Seedling diversity and spatial distribution of some conifers and associated tree species in highly disturbed Western Himalayan regions in Pakistan

Khan A. (2021): Seedling diversity and spatial distribution of some conifers and associated tree species in highly disturbed Western Himalayan regions in Pakistan. J. For. Sci, 67: 175–184.

download PDF

This article encompasses the impacts of disturbance, regeneration potential of conifers and the dynamics of tree species seedlings along the spatial scale in Murree forest. The seedling status preferably of conifers along with associated broadleaved dominant tree species is determined by a quantitative evaluation of diversity functions. An empirical approach is applied to predicting the future of seedlings under stress as well as the current hypothetical appearance of seedlings in the forest. The need of analysing diversity of this forest is due to highly disturbed conditions there, and this paper is designed to know the recent trends of species diversity in the area. Species diversity and species abundance at a seedling level are estimated by using standard formulas of diversity measurements. Thirty stands are used for the evaluation of seedling abundance in highly disturbed conditions with the examination of diversity in the area. Seedling density is too low in the forest whereas diversity is also in poor condition. Seedlings from four conifers with three broadleaved species in different stands indicated the low density of future trees. The mean density·ha–1 of pine seedlings is consecutively low in Pinus wallichiana (16 ± 2), Pinus roxburghii (11 ± 3), Cedrus deodara (9 ± 3), Abies pindrow (8 ± 3). The correlation coefficient is as low as 0.76, 0.66 and 0.61 in Pinus roxburghii, Cedrus deodara and Abies pindrow, respectively, while Pinus wallichiana showed a significant correlation, i.e. P > 0.5. Hence, this study claims that the survival of the forest is threatened as seedling density and diversity are too low. This forest needs serious attention towards preventing and conserving pines and other associated species seedlings for the existence of this forest in future.

Ahmed M. (1973): Phytosociological studies around Gharo, Dhabeji and Manghopir industrial area. [M.Sc Thesis.] Karachi, Botany Department of Karachi University.
Ahmed M. (1984): Ecological and dendrochronological studies on Agathis australis Salisb. (Kauri). [Ph.D. Thesis.] Auckland, University of Auckland.
Ahmed M., Shaukat S.S. (2012): A Text Book of Vegetation Ecology. Karachi, Abrar Sons: 396.
Ahmed M., Husain T., Sheikh A.H., Hussain S.S., Siddiqui M.F. (2006): Phytosociology and structure of Himalayan forests from different climatic zones of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 38: 361–383.
Augspurger C.K. (1984): Seedling survival of tropical tree species: Interactions of dispersal distance, light-gaps, and pathogens. Ecology, 65: 1705–1712.
Beckage B., Clark J.S. (2003): Seedling survival and growth of three forest tree species: The role of spatial heterogeneity. Ecology, 84: 1849–1861.[1849:SSAGOT]2.0.CO;2
Bettinger P., Boston K., Siry J.P., Grebner D.L. (2017): Chapter 3: Geographic information and land classification in support of forest planning. In: Forest Management and Planning, 2nd Ed. New York, Academic Press: 58–75.
Boose E.R., Foster D.R., Fluet M. (1994): Hurricane impacts to tropical and temperate forest landscapes. Ecological Monographs, 64: 369–400.
Braun-Blanquet J. (1932): Plant Sociology. The Study of Plant Communities. New York, McGraw-Hill: 539.
Bray J.R., Curtis J.T. (1957): An ordination of the upland forest communities in southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs, 27: 325–349.
Brun P., Zimmermann N.E., Graham C.H., Lavergne S., Pellissier L., Münkemüller T., Thuiller W. (2019): The productivity-biodiversity relationship varies across diversity dimensions. Nature Communications, 10: 5691.
Chalmandrier L., Albouy C., Pellissier L. (2017): Species pool distributions along functional trade-offs shape plant productivity–diversity relationships. Scientific Reports, 7: 1–11.
Davis J.C. (2002): Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology, 3rd Ed. New York, Wiley: 656.
Denslow J.S., Schultz J.C., Vitousek P.M., Strain B.R. (1990): Growth responses of tropical shrubs to tree fall gap environments. Ecology, 71: 165–179.
Gao W.-Q., Ni Y.-Y., Xue Z.-M., Wang X.-F., Kang F.-F., Hu J., Gao Z.-H., Jiang Z.-P., Liu J.-F. (2017): Population structure and regeneration dynamics of Quercus variabilis along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Ecosphere, 8: e01737.
Graham C.H., Storch D., Machac A. (2018): Phylogenetic scale in ecology and evolution. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 27: 175–187.
Hill M.O. (1973): Diversity and evenness: a unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology, 54: 427–432.
Khan A. (2020): Seedling dynamics and community forecast for disturbed forests of the Western Himalayas: a multivariate analysis. Journal of Forest Science, 66: 383–392.
Khan A., Ahmed M. (2019): Vegetation loss in Murree forest in Pakistan. FUUAST Journal of Biology, 9: 51–58.
Khan A., Ahmed M., Khan A., Siddiqui M.F. (2018a): Ring width characteristics of 4 pine tree species from highly disturbed areas around Murree, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 50: 2331–2337.
Khan A., Ahmed M., Khan A., Ahmed F., Siddiqui M.F. (2018b): Quantitative description and future trends of highly disturbed forests around Murree hills. FUUAST Journal of Biology, 8: 169–191.
Khan A., Ahmed M., Ahmed F., Saeed R., Siddiqui F. (2020): Vegetation type of highly disturbed forest around Murree, Pakistan. Turkish Journal of Biodiversity, 3: 43–53.
Lin T.-C., Hamburg S.P., Lin K.-C., Wang L.-J., Chang C.-T., Hsia Y.-J., Vadeboncoeur M.A., Mabry McMullen C.M., Liu C.-P. (2011): Typhoon disturbance and forest dynamics: Lessons from a Northwest Pacific subtropical forest. Ecosystems, 14: 127–143.
Malik Z.A., Bhatt A.B. (2016): Regeneration status of tree species and survival of their seedlings in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary and its adjoining areas in Western Himalaya, India. Tropical Ecology, 57: 677–690.
Margalef R. (1968): Perspective in Ecological Theory. Chicago, University of Chicago Press: 111.
McIntosh R.P. (1967): An index of diversity and the relation of certain concepts to diversity. Ecology, 48: 392–404.
Menhinick E.F. (1964): A comparison of some species-individual diversity indices applied to samples of field insects. Ecology, 45: 859–861.
Paul A., Khan M.L., Das A.K. (2019): Population structure and regeneration status of rhododendrons in temperate mixed broad-leaved forests of western Arunachal Pradesh, India. Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes, 3: 168–186.
Pielou E.C. (1966): The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 13: 131–144.
Pokhriyal P., Uniyal P., Chauhan D.S., Todaria N.P. (2010): Regeneration status of tree species in forest of Phakot and Pathri Rao watersheds in Garhwal Himalaya. Current Science, 98: 171–175.
Rawat D.S., Dash S.S., Sinha B.K., Kumar V., Banerjee A., Singh P. (2018): Community structure and regeneration status of tree species in Eastern Himalaya: A case study from Neora Valley National Park, West Bengal, India. Taiwania, 63: 16–24.
Shaheen H., Ullah Z., Khan S.M., Harper D.M. (2012): Species composition and community structure of western Himalayan moist temperate forests in Kashmir. Forest Ecology and Management, 278: 138–145.
Shannon C.E., Weaver W. (1949): The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana, University of Illinois Press: 144.
Singh S., Malik Z.A., Sharma C.M. (2016): Tree species richness, diversity, and regeneration status in different oak (Quercus spp.) dominated forests of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 9: 293–300.
Shaukat S.S., Khan D. (1979): A comparative study of the statistical behaviour of diversity and equitability indices with response to desert vegetation. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 11: 155–156.
Siddiqui M.F. (2011): Community structure and dynamics of conifer forests of moist temperate areas of Himalayan range of Pakistan. [Ph.D. Thesis.] Karachi, Federal Urdu University of Arts Sciences and Technology.
Simpson E.H. (1949): Measurement of diversity. Nature, 163: 688.
Singh N., Tamta K., Tewari A., Ram J. (2014): Studies on vegetational analysis and regeneration status of Pinus roxburghii, Roxb. and Quercus leucotrichophora forests of Nainital Forest Division. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research, 14: 41–47.
Talal M.N., Santelmann M.V. (2019): Plant community composition and biodiversity patterns in urban parks of Portland, Oregon. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 201.
Taylor S.M., Santelmann M.V. (2014): Comparing vegetation and soils of remnant and restored wetland prairies in the Northern Willamette Valley. Northwest Science, 88: 329–343.
Tiwari O.P., Rana Y.S., Krishan R., Sharma C.M., Bhandari B.S. (2018): Regeneration dynamics, population structure, and forest composition in some ridge forests of the Western Himalaya, India. Forest Science and Technology, 14: 66–75.
Veblen T.T. (1989): Tree regeneration responses to gaps along a transandean gradient. Ecology, 70: 541–543.
WWF (2019): Available at
Yang X., Bauhus J., Both S., Fang T., Härdtle W., Kröber W., Ma K., Nadrowski K., Pei K., Scherer-Lorenzen M., Scholten T., Seidler G., Schmid B., Oheimb G., Bruelheide H. (2013): Establishment success in a forest biodiversity and ecosystem functioning experiment in subtropical China (BEF-China). European Journal of Forest Research, 132: 593–606.
Zhang W.-H., Wang Y.-P., Kang Y.-X., Liu X.-J. (2004): Age structure and time sequence prediction of populations of an endangered plant, Larix potaninii var. chinensis. Biodiversity Science, 12: 361–369.
Zhu J., Lu D., Zhang W. (2014): Effects of gaps on regeneration of woody plants: A meta-analysis. Journal of Forestry Research, 25: 501–510.
download PDF

© 2021 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti