Evaluation of animal logging in the mixed broadleaved mountain forest: Economic and environmental impacts

https://doi.org/10.17221/18/2018-JFSCitation:Badraghi A., Erler J., Hosseini S.A.O., Lang R. (2018): Evaluation of animal logging in the mixed broadleaved mountain forest: Economic and environmental impacts. J. For. Sci., 64: 251-259.
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This investigation assessed the economic and environmental impacts of small-scale wood logging by mules in the mixed broadleaved mountain forest. To develop a time prediction model, all measurements of time are replaced by their decadic logarithms. Unit cost was calculated by two methods: (i) as usual, division of the system cost by average productivity per hour, (ii) on the basis of the developed logarithmic models. To investigate the residual damage a 100% inventory method was employed in pre- and post-hauling, alongside the mule trail. A core sampling technique of bulk density was used for determining the degree of soil compaction, and soil disturbed widths were measured at a 5-m interval in the mule hauling direction. In this research, computed unit cost was 17.2 EUR·m–3 and estimated unit cost by the logarithmic model was 16.2 EUR·m–3. This result highlights the time consumption which estimated by the developed model was at a close ratio with real time (average at 95%). In terms of environmental impact, the results indicated that 5.7% of regenerations and 0% of trees were damaged. Also we found that the increased bulk density was not significant (P = 0.903) and only about 0.2% of the total area was disturbed.

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