Uneven-aged silviculture of Scots pine in Bohemia and Central Spain: comparison study of stand reaction to transition and long-term selection management

https://doi.org/10.17221/147/2019-JFSCitation:Gallo J., Bílek L., Šimůnek V., Roig S., Bravo Fernández J.A. (2020): Uneven-aged silviculture of Scots pine in Bohemia and Central Spain: comparison study of stand reaction to transition and long-term selection management. J. For. Sci., 66: 22-35.
download PDF

The achievement of sustainable forest management requires the incorporation of ongoing environmental changes into long-term planning. Moreover, in time of climatic change and changing company demands, importance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is still increasing at the expense of other tree species due to its low ecological requirements. The aim of the study was to compare the structure and production of Scots pine stands managed under different silvicultural systems on four research plots, assess the structural and diversity indices, and analyse the increment structure using tree-ring dating in the Czech Republic and Spain. Area of study was Western Bohemian and Guadarrama Mountain range in Central Spain. The results indicate that stand volume on the investigated plots ranged from 231 to 441 m3∙ha–1 with tree density 276–996 trees∙ha–1. Intensively managed (uneven-aged) permanent research plots showed increased growth on basal area. The difference was evident also for older trees. The transition to uneven-aged forest does not negatively influence stocking and wood production and provide higher benefits for diversity and structural complexity in comparison to regular stands.

Abetz V.P., Chroust L. (2004): Wachstumsvergleiche in zwei Kiefern-Durchforstungsversuchen in Tschechien und Deutschland. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung, 175: 117–124.
Aleksandrowicz-Trzcinska M., Drozdowski S., Brzeziecki B., Rutkowska P., Jablonska B. (2014): Effects of different methods of site preparation on natural regeneration of Pinus sylvestris in Eastern Poland. Dendrobiology, 71: 73–81.
Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska M., Drozdowski S., Wołczyk Z., Bielak K., Żybura H. (2017): Effects of reforestation and site preparation methods on early growth and survival of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in South-Eastern Poland. Forests, 8: 421. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8110421
Alía R., Notivol E., Moro J. (2001): Genetic variability of Spanish provenances of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.): Growth traits and survival. Silva Fennica, 35: 27–38. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.601
Amaral Franco J. do. (2015): Pinaceae: 6. Pinus. Flora ibérica XVIII. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid. Available at: http://www.floraiberica.es/floraiberica/texto/pdfs/01_028_06_Pinus.pdf (25-2-2016) (in Spanish)
Ammon W. (1946): Výberkový princíp vo švajčiarskom lesnom hospodárstve: Skúsenosti z 30-ročného hospodárenia v lese výberkovom. Bratislava, Povereníctvo pôdohospodárstva a pozemkovej reformy: 115. (in Slovak)
Barbeito I., Fortin M. J., Montes F., Canellas I. (2009): Response of pine natural regeneration to small-scale spatial variation in a managed Mediterranean mountain forest. Applied Vegetation Science, 12: 488–503. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2009.01043.x
Bílek L., Vacek S., Vacek Z., Remeš J., Král J., Bulušek D., Gallo J. (2016): How close to nature is close-to-nature pine silviculture? Journal of Forest Science, 62: 24–34. https://doi.org/10.17221/98/2015-JFS
Bílek L., Vacek Z., Vacek S., Bulušek D., Linda R., Král, J. (2018): Are clearcut borders an effective tool for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) natural regeneration? Forest systems, 27: 6.
Buongiorno J., Peyron J.L., Houllier F., Bruciamacchie M. (1995): Growth and management of mixed-species, uneven-aged forests in the French Jura: implications for economic returns and tree diversity. Forest Science, 41: 397–429.
Carpenter P., Alfonso P. (1967): Tablas de cubicación por diámetros normales y alturas totales: P. silvestris, P. halepensis. Madrid, Ministerio de Agricultura. Instituto Forestal de Investigaciones y Experiencias: 73.
Clark P.J., Evans F.C. (1954): Distance to nearest neighbour as a measure of spatial relationship in populations. Ecology, 35: 445–453.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1931034
Colombari F., Battisti A., Schroeder L.M., Faccoli M. (2012): Life-history traits promoting outbreaks of the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in the south-eastern Alps. European journal of forest research, 131: 553–561. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-011-0528-y
Crookston N.L., Stage A.R. (1999): Percent canopy cover and stand structure statistics from the Forest Vegetation Simulator. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-24. Ogden, UT. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 11.
Cukor J., Vacek Z., Linda R., Sharma R. P., Vacek S. (2019a): Afforested farmland vs. forestland: Effects of bark stripping by Cervus elaphus and climate on production potential and structure of Picea abies forests. PloS one, 14: 8. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221082
Cukor J., Vacek Z., Linda R., Vacek S., Marada P., Šimůnek V., Havránek F. (2019b): Effects of bark stripping on timber production and structure of Norway spruce forests in relation to climatic factors. Forests, 10: 320. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10040320
Davydenko K., Vasaitis R., Menkis, A. (2017): Fungi associated with Ips acuminatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Ukraine with a special emphasis on pathogenicity of ophiostomatoid species. European Journal of Entomology, 114: 77–85. https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2017.011
de Rigo D., Libertà G., Houston Durrant T., Artés Vivancos T., San-Miguel-Ayanz J. (2017): Forest fire danger extremes in Europe under climate change: variability and uncertainty. Luxembourg, Publication Office of the European Union: 71.
Del Río M., Sterba H. (2009): Comparing volume growth in pure and mixed stands of Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica. Annals of Forest Science, 66: 1–11.
Diaci J., Kerr G., O’hara K. (2011): Twenty-first century forestry: integrating ecologically based, uneven-aged silviculture with increased demands on forests. Forestry, 84: 463–465. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpr053
Dušek D., Slodičák M., Novák J. (2010): Experiment s porostní výchovou borovice lesní - Strážnice II (1962). Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 55: 78–84.
Dušek D., Novák J., Slodičák M. (2011): Experimenty s výchovou borovice lesní na jižní Moravě - Strážnice I a Strážnice III. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 56: 283–290.
Dušek D., Novák J., Slodičák M. (2012): Výchova borových porostů ve středním věku - experiment Kersko. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 57: 297–303.
Dvořák J., Čermák P. (2008): Jelen sika - škody ve vybraných honitbách Plzeňska. Lesnická práce, 87: 12–14. (in Czech)
Fabrika M., Ďurský J. (2005): Stromové růstové simulátory. Zvolen, EFRA: 112.
Füldner K. (1995): Strukturbeschreibung in Mischbeständen. Forstarchiv, 66: 235–606.
García-Abril A., Martin-Fernández S., Grande M.A., Manzanera J.A. (2007): Stand structure, competition and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a Mediterranean mountainous environment. Annals of Forest Science, 64: 825–830. https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:2007069
Gillis A. M. (1990): The new forestry. BioScience, 40: 558–562. https://doi.org/10.2307/1311294
Guldin J. M. (1996): The role of uneven-aged silviculture in the context of ecosystem management. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 11: 4–12. https://doi.org/10.1093/wjaf/11.1.4
Hanewinkel M. (2002): Comparative economic investigations of even‐aged and uneven‐aged silvicultural systems: a critical analysis of different methods. Forestry, 75: 473–481. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/75.4.473
Haveraaen O. (1995): Silvicultural systems in the Nordic countries. In: Bamsey C.R. (Ed.): Innovative Silvicultural Systems in Boreal Forests. Proceedings IUFRO Symposium in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2-8 October 1984. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service: 1–4.
Jankowiak R. (2012): Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Ips sexdentatus on Pinus sylvestris in Poland. Dendrobiology: 68.
Jaehne S.C., Dohrenbusch A. (1997): Ein Verfahren zur Beurteilung der Bestandesdiversität. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 116: 333–345.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02766909
Kelty M. J. (2006): The role of species mixtures in plantation forestry. Forest Ecology and Management, 233: 195–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.05.011
Kenk G. (1995): Growth and yield in even-aged and uneven-aged silvicultural systems in the conifer-dominated forests of Europe. In: Bamsey C.R. (Ed.): Innovative Silvicultural Systems in Boreal Forests. Proceedings IUFRO Symposium in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2-8 October 1984. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service: 26–32.
Kern K.G. (1966): Wachstum und Umweltfaktoren im Schlag-und Plenterwald. München, Bayerischer Lantwirtschaftsverlag: 232.
Kerr G. (2013): The management of silver fir forests: de Liocourt (1898) revisited. Forestry, 87: 29–38. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpt036
Korpeľ Š., Saniga M. (1993): Výberný hospodársky spôsob, Praha, VŠZ: 128.
Král J., Vacek S., Vacek Z., Putalová T., Bulušek D., Štefančík I. (2015): Structure, development and health status of spruce forests affected by air pollution in the western Krkonoše Mts. in 1979–2014. Forestry Journal, 61: 175–187. https://doi.org/10.1515/forj-2015-0026
Králíček I., Vacek Z., Vacek S., Remeš J., Bulušek D., Král J., Štefančík I., Putalová T. (2017): Dynamics and structure of mountain autochthonous spruce-beech forests: impact of hilltop phenomenon, air pollutants and climate. Dendrobiology, 77: 119–137. https://doi.org/10.12657/denbio.077.010
Lautenschlager R.A. (2000): Can intensive silviculture contribute to sustainable forest management in northern ecosystems?. The Forestry Chronicle, 76: 283–295. https://doi.org/10.5558/tfc76283-2
Liocourt F. (1898): De l‘amenagement des sapinieres. Bulletin de la Societe forestiere de Franche-Comte et des Provinces de I‘Est, 4: 396–409, 645–647.
Leibundgut H. (1951). Biologische und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Nebenbaumarten. Schweiz. Z. f. Forstwes, 102, 465–170.
López-Sáez J.A., Sánchez-Mata D., Alba-Sánchez F., Abel-Schaad D., Gavilán R.G., Pérez-Díaz S. (2013): Discrimination of Scots pine forests in the Iberian Central System (Pinus sylvestris var. iberica) by means of pollen analysis. Phytosociological considerations/Discriminación de los bosques de pino albar en el Sistema Central ibérico (Pinus sylvestris var. iberica) mediante análisis polínico. Consideraciones fitosociológicas. Lazaroa, 34: 191. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_LAZA.2013.v34.n1.43599
Martincová J. (1998): Pokyny pro pěstování sadebního materiálu borovice lesní a metodika hodnocení jeho morfologické a fyziologické kvality. Opočno, Výzkumný ústav lesního hospodářství a myslivosti – Výzkumná stanice Opočno: 10. (in Czech)
Morán-López T., Poyatos R., Llorens P., Sabaté S. (2014): Effects of past growth trends and current water use strategies on Scots pine and pubescent oak drought sensitivity. European journal of Forest research, 133: 369–382. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-013-0768-0
Mátyás C., Ackzell L., Samuel C. J. A. (2004): EUFORGEN technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Rome, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute: 6.
Mikeska M., Vacek S. (2008): Lesnicko-typologické vymezení, struktura a management přirozených borů a borových doubrav v ČR. Kostelec nad Černými lesy, Lesnická práce: 447. (in Czech)
Ministry of Agriculture (2014): Zpráva o stavu lesa a lesního hospodářství České republiky v roce 2013, Praha. Ministerstvo zemědělství: 200. (in Czech)
Montes F., Sánchez M., del Río M., Cañellas I. (2005): Using historic management records to characterize the effects of management on the structural diversity of forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 207: 279–293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.10.031
Moser W.K., Jackson S.M., Podrázský V., Larsen D.R. (2002): Examination of stand structure on quail plantations in the Red Hills region of Georgia and Florida managed by the Stoddard–Neel system: an example for forest managers. Forestry, 75: 443–449. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/75.4.443
Musil I., Hamerník J. (2007): Jehličnaté dřeviny: přehled nahosemenných i výtrusných dřevin: dendrologie. Praha, Academia: 352.
Mustian A.P. (1978): History and philosophy of silviculture management systems in use today. Uneven-aged Silviculture and Management in the United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-24. Washington DC, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Timber Management Research: 1–17.
Nárovcová J. (2010): Mortalita výsadeb populací borovice lesní. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 55: 299–306.
Nárovec V., Nárovcová J. (2012): Needle longevity as a criterion of response to a climatic fluctuation (so called heat wave) in Scots pine populations at early phases of ontogeny. Journal of Forest Science, 58: 27–34. https://doi.org/10.17221/4805-JFS
Näslund M. (1936): Skogsförsöksanstaltens gallringsförsök i tallskog. Meddelanden från Statens Skogsförsöksanstalt, Swedish Institute of Experimental Forestry, 29: 169.
O’Hara K.L. (2002): The historical development of uneven aged silviculture in North America. Forestry, 75: 339–346. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/75.4.339
Petráš R., Pajtík J. (1991): Sústava česko-slovenských objemových tabuliek drevín. Lesnický časopis 37: 49–56.
Pardo F., Gil L. (2005): The impact of traditional land use on woodlands: a case study in the Spanish Central System. Journal of Historical Geography, 31: 390–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhg.2004.11.002
Pielou E.C. (1975): Ecological diversity. New York, Wiley Interscience: 165.
Ponce R.A., Roig S., Bravo A., del Río M., Montero G., Pardos M. (2017): Dynamics of ecosystem services in Pinus sylvestris stands under different managements and site quality classes. European journal of forest research, 136: 983–996. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-016-1021-4
Pretzsch H. (2006): Wissen nutzbar machen für das Management von Waldökosystemen. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald, 61: 1158–1159.
Pretzsch H., Schütze G., Uhl E. (2013a): Resistance of European tree species to drought stress in mixed versus pure forests: evidence of stress release by inter‐specific facilitation. Plant Biology, 15: 483-495. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2012.00670.x
Pretzsch H., Bielak K., Bruchwald A., Dieler J., Dudzinska M., Ehrhart H.P., Jensen A.M., Johannsen V. K., Kohnle U., Nagel J., Spellmann H., Zasada M., Zingg A. (2013b): Species mixing and productivity of forests. Results from long-term experiments. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung, 184: 177–196.
Prus-Glowacki W., Stephan B. R. (1994): Genetic variation of Pinus sylvestris from Spain in relation to other European populations. Silvae Genetica, 43: 7–13.
Putalová T., Vacek Z., Vacek S., Štefančík I., Bulušek D., Král, J. (2019): Tree-ring widths as an indicator of air pollution stress and climate conditions in different Norway spruce forest stands in the Krkonoše Mts. Central European Forestry Journal, 65: 21–33.
Ripley B.D. (1981): Spatial statistics. New York, John Wiley & Sons: 252.
Reineke L.H. (1933): Perfecting a stand-density index for even-aged forests. Journal of Agricultural Research, 46: 627–638.
Schmidt O. (2012): Von den Wurzeln der Nachhaltigkeit. LWF Aktuell, 87: 50–51.
Schütz J.P. (1989): Der Plenterbetrieb. Unterlage zur Vorlesung Waldbau. Zürich/Schweiz, ETH: 54.
Schütz J.P. (1999): Close-to-nature silviculture: is this concept compatible with species diversity? Forestry, 72: 359–366. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/72.4.359
Schütz J. P. (2002): Die Plenterung und ihre unterschiedlichen Formen (Waldbau II und IV). Zürich: Eidg Techn Hochschule, Fachbereich Waldbau: 126.
Serrada R., Montero G., Reque J.A. (2008): Compendio de selvicultura aplicada en España. Madrid, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA): 1178. (in Spanish)
Serrada R. (2011): Apuntes de Selvicultura. Madrid. España, Fundación Conde del Valle de Salazar. Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Técnica Forestal: 502. (in Spanish)
Shannon C.E. (1948): A mathematical theory of communications. The Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 379–423.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01338.x
Sharma R.P., Vacek Z., Vacek S. (2016): Nonlinear mixed effect height-diameter model for mixed species forests in the central part of the Czech Republic. Journal of Forest Science, 62: 470–484. https://doi.org/10.17221/41/2016-JFS
Sharma R.P., Bílek L., Vacek Z., Vacek S. (2017): Modelling crown width–diameter relationship for Scots pine in the central Europe. Trees, 31: 1875–1889. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-017-1593-8
Sharma R.P., Vacek Z., Vacek S., Kučera M. (2019): A Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Height-to-Diameter Ratio Model for Several Tree Species Based on Czech National Forest Inventory Data. Forests, 10: 70. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10010070
Slanař J., Vacek Z., Vacek S., Bulušek D., Cukor J., Štefančík I., Bílek L., Král J. (2017): Long-term transformation of submontane spruce-beech forests in the Jizerské hory Mts.: dynamics of natural regeneration. Central European Forestry Journal, 63: 213–225. https://doi.org/10.1515/forj-2017-0023
Šišák L., Sloup R., Stýblo J. (2013): Diferencované oceňování společenské sociálně-ekonomické významnosti funkcí lesa podle vztahu k trhu a jeho aplikace v rámci ČR. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 58: 50–57. (in Czech with English Summary)
Švec O., Bílek L., Remeš J., Vacek Z. (2015): Analysis of operational approach during forest transformation in Klokočná Range, Central Bohemia. Journal of Forest Science, 61: 148–155. https://doi.org/10.17221/102/2014-JFS
Trasobares A., Pukkala T., Miina J. (2004): Growth and yield model for uneven-aged mixtures of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arn. in Catalonia, north-east Spain. Annals of Forest Science, 61: 9–24. https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:2003080
Vacek S., Bulušek D., Vacek Z., Bílek L., Schwarz O., Simon J., Štícha V. (2015): The role of shelterwood cutting and protection against game browsing for the regeneration of silver fir. Austrian Journal of Forest Science, 132: 81–102.
Vacek S., Vacek Z., Bílek L., Simon J., Remeš J., Hůnová I., Král J., Putalová T., Mikeska M. (2016): Structure, regeneration and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands with respect to changing climate and environmental pollution. Silva Fennica, 50: 1–21. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1564
Vacek S., Vacek Z., Remeš J., Bílek L., Hůnová I., Bulušek D., Putalová T., Král J., Simon J. (2017): Sensitivity of unmanaged relict pine forest in the Czech Republic to climate change and air pollution. Trees, 31: 1599–1617. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-017-1572-0
Vacek S., Vacek Z., Kalousková I., Cukor J., Bílek L., Moser W.K., Bulušek D., Podrázský V., Řehaček D. (2018): Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) stands on former agricultural land in the Sudetes - evaluation of ecological value and production potential. Dendrobiology, 79: 61–76.
Vacek S., Prokůpková A., Vacek Z., Bulušek D., Šimůnek V., Králíček I., Prausová R., Hájek V. (2019b): Growth response of mixed beech forests to climate change, various management and game pressure in Central Europe. Journal of Forest Science, 65: 331–345. https://doi.org/10.17221/82/2019-JFS
Vacek S., Vacek Z., Ulbrichová I., Bulušek D., Prokůpková A., Král J., Vančura K. (2019c): Biodiversity dynamics of differently managed lowland forests left to spontaneous development in Central Europe. Austrian Journal of Forest Science, 136: 249–282.
Vacek Z., Vacek S., Bílek L., Král J., Remeš J., Bulušek D., Králíček I. (2014): Ungulate impact on natural regeneration in spruce-beech-fir stands in Černý důl nature reserve in the Orlické Hory mountains, case study from central Sudetes. Forests, 5: 2929–2946. https://doi.org/10.3390/f5112929
Vacek Z. (2017): Structure and dynamics of spruce-beech-fir forests in Nature Reserves of the Orlické hory Mts. in relation to ungulate game. Central European Forestry Journal, 63: 23–34. https://doi.org/10.1515/forj-2017-0006
Vacek Z., Vacek S., Slanař J., Bílek L., Bulušek D., Štefančík I., Králíček I., Vančura K. (2019a): Adaption of Norway spruce and European beech forests under climate change: from resistance to close-to-nature silviculture. Central European Forestry Journal, 65: 129–144. https://doi.org/10.2478/forj-2019-0013
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti