broadleaved trees. Forest Ecology and Management, 215, 285-294
Hochbichler E (1993): Methods of oak silviculture in Austria. Annales des Sciences Forestières, 50, 583-591
Holloway Gillian L., Caspersen John P., Vanderwel Mark C., Naylor Brian. J. (2007): Cavity tree occurrence in hardwood forests of central Ontario. Forest Ecology and Management, 239, 191-199
Horak Jakub, Vodka Stepan, Kout Jiri, Halda Josef P., Bogusch Petr, Pech Pavel (2014): Biodiversity of most dead wood-dependent organisms in thermophilic temperate oak woodlands thrives on diversity of open landscape structures. Forest Ecology and Management, 315, 80-85
Kadavý J., Kneifl M., Servus M., Knott R., Hurt V., Flora M. (2011): Nízký a střední les jako plnohodnotná alternativa hospodaření malých a středních vlastníků: obecná východiska. Kostelec nad Černými lesy, Lesnická práce, s.r.o.: 296.
Konvička M., Čížek L., Beneš J. (2004): Ohrožený hmyz nížinných lesů: ochrana a management. Olomouc, Sagittaria: 79.
Larrieu Laurent, Cabanettes Alain, Gouix Nicolas, Burnel Laurent, Bouget Christophe, Deconchat Marc (2017): Development over time of the tree-related microhabitat profile: the case of lowland beech–oak coppice-with-standards set-aside stands in France. European Journal of Forest Research, 136, 37-49
Lassauce Aurore, Anselle Pénélope, Lieutier François, Bouget Christophe (2012): Coppice-with-standards with an overmature coppice component enhance saproxylic beetle biodiversity: A case study in French deciduous forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 266, 273-285
Le Goff No�l, Granier Andr�, Ottorini Jean-Marc, Peiffer Marianne (2004): Biomass increment and carbon balance of ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ) trees in an experimental stand in northeastern France. Annals of Forest Science, 61, 577-588
Longuetaud Fleur, Seifert Thomas, Leban Jean-Michel, Pretzsch Hans (2008): Analysis of long-term dynamics of crowns of sessile oaks at the stand level by means of spatial statistics. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 2007-2019
Lorenz Teresa J., Vierling Kerri T., Johnson Timothy R., Fischer Philip C. (2015): The role of wood hardness in limiting nest site selection in avian cavity excavators. Ecological Applications, 25, 1016-1033
Machar I. (2012): Changes in ecological stability and biodiversity in a floodplain landscape. In: Applying Landscape Ecology in Conservation and Management of the Floodplain Forests (Czech Republic). Olomouc, Palacký University Olomouc: 73–87.
Miller D.A., Wigley T.B., Miller K.V. (2009): Managed forests and conservation of terrestrial biodiversity in the southern United States. Journal of Forestry, 107: 197–203.
Müllerová Jana, Hédl Radim, Szabó Péter (2015): Coppice abandonment and its implications for species diversity in forest vegetation. Forest Ecology and Management, 343, 88-100
Naďo Ladislav, Kaňuch Peter (2015): Roost site selection by tree-dwelling bats across biogeographical regions: an updated meta-analysis with meta-regression. Mammal Review, 45, 215-226
Nilsson Sven G, Niklasson Mats, Hedin Jonas, Aronsson Gillis, Gutowski Jerzy M, Linder Per, Ljungberg Håkan, Mikusiński Grzegorz, Ranius Thomas (2002): Densities of large living and dead trees in old-growth temperate and boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 161, 189-204
Oliver C.D., Larson B.C. (1996): Forest Stand Dynamics. 1st Ed. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 544.
Osada N., Tateno R., Hyodo F., Takeda H. (2004): Changes in crown architecture with tree height in two deciduous tree species: Development constraints of plastic response to the competition for light? Forest Ecology and Management, 188: 337–347.
Perot Thomas, Mårell Anders, Korboulewsky Nathalie, Seigner Vincent, Balandier Philippe (2017): Modeling and predicting solar radiation transmittance in mixed forests at a within-stand scale from tree species basal area. Forest Ecology and Management, 390, 127-136
Ranius Thomas, Niklasson Mats, Berg Niclas (2009): Development of tree hollows in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur). Forest Ecology and Management, 257, 303-310
Remm Jaanus, Lõhmus Asko (2011): Tree cavities in forests – The broad distribution pattern of a keystone structure for biodiversity. Forest Ecology and Management, 262, 579-585
Rouvinen S, Kuuluvainen T (1997): Structure and asymmetry of tree crowns in relation to local competition in a natural mature Scots pine forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 890-902
Schepps J., Lohr S., Martin T.E. (1999): Does tree hardness influence nest-tree selection by primary cavity-nesters? The Auk, 116: 658–665.
Seidel Dominik, Leuschner Christoph, Müller Annika, Krause Benjamin (2011): Crown plasticity in mixed forests—Quantifying asymmetry as a measure of competition using terrestrial laser scanning. Forest Ecology and Management, 261, 2123-2132
Simon Jaroslav, Machar Ivo, Bucek Antonin (2014): Linking the Historical Research with the Growth Simulation Model of Hardwood Floodplain Forests. Polish Journal of Ecology, 62, 273-288
Spathelf Peter (2003): Reconstruction of crown length of Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.) ? technique, establishment of sample methods and application in forest growth analysis. Annals of Forest Science, 60, 833-842
Sullivan Thomas P., Sullivan Druscilla S., Lindgren Pontus M.F., Ransome Douglas B. (2006): Long-term responses of ecosystem components to stand thinning in young lodgepole pine forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 228, 69-81
Troxel B., Piana M., Ashton M.S., Murphy-Dunning C. (2013): Relationship between bole and crown size for young urban trees in the northeastern USA. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12: 144–153.
ÚLT (1951): Objemové tabulky ÚLT. Brandýs nad Labem, Lesprojekt: 26.
Vaillancourt Marie-Andrée, Drapeau Pierre, Gauthier Sylvie, Robert Michel (2008): Availability of standing trees for large cavity-nesting birds in the eastern boreal forest of Québec, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 2272-2285
Vanck V.T., Spiecker H. (2004): Reconstruction of crown expansion of beech crown in coppice with standards forests. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung, 175: 182–188.
Vandekerkhove K, Thomaes A, Crèvecoeur L, De Keersmaeker L, Leyman A, Köhler F (2016): Saproxylic beetles in non-intervention and coppice-with-standards restoration management in Meerdaal forest (Belgium): an exploratory analysis. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 9, 536-545
Viewegh J., Kusbach A., Mikeska M. (2003): Czech forest ecosystem classification. Journal of Forest Science, 49: 74–82.
Vodka Stepan, Konvicka Martin, Cizek Lukas (2009): Habitat preferences of oak-feeding xylophagous beetles in a temperate woodland: implications for forest history and management. Journal of Insect Conservation, 13, 553-562
Webster Christopher R., Lorimer Craig G. (2003): Comparative growing space efficiency of four tree species in mixed conifer–hardwood forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 177, 361-377
Winter Susanne, Möller Georg Christian (2008): Microhabitats in lowland beech forests as monitoring tool for nature conservation. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 1251-1261
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences