Estimation of the value of forest ecosystem services to develop conservational strategy management (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) K., Amirnejad H., Abedi Z., Vafaeinejad A. (2017): Estimation of the value of forest ecosystem services to develop conservational strategy management (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats). J. For. Sci., 63: 300-312.
download PDF
Forests ecosystems provide several undisputable benefits which policy-makers blink since these values do not record in conventional markets or are difficult to measure. This paper indicates that the annual value of the ecosystem services such as water conservation, soil protection, carbon fixation, nutrient cycling, water purification, air pollution absorption and recreation provided by forests is not only worth millions of dollars, but also in per hectare terms much more than hitherto known. After estimating the value of ecosystem services, results are available to policy-makers and experts at a brainstorming and by using SWOT, conservational strategies for long-term management based on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats were developed. Ecosystem services value for the Mazandaran Forest Reserve ranged from 14.2 to 14.8 million USD or about 6,676.9–6,785.6 USD·ha–1. Given these results, raising the society awareness of the negative impact of forest land use changes based on the functional value were proposed as conservational strategies to prevent the forest land use change. If these are accounted for, then governments and societies faced with the development versus conservation dilemma can create more understanding decisions and policies that will assist to conserve forests and the ecosystem services they provide, and thereby promulgate human well-being and sustainable development.
Abbasi A., Mohammadzadeh S. (2001): Investigation of world experiences for local participation on forest resources management and utilization of successful experiences in Iran. In: National Proceedings of North Forests Management and Sustainable Development. Vol. 2, Tehran, Sept 22, 2001: 411–432. (in Persian)
Agheli K.L. (2003): Green GNP calculation and sustainable degree of national income in Iran. [Ph.D. Thesis.] Tehran, Tarbiat Modares University: 260.
Amirnejad Hamid, Khalilian Sadegh, Assareh Mohammad H., Ahmadian Majid (2006): Estimating the existence value of north forests of Iran by using a contingent valuation method. Ecological Economics, 58, 665-675
van Beukering Pieter J.H, Cesar Herman S.J, Janssen Marco A (2003): Economic valuation of the Leuser National Park on Sumatra, Indonesia. Ecological Economics, 44, 43-62
Biao Zhang, Wenhua Li, Gaodi Xie, Yu Xiao (2010): Water conservation of forest ecosystem in Beijing and its value. Ecological Economics, 69, 1416-1426
Braat Leon C., de Groot Rudolf (2012): The ecosystem services agenda:bridging the worlds of natural science and economics, conservation and development, and public and private policy. Ecosystem Services, 1, 4-15
Chicoine David L. (1981): Farmland Values at the Urban Fringe: An Analysis of Sale Prices. Land Economics, 57, 353-
Costanza Robert, d'Arge Ralph, de Groot Rudolf, Farber Stephen, Grasso Monica, Hannon Bruce, Limburg Karin, Naeem Shahid, O'Neill Robert V., Paruelo Jose, Raskin Robert G., Sutton Paul, van den Belt Marjan (1997): The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387, 253-260
Daily G. (1997): Nature’s Services. Washington, D.C., Island Press: 173.
de Groot Rudolf S, Wilson Matthew A, Boumans Roelof M.J (2002): A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecological Economics, 41, 393-408
FAO (1989): Community Forestry: Participatory Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation. Rome, FAO: 181.
FAO (2010): Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. Rome, FAO: 340.
Frankhauser S. (1994): Evaluating the social costs of greenhouse gas emission. The Energy Journal, 15: 157–184.
Gao Xiaolu, Asami Yasushi (2007): Effect of urban landscapes on land prices in two Japanese cities. Landscape and Urban Planning, 81, 155-166
Harrison S.R. (2002): Socio-economic research techniques in tropical forestry. In: Harrison S.R., Herbohn J.L., Mangaoang E.O., Vanclay J. (eds): Socio-economic Research Methods in Forestry: A Training Manual. Cairns, Rainforest CRC: 5–14.
Hidano N. (2002): Environmental cost-benefit analysis using the hedonic price method. In: The Economic Valuation of the Environment and Public Policy: A Hedonic Approach. Cheltenham, Northampton, Edward Elgar Publishing: 102–124.
Jim C.Y., Chen Wendy Y. (2008): Assessing the ecosystem service of air pollutant removal by urban trees in Guangzhou (China). Journal of Environmental Management, 88, 665-676
Johnson Laurie T., Hope Chris (2012): The social cost of carbon in U.S. regulatory impact analyses: an introduction and critique. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 2, 205-221
Kaiser Brooks, Roumasset James (2002): Valuing indirect ecosystem services: the case of tropical watersheds. Environment and Development Economics, 7, -
Komatsu H., Tanaka N., Kume T. (2007): Do coniferous forests evaporate more water than broadleaved forests in Japan? Journal of Hydrology, 336: 361–375.
Kotler P. (1994): Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall: 801.
Kramer Randall A., Richter Daniel D., Pattanayak Subhrendu, Sharma Narendra P. (1997): Ecological and Economic Analysis of Watershed Protection in Eastern Madagascar. Journal of Environmental Management, 49, 277-295
Learned E.P., Christensen C.R., Andrews K.E., Guth W.D. (1965): Business Policy: Text and Cases. Homewood, Richard D. Irwin, Inc.: 1068.
Luyssaert Sebastiaan, Schulze E. -Detlef, Börner Annett, Knohl Alexander, Hessenmöller Dominik, Law Beverly E., Ciais Philippe, Grace John (2008): Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature, 455, 213-215
Mashayekhi Zahra, Panahi Mostafa, Karami Mahmoud, Khalighi Shahram, Malekian Arash (2010): Economic valuation of water storage function of forest ecosystems (case study: Zagros Forests, Iran). Journal of Forestry Research, 21, 293-300
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005): Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Washington, D.C., Island Press: 137.
Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture (2012): Annual reports of land use changes in farms, forests and rangelands. Available at (in Persian)
Mohammadian S.M. (2001): The role of public participation in natural resources. In: National Proceedings of North Forests Management and Sustainable Development. Vol. 2, Tehran, Sept 22, 2001: 769–774. (in Persian)
Nadkarni M.V. (1989): The Political Economy of Forest Use and Management. New Delhi, Sage Publications: 182.
Ninan K.N. (1996): Forest Use and Management in Japan and India: A Comparative Study. VRF Series No. 286. Tokyo, Institute of Developing Economies: 123.
Ninan K. N., Lakshmikanthamma S. (2001): Social Cost-benefit Analysis of a Watershed Development Project in Karnataka, India. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 30, 157-161
Ninan K.N. (2007): The Economics of Biodiversity Conservation: Valuation in Tropical Forest Ecosystems. London, Earthscan Publications Ltd.: 264.
Ninan K.N. (2011): Introduction: Biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being. In: Ninan K.N. (ed.): Conserving and Valuing Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity: Economic, Institutional and Social Challenges. London, Washington, D.C., Earthscan Publications Ltd.: 28–33.
Ninan K.N., Inoue Makoto (2013): Valuing forest ecosystem services: Case study of a forest reserve in Japan. Ecosystem Services, 5, 78-87
Pearce D.W. (1994): The environment: Assessing the social rate of return from investment in temperate zone forestry. In: Layard R., Glaister S. (eds): Cost-Benefit Analysis. 2nd Ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 464–490.
Pearce David W. (2001): The Economic Value of Forest Ecosystems. Ecosystem Health, 7, 284-296
Saaty R.W. (1987): The analytic hierarchy process—what it is and how it is used. Mathematical Modelling, 9, 161-176
Snyder Stephanie A., Kilgore Michael A., Hudson Rachel, Donnay Jacob (2008): Influence of purchaser perceptions and intentions on price for forest land parcels: A hedonic pricing approach. Journal of Forest Economics, 14, 47-72
Suh J., Emtage N.F. (2005): Identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the community-based forest management program. Annals of Tropical Research, 27: 55–66.
van der Werf G. R., Morton D. C., DeFries R. S., Olivier J. G. J., Kasibhatla P. S., Jackson R. B., Collatz G. J., Randerson J. T. (2009): CO2 emissions from forest loss. Nature Geoscience, 2, 737-738
Xue D., Tisdell C. (2001): Valuing ecological functions of biodiversity in Changbaishan Mountain Biosphere Reserve in Northeast China. Biodiversity & Conservation, 10: 467–481.
Xue L., Xue D., Luo S. (2001): Seasonal dynamics of litter fall and nutrient concentrations in leaf litter in scenic forests of Nagoya. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 25: 359–365.
Yoshida K. (2001): An Economic Evaluation of Multifunctional Roles of Agriculture and Rural Areas in Japan. Tokyo, Food and Fertilizer Technology Center: 9.
Yüksel İhsan, Dagˇdeviren Metin (2007): Using the analytic network process (ANP) in a SWOT analysis – A case study for a textile firm. Information Sciences, 177, 3364-3382
Zhou G., Liu S., Li Z., Zhang D., Tang X., Zhou C., Yan J., Mo J. (2006): Old-Growth Forests Can Accumulate Carbon in Soils. Science, 314, 1417-1417
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti